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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784760/formation-of-the-intrathymic-dendritic-cell-pool-requires-ccl21-mediated-recruitment-of-ccr7-progenitors-to-the-thymus
#1
Emilie J Cosway, Izumi Ohigashi, Karin Schauble, Sonia M Parnell, William E Jenkinson, Sanjiv Luther, Yousuke Takahama, Graham Anderson
During αβ T cell development in the thymus, migration of newly selected CD4+ and CD8+ thymocytes into medullary areas enables tolerance mechanisms to purge the newly selected αβ TCR repertoire of autoreactive specificities. Thymic dendritic cells (DC) play key roles in this process and consist of three distinct subsets that differ in their developmental origins. Thus, plasmacytoid DC and Sirpα+ conventional DC type 2 are extrathymically derived and enter into the thymus via their respective expression of the chemokine receptors CCR9 and CCR2...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783708/following-acute-encephalitis-semliki-forest-virus-is-undetectable-in-the-brain-by-infectivity-assays-but-functional-virus-rna-capable-of-generating-infectious-virus-persists-for-life
#2
Rennos Fragkoudis, Catherine M Dixon-Ballany, Adrian K Zagrajek, Lukasz Kedzierski, John K Fazakerley
Alphaviruses are mosquito-transmitted RNA viruses which generally cause acute disease including mild febrile illness, rash, arthralgia, myalgia and more severely, encephalitis. In the mouse, peripheral infection with Semliki Forest virus (SFV) results in encephalitis. With non-virulent strains, infectious virus is detectable in the brain, by standard infectivity assays, for around ten days. As we have shown previously, in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, infectious virus is detectable for months in the brain...
May 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778202/porcine-monocyte-derived-dendritic-cells-can-be-differentially-activated-by-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-and-its-matrix-protein-mutants
#3
Guoyan Sun, Xinkui Fang, Hao Wu, Xinchu Zhou, Yong Ke, Tao Sun
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can cause serious vesicular lesions in pigs, and the matrix (M) protein is its predominant virulence factor. Dendritic cells (DCs) act as the bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the susceptibility of porcine DCs to VSV infection and the role of M protein in modulating the function of infected DCs are still poorly defined. Thus, this study aimed to determine the ability of virulent wild-type VSV(wtVSV) and two attenuated M protein variants (VSVΔM51 and VSVMT ) to induce maturation of porcine monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) in vitro...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777029/cd4-t-cell-affinity-diversity-is-equally-maintained-during-acute-and-chronic-infection
#4
Rakieb Andargachew, Ryan J Martinez, Elizabeth M Kolawole, Brian D Evavold
TCR affinity for peptide MHC dictates the functional efficiency of T cells and their propensity to differentiate into effectors and form memory. However, in the context of chronic infections, it is unclear what the overall profile of TCR affinity for Ag is and if it differs from acute infections. Using the comprehensive affinity analysis provided by the two-dimensional micropipette adhesion frequency assay and the common indirect affinity evaluation methods of MHC class II tetramer and functional avidity, we tracked IAb GP61-80 -specific cells in the mouse model of acute (Armstrong) and chronic (clone 13) lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776607/differentiation-of-equine-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-increases-the-expression-of-immunogenic-genes
#5
Laura Barrachina, Ana Rosa Remacha, Antonio Romero, Pilar Zaragoza, Francisco José Vázquez, Clementina Rodellar
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising treatment for equine musculoskeletal injuries because of their ability to regulate the inflammation and to differentiate into other cell types. Since interest in allogeneic therapy is rising, concerns about MSC immunogenicity need to be addressed. Differentiated MSCs from several species increase their expression of immunogenic molecules and induce alloresponses, but equine MSC immunogenic profile after differentiation has not been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the gene expression of immunogenic markers in tri-lineage differentiated equine bone marrow derived MSCs (eBM-MSCs)...
June 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771935/cell-iron-status-influences-macrophage-polarization
#6
Rafiou Agoro, Meriem Taleb, Valerie F J Quesniaux, Catherine Mura
Macrophages play crucial roles in innate immune response and in the priming of adaptive immunity, and are characterized by their phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity. Reprogramming intracellular metabolism in response to microenvironmental signals is required for M1/M2 macrophage polarization and function. Here we assessed the influence of iron on the polarization of the immune response in vivo and in vitro. Iron-enriched diet increased M2 marker Arg1 and Ym1 expression in liver and peritoneal macrophages, while iron deficiency decreased Arg1 expression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769317/lysophospholipids-induce-innate-immune-transdifferentiation-of-endothelial-cells-resulting-in-prolonged-endothelial-activation
#7
Xinyuan Li, Luqiao Wang, Pu Fang, Yu Sun, Xiaohua Jiang, Hong Wang, Xiao-Feng Yang
Innate immune cells express danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) receptors, T-cell co-stimulation/co-inhibition receptors, and the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II). We have recently proposed that endothelial cells can serve as innate immune cells, but the molecular mechanisms involved still await discovery. Here, we investigated whether human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) could be transdifferentiated into innate immune cells by exposing them to hyperlipidemia-upregulated DAMP molecules, i...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766201/selenium-deficiency-inhibits-differentiation-and-immune-function-and-imbalances-the-th1-th2-of-dendritic-cells
#8
Zhepeng Sun, Zhe Xu, Dongxu Wang, Haidong Yao, Shu Li
Selenium (Se) deficiency inhibits immune cell differentiation, affects immune response, and leads to cellular and humoral immune dysfunction. However, the impact of Se deficiency on the differentiation and Th1/Th2 balance of dendritic cells is still unclear. In this study, we replicated a model of Se-deficient chickens by feeding the chickens with a low-Se diet (i.e., the content of Se is 0.008 mg per kg diet). On this basis, we explored the effect of Se deficiency on the differentiation of chicken dendritic cells by induction culture of peripheral blood monocyte cells...
May 16, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764836/subcellular-localization-of-antigen-dictates-delivery-of-cd4-t-cell-help-for-the-ctl-response-upon-therapeutic-dna-vaccination-into-the-skin
#9
Nikolina Bąbała, Astrid Bovens, Evert de Vries, Victoria Iglesias-Guimarais, Tomasz Ahrends, Matthew F Krummel, Jannie Borst, Adriaan D Bins
In a mouse model of therapeutic DNA vaccination, we studied how the subcellular localization of vaccine protein impacts antigen delivery to professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) and efficiency of CTL priming. Cytosolic, membrane-bound, nuclear, and secretory versions of ZsGreen fluorescent protein, conjugated to MHC class I and -II ovalbumin (OVA) epitopes were expressed in keratinocytes by DNA vaccination into the skin. ZsGreen-OVA versions reached B cells in the skin-draining lymph node (dLN) that proved irrelevant for CTL priming...
May 15, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764475/a-potential-gliovascular-mechanism-for-microglial-activation-differential-phenotypic-switching-of-microglia-by-endothelium-versus-astrocytes
#10
Changhong Xing, Wenlu Li, Wenjun Deng, MingMing Ning, Eng H Lo
BACKGROUND: Activation of microglia can result in phenotypic and functional diversity. However, the pathways that trigger different states of microglial activation remain to be fully understood. Here, we hypothesized that after injury, astrocytes and endothelium may contribute to a gliovascular switch for microglial activation. METHODS: Astrocytes or cerebral endothelial cells were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation, then conditioned media were transferred to microglia...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764444/molecular-and-clinical-characterization-of-ptpn2-expression-from-rna-seq-data-of-996-brain-gliomas
#11
Peng-Fei Wang, Hong-Qing Cai, Chuan-Bao Zhang, Yan-Michael Li, Xiang Liu, Jing-Hai Wan, Tao Jiang, Shou-Wei Li, Chang-Xiang Yan
BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been shown to promote antitumor immunity and achieve durable tumor remissions. However, certain tumors are refractory to current immunotherapy. These negative results encouraged us to uncover other therapeutic targets and strategies. PTPN2 (protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2) has been newly identified as an immunotherapy target. Loss of PTPN2 sensitizes the tumor to immunotherapy via IFNγ signaling. METHODS: Here, we investigated the relationship between PTPN2 mRNA levels and clinical characteristics in gliomas...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761388/isolation-and-identification-of-interstitial-macrophages-from-the-lungs-using-different-digestion-enzymes-and-staining-strategies
#12
Shaikh M Atif, Sophie L Gibbings, Claudia V Jakubzick
Interstitial macrophages (IMs) are present in multiple organs. Although there is limited knowledge of the unique functional role IM subtypes play, macrophages, in general, are known for their contribution in homeostatic tissue maintenance and inflammation such as clearing pathogens and debris and secreting inflammatory mediators and growth factors. IM subtypes have been identified in the heart, skin, and gut, and more recently we identified three distinct IMs in the lung. IMs express on their surface high levels of MerTK, CD64, and CD11b, with differences in CD11c, CD206, and MHC II expression, and referred to the three pulmonary IM subtypes as IM1 (CD11clo CD206+ MHCIIlo ), IM2 (CD11clo CD206+ MHCIIhi ), and IM3 (CD11chi CD206lo MHCIIhi )...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756405/duplicated-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-ii-genes-in-the-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#13
C Li, J Jiang, Q Zhang, X Wang
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule plays an important role in the vertebrate immune system. However, we have a limited understanding of the MHC genomic structure in teleosts. Using gene cloning and family analysis, we isolate the MHC class II genes in the tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) and find that both class II A and class II B genes are duplicated (named Cyse-DAA and Cyse-DBA, Cyse-DAB and Cyse-DBB, respectively). The class II A genes consist of four exons with a highly conserved genomic structure, but each gene has unique and defining exon 2 and intron 2 sequences...
May 13, 2018: International Journal of Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755461/efficient-uptake-of-recombinant-lipidated-survivin-by-antigen-presenting-cells-initiates-antigen-cross-presentation-and-antitumor-immunity
#14
Chen-Yi Chiang, Yi-Jyun Chen, Chiao-Chieh Wu, Shih-Jen Liu, Chih-Hsiang Leng, Hsin-Wei Chen
Survivin is overexpressed in various types of human cancer, but rarely expressed in terminally differentiated adult tissues. Thus, survivin is a potential target antigen for a cancer vaccine. However, self-tumor-associated antigens are not highly immunogenic. Bacteria-derived lipoproteins can activate antigen-presenting cells through their toll-like receptors to enhance immune responses. In this context, lipidated survivin is an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy. In the present study, recombinant lipidated human survivin (LSur) was prepared from an Escherichia coli -based system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754714/membrane-potential-distinctly-modulates-mobility-and-signaling-of-il-2-and-15-receptors-in-t-cells
#15
Éva Nagy, Gábor Mocsár, Veronika Sebestyén, Julianna Volkó, Ferenc Papp, Katalin Tóth, Sándor Damjanovich, György Panyi, Thomas A Waldmann, Andrea Bodnár, György Vámosi
The high electric field across the plasma membrane might influence the conformation and behavior of transmembrane proteins that have uneven charge distributions in or near their transmembrane regions. Membrane depolarization of T cells occurs in the tumor microenvironment and in inflamed tissues because of K+ release from necrotic cells and hypoxia affecting the expression of K+ channels. However, little attention has been given to the effect of membrane potential (MP) changes on membrane receptor function...
May 10, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754111/antigen-presentation-unfolded-identifying-convergence-points-between-the-upr-and-antigen-presentation-pathways
#16
REVIEW
Fabiola Osorio, Bart N Lambrecht, Sophie Janssens
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive response meant to restore endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in conditions of ER stress that subvert the folding capacity of the cell. Over the past few years, it has become clear that the functions of the UPR stretch far beyond their canonical role and intersect with seemingly unrelated functions such as innate immunity and antigen presentation. The aim of the present review is to dissect how the UPR interferes directly and indirectly with the major processes of MHC-I and MHC-II antigen presentation...
May 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753416/acute-exposure-to-space-flight-results-in-evidence-of-reduced-lymph-transport-tissue-fluid-shifts-and-immune-alterations-in-the-rat-gastrointestinal-system
#17
W E Cromer, D C Zawieja
Space flight causes a number of alterations in physiological systems, changes in the immunological status of subjects, and altered interactions of the host to environmental stimuli. We studied the effect of space flight on the lymphatic system of the gastrointestinal tract which is responsible for lipid transport and immune surveillance which includes the host interaction with the gut microbiome. We found that there were signs of tissue damage present in the space flown animals that was lacking in ground controls (epithelial damage, crypt morphological changes, etc...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752312/slit2-modulates-the-inflammatory-phenotype-of-orbit-infiltrating-fibrocytes-in-graves-disease
#18
Roshini Fernando, Ana Beatriz Diniz Grisolia, Yan Lu, Stephen Atkins, Terry J Smith
Human CD34+ fibrocytes, circulating monocyte lineage progenitor cells, have recently been implicated in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), the ocular manifestation of Graves' disease (GD). Fibrocytes express constitutive MHC class II (MHC-2) and, surprisingly, thyroglobulin (Tg) and functional thyrotropin (TSH) receptor (TSHR). Underlying expression of these thyroid proteins is the autoimmune regulator protein (AIRE). Fibrocytes respond robustly to TSH and thyroid-stimulating Igs by generating extremely high levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752262/cd4-t-cell-mediated-rejection-of-mhc-class-ii-positive-tumor-cells-is-dependent-on-antigen-secretion-and-indirect-presentation-on-host-apcs
#19
Ole Audun Werner Haabeth, Marte Fauskanger, Melanie Manzke, Katrin U Lundin, Alexandre Corthay, Bjarne Bogen, Anders Aune Tveita
Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells have been shown to mediate efficient anti-tumor immune responses against cancer. Such responses can occur through direct binding to MHC class II (MHC II)-expressing tumor cells or indirectly via activation of professional antigen-presenting cells (APC) that take up and present the tumor antigen. We have previously shown that CD4+ T cells reactive against an epitope within the Ig light chain variable region of a murine B cell lymphoma can reject established tumors. Given the presence of MHC II molecules at the surface of lymphoma cells, we investigated whether MHC II-restricted antigen presentation on tumor cells alone was required for rejection...
May 11, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743369/intrastructural-help-harnessing-t-helper-cells-induced-by-licensed-vaccines-for-improvement-of-hiv-env-antibody-responses-to-virus-like-particle-vaccines
#20
Hassan Elsayed, Ghulam Nabi, William J McKinstry, Keith K Khoo, Johnson Mak, Andres M Salazar, Matthias Tenbusch, Vladimir Temchura, Klaus Überla
Induction of persistent antibody responses by vaccination is generally thought to depend on efficient help by T follicular helper cells. Since the T helper cell response to HIV Env may not be optimal, we explored the possibility to improve the HIV Env antibody response to virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines by recruiting T helper cells induced by a commonly-used licensed vaccines to provide help for Env-specific B cells. B cells specific for the surface protein of a VLP can internalize the entire VLP and thus present peptides derived from the surface and core proteins on their MHC-II molecules...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
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