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MHC II

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148051/mechanical-parameters-of-the-molecular-motor-myosin-ii-determined-in-permeabilised-fibres-from-slow-and-fast-skeletal-muscles-of-the-rabbit
#1
Valentina Percario, Simona Boncompagni, Feliciano Protasi, Irene Pertici, Francesca Pinzauti, Marco Caremani
The skeletal muscle exhibits large functional differences depending on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expressed in its molecular motor myosin II. The differences in the mechanical features of force generation by myosin isoforms are investigated in situ by using fast sarcomere-level mechanical methods in permeabilised fibres (sarcomere length 2.4 μm, temperature 12°C, 4% dextran T-500) from the slow (soleus, containing the MHC-1 isoform) and the fast (psoas, containing the MHC-2X isoform) skeletal muscle of the rabbit...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147604/tap1-down-regulation-elicits-immune-escape-and-poor-prognosis-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
Agnes Ling, Anna Löfgren-Burström, Pär Larsson, Xingru Li, Maria L Wikberg, Åke Öberg, Roger Stenling, Sofia Edin, Richard Palmqvist
The anti-tumor immune response has been shown to be of great prognostic importance in colorectal cancer (CRC) and so has the tumors ability for immune evasion. Our aim of this study was to investigate tumor factors that influence immunity. We used a gene expression array to search for potential mechanisms of tumor immune escape. One candidate gene identified was TAP1, involved in antigen presentation by MHC class I. TAP1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 436 CRC patients of the Colorectal Cancer in Umeå Study cohort...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141870/ig%C3%AE-ubiquitination-activates-pi3k-signals-required-for-endosomal-sorting
#3
Margaret Veselits, Azusa Tanaka, Yaoqing Chen, Keith Hamel, Malay Mandal, Matheswaran Kandasamy, Balaji Manicassamy, Shannon K O'Neill, Patrick Wilson, Roger Sciammas, Marcus R Clark
A wealth of in vitro data has demonstrated a central role for receptor ubiquitination in endocytic sorting. However, how receptor ubiquitination functions in vivo is poorly understood. Herein, we report that ablation of B cell antigen receptor ubiquitination in vivo uncouples the receptor from CD19 phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signals. These signals are necessary and sufficient for accumulating phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) on B cell receptor-containing early endosomes and proper sorting into the MHC class II antigen-presenting compartment (MIIC)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140729/gene-expression-and-gene-associations-during-the-development-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction-in-the-dahl-salt-sensitive-model-of-hypertension
#4
Jeffrey Yim, Hyokeun Cho, Simon W Rabkin
Gene expression and associations were examined in a model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a condition with minimal effective treatment. Genes with at least two studies showing significant changes in Dahl rat with heart failure were examined by meta-analysis. Significantly increased in expression were iNOS, p47phox, ADM, ANP, OPN, ACE, MCP-1, GP91PHOX, ICAM-1, TGF-β1, CTGF, ET-1, p22phox, ETB, BNP, ETA, MMP13, Col1a1, MMP2, TIMP1, Col3a1, Il-1β, β-MHC, ECE1, MMP14, AGT, and MMP9...
November 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140228/co-factor-independent-phosphoglycerate-mutase-of-leishmania-donovani-modulates-macrophage-signalling-and-promotes-t-cell-repertoires-bearing-epitopes-for-both-mhc-i-and-mhc-ii
#5
Manish K Singh, Fauzia Jamal, Amit K Dubey, Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Pushpanjali, Ghufran Ahmed, Manas R Dikhit, S Narayan, V N R DAS, Krishna Pandey, K K Sinha, P DAS, Shubhankar K Singh
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β...
November 15, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134568/%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-stimulation-of-dendritic-cells-favors-il-10-secretion-by-cd4-t-cells
#6
Julie Hervé, Karine Haurogné, Elodie Bacou, Sylvie Pogu, Marie Allard, Grégoire Mignot, Jean-Marie Bach, Blandine Lieubeau
Adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists are extensively used as drugs in medicine for a broad spectrum of indications. We examined the consequences of β2-adrenergic stimulation of murine dendritic cells (DCs) on CD4(+) T cell activation. We demonstrated in vitro that treatment of LPS-matured DCs with the β2-agonist salbutamol reduced their ability to trigger OT-II T cell proliferation specific for ovalbumin antigen. Salbutamol also induced a decrease in MHC class II molecule expression by DC through Gi protein activation...
November 14, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133623/immu-140-a-novel-sn-38-antibody-drug-conjugate-targeting-hla-dr-mediates-dual-cytotoxic-effects-in-hematological-cancers-and-malignant-melanoma
#7
Thomas M Cardillo, Serengulam V Govindan, Maria B Zalath, Diane L Rossi, Yang Wang, Chien-Hsing Chang, David M Goldenberg
HLA-DR is a member of the MHC class II antigen family expressed on hematological and solid tumors.  Antibodies directed against HLA-DR have demonstrated some clinical success, but toxicities limited development.  IMMU-140 is an anti-HLA-DR antibody-drug conjugate comprised of the active metabolite of irinotecan, SN-38, conjugated to a humanized anti-HLA-DR IgG4 antibody (IMMU-114); the IgG4 naked antibody is devoid of immune functions. Our aim was to determine if SN-38, the metabolite of a drug not commonly used in hematopoietic cancers, would be effective and safe when targeted to HLA-DR-expressing tumors...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133348/non-pathogenic-colonization-with-chlamydia-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-as-oral-vaccination-for-inducing-transmucosal-protection
#8
Luying Wang, Cuiming Zhu, Tianyuan Zhang, Qi Tian, Nu Zhang, Sandra Morrison, Richard Morrison, Min Xue, Guangming Zhong
Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. We now report that gastrointestinal Chlamydia muridarum is able to induce robust transmucosal protection in mice. C. muridarum colonization in the gastrointestinal tract correlated with both a shortened course of C. muridarum genital infection and stronger protection against subsequent genital tract challenge infection. Mice pre-inoculated intragastrically with C. muridarum became highly resistant to subsequent C. muridarum infection in the genital tract, resulting in prevention of pathology in the upper genital tract...
November 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132960/influenza-derived-peptides-cross-react-with-allergens-and-provide-asthma-protection
#9
Chrysanthi Skevaki, Christoph Hudemann, Mikhail Matrosovich, Christian Möbs, Sinu Paul, Andreas Wachtendorf, Bilal Alashkar Alhamwe, Daniel P Potaczek, Stefanie Hagner, Diethard Gemsa, Holger Garn, Alessandro Sette, Harald Renz
BACKGROUND: The hygiene hypothesis is the leading concept to explain the current asthma epidemic, which is built on the observation that a lack of bacterial contact early in life induces allergic Th2 immune responses. OBJECTIVE: Since little is known about the contribution of respiratory viruses in this context, we evaluated the effect of prior influenza-infection on the development of allergic asthma. METHODS: Mice were infected with influenza and once recovered, subjected to an ovalbumin or house dust mite-induced experimental asthma protocol...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132135/increased-th1-th17-responses-contribute-to-low-grade-inflammation-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#10
Jiajia Chen, Wenzhan Wang, Qiuming Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of senior blindness in developed countries. Mechanisms underlying initiation and development of AMD remained known. METHODS: We examined the CD4+ T cell compartments and their functions in AMD patients. RESULTS: AMD patients presented significantly higher frequencies of interferon (IFN)-γ-expressing and interleukin (IL)-17-expressing CD4+ T cells than healthy controls...
November 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131441/genetic-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-gene-expression-in-bovine-trophoblast-cells
#11
Bi Shi, Aaron J Thomas, Abby D Benninghoff, Benjamin R Sessions, Qinggang Meng, Parveen Parasar, Heloisa M Rutigliano, Kenneth L White, Christopher J Davies
PROBLEM: The regulatory mechanisms governing differential expression of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (MHC-Ia) and non-classical MHC class I (MHC-Ib) genes are poorly understood. METHOD OF STUDY: Quantitative reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the abundance of MHC-I transcripts and related transcription factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and placental trophoblast cells (PTC). Methylation of MHC-I CpG islands was detected by bisulfite treatment and next-generation sequencing...
November 12, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130994/enhancement-of-anti-leukemia-immunity-by-leukemia-derived-exosomes-via-downregulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-expression
#12
Fang Huang, Jiangbo Wan, Weiwei Hu, Siguo Hao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Minimal residual leukemia cells (MRLs) are difficult to eradicate through traditional treatment and therefore remain to be a major threat to the long-term survival of leukemia patients. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs), which carry tumor associated antigens (TAA), may be a potential cell-free tumor vaccine for the specific eradication of MRLs. However, TEXs are intended to be less immunogenic due to exosomal TGF-β1. To further optimize the efficacy of TEX-based vaccines, we investigated whether exosomes from TGF-β1 silenced leukemia cells (LEXTGF-β1si) had an increased potential to induce a specific antitumor effect compared with non-modified exosomes...
November 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128674/staged-development-of-long-lived-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-th17-resident-memory-t-cell-population-to-candida-albicans-after-skin-infection
#13
Chang Ook Park, Xiujun Fu, Xiaodong Jiang, Youdong Pan, Jessica E Teague, Nicholas Collins, Tian Tian, John T O'Malley, Ryan O Emerson, Ji Hye Kim, Yookyung Jung, Rei Watanabe, Robert C Fuhlbrigge, Francis R Carbone, Thomas Gebhardt, Rachael A Clark, Charles P Lin, Thomas S Kupper
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus to which humans are exposed early in life and by adulthood it is part of the mycobiome of skin and other tissues. Neonatal skin lacks resident memory T (TRM) cells, but in adults the C. albicans skin test is a surrogate for immunocompetence. Young adult mice raised under SPF conditions are naive to C. albicans, and have recently been shown to have an immune system resembling that of neonatal humans. OBJECTIVE: We studied the evolution of the adaptive cutaneous immune response to Candida...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123465/autoimmunity-as-a-driving-force-of-cognitive-evolution
#14
Serge Nataf
In the last decades, increasingly robust experimental approaches have formally demonstrated that autoimmunity is a physiological process involved in a large range of functions including cognition. On this basis, the recently enunciated "brain superautoantigens" theory proposes that autoimmunity has been a driving force of cognitive evolution. It is notably suggested that the immune and nervous systems have somehow co-evolved and exerted a mutual selection pressure benefiting to both systems. In this two-way process, the evolutionary-determined emergence of neurons expressing specific immunogenic antigens (brain superautoantigens) has exerted a selection pressure on immune genes shaping the T-cell repertoire...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121407/strong-and-frequent-t-cell-responses-to-the-minor-allergen-phl-p-12-in-spanish-patients-ige-sensitized-to-profilins
#15
Gitte Lund, Stephanie Brand, Tania Ramos, Lucia Jimeno, Patrice Boissy, Francisco Vega, Maria Arina, Lars Harder Christensen, Ilka Hoof, Kåre Hvalsøe Meno, Domingo Barber, Carlos Blanco, Peter Adler Würtzen, Peter Sejer Andersen
BACKGROUND: Profilins are dominant pan-allergens known to cause cross-sensitization, leading to clinical symptoms such as the pollen food syndrome. This study aims to determine the T-cell response to Phl p 12 in profilin-sensitized patients, by measuring the prevalence, strength and cross-reactivity to clinically relevant profilins. METHODS: The release of Phl p allergens from pollen was determined by mass spectrometry and immunochemistry. T-cell responses, epitope mapping and cross-reactivity to profilins (Phl p 12, Ole e 2, Bet v 2, and Mal d 4) were measured in-vitro using PBMCs from 26 Spanish grass allergic donors IgE-sensitized to profilin...
November 9, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120508/synthesis-and-immunological-evaluation-of-a-multicomponent-cancer-vaccine-candidate-containing-a-long-muc1-glycopeptide
#16
Geert-Jan Boons, Nitin T Supekar, Vani Lakshminarayanan, Chantelle J Capicciotti, Anju Sirohiwal, Cathy S Madsen, Margreet A Wolfert, Peter A Cohen, Sandra J Gendler
A fully synthetic MUC1-based cancer vaccine has been designed and chemically synthesized that contains an endogenous helper T-epitope (MHC class II epitope). The vaccine elicited robust IgG titers that could neutralize cancer cells by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). It also activated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and collectively the immunological data demonstrate engagement of helper T-cells in immune activation. A synthetic methodology was developed for a penta-glycosylated MUC1 glycopeptide and anti-sera of mice immunized by the new vaccine recognized such a structure...
November 9, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118127/peripheral-blood-biomarkers-of-disease-outcome-in-a-monkey-model-of-rift-valley-fever-encephalitis
#17
Elizabeth R Wonderlich, Amy L Caroline, Cynthia M McMillen, Aaron W Walters, Douglas S Reed, Simon M Barratt-Boyes, Amy L Hartman
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an emerging arboviral disease of livestock and people. Although a mosquito-borne virus, humans are infected through contact with or inhalation of virus-laden particles from contaminated animal carcasses. Some individuals infected with RVF virus (RVFV) develop meningoencephalitis resulting in morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms that lead to neurologic sequelae, and thus animal models that represent human disease are needed. African green monkeys (AGM) exposed to aerosols containing RVFV develop a reproducibly lethal neurological disease that resembles human illness...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110660/characterization-of-respiratory-dendritic-cells-from-equine-lung-tissues
#18
Yao Lee, Matti Kiupel, Gisela Soboll Hussey
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that have multiple subpopulations with different phenotypes and immune functions. Previous research demonstrated that DCs have strong potential for anti-viral defense in the host. However, viruses including alphaherpesvirinae have developed strategies to interfere with the function or maturation of DCs, causing immune dysfunction and avoidance of pathogen elimination. The goal of the present study was to isolate and characterize equine lung-derived DCs (L-DCs) for use in studies of respiratory viruses and compare their features with equine blood-derived DCs (B-DCs), which are currently used for these types of studies...
November 6, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106333/monomethyl-fumarate-treatment-impairs-maturation-of-human-myeloid-dendritic-cells-and-their-ability-to-activate-t-cells
#19
Maria Antonietta Mazzola, Radhika Raheja, Keren Regev, Vanessa Beynon, Felipe von Glehn, Anu Paul, Isabelle Pierre, Pia Kivisakk, Howard L Weiner, Roopali Gandhi
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and its active metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) effectively lead to reduction in disease relapses and active magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions. DMF and MMF are known to be effective in modulating T- and B-cell responses; however, their effect on the phenotype and function of human myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of MMF on human mDCs maturation and function. METHODS: mDCs from healthy controls were isolated and cultured in vitro with MMF...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103682/expression-of-immunoproteasome-subunits-in-the-porcine-lung-alterations-during-normal-and-inflammatory-conditions
#20
Qiang Liu, Yong-Li Zhang, Shou-Ping Hu, Ze-Lin Ma, Su-Li Gao, Bin Sun, Fei Xiao, Zhuo Zhang, Xue-Hui Cai, Xi-Jun He
The elimination of infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) occurs through interactions between T cell receptors (TCRs) and pathogen-derived antigenic peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I complexes. The immunoproteasome (i-proteasome), which is a large proteolytic machine derived from the constitutive proteasome, is highly efficient at processing antigens for presentation on MHC class I molecules to activate CD8(+) T lymphocytes; this in turn facilitates antiviral adaptive immune responses...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
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