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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446902/modulation-of-macrophage-responses-by-cmx-a-fusion-protein-composed-of-ag85c-mpt51-and-hspx-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
Adeliane C da Costa, Danilo P de Resende, Bruno de P O Santos, Karina F Zoccal, Lúcia H Faccioli, André Kipnis, Ana P Junqueira-Kipnis
Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine used to prevent tuberculosis (TB). Due to the poor protection conferred by BCG in adults, new, more effective formulations have been developed. A recombinant BCG vaccine expressing the CMX fusion protein Ag85c_MPT51_HspX (rBCG-CMX) induced Th1 and Th17 responses and provided better protection than BCG. It has been shown that Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing CMX also induces better protection than BCG and is a strong macrophage activator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate macrophage activation by the recombinant CMX fusion protein and by rBCG-CMX and to evaluate their ability to generate vaccine-specific immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445787/adipose-derived-stem-cells-were-impaired-in-restricting-cd4-t-cell-proliferation-and-polarization-in-type-2-diabetic-apoe-mouse
#2
Ming-Hao Liu, Ya Li, Lu Han, Yao-Yuan Zhang, Di Wang, Zhi-Hao Wang, Hui-Min Zhou, Ming Song, Yi-Hui Li, Meng-Xiong Tang, Wei Zhang, Ming Zhong
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most common and serious complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is accelerated via chronic systemic inflammation rather than hyperglycemia. Adipose tissue is the major source of systemic inflammation in abnormal metabolic state. Pro-inflammatory CD4(+)T cells play pivotal role in promoting adipose inflammation. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for fat regeneration have potent ability of immunosuppression and restricting CD4(+)T cells as well...
April 23, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442414/inhibition-of-allogeneic-cytotoxic-t-cell-cd8-proliferation-via-polymer-induced-treg-cd4-cells
#3
Ning Kang, Wendy M Toyofuku, Xining Yang, Mark D Scott
T cell-mediated immune rejection remains a barrier to successful transplantation. Polymer-based bioengineering of cells may provide an effective means of preventing allorecognition and the proliferation of cytotoxic (CD8(+)) T lymphocytes (CTL). Using MHC-disparate murine splenocytes modified with succinimidyl valerate activated methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) [SVA-mPEG] polymers, the effects of leukocyte immunocamouflage on CD8(+) and CD4(+) alloproliferation and T regulatory (Treg) cell induction were assessed in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) model...
April 22, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439878/dissecting-and-modelling-the-emergent-murine-tec-compartment-during-ontogeny
#4
Fabian Brunk, Chloé Michel, Tim Holland-Letz, Alla Slynko, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Bruno Kyewski, Sheena Pinto
The origin of the thymic epithelium, i.e. the cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) epithelial cells, from bipotent stem cells through TEC progenitors and lineage-specific progeny still remains poorly understood. We sought to obtain an unbiased view of the incipient emergence of TEC subsets by following embryonic TEC development based on co-expression of EpCAM, CD80 and MHC class II (MHCII) on non-hematopoietic (CD45(-) ) thymic stromal cells in wild-type BL6 mice. Using a combination of ex vivo analysis, Re-aggregate Thymic Organ Culture (RTOC) reconstitution assays and mathematical modelling, we traced emergent lineage commitment in murine embryonic TECs...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438898/cytotoxic-t-cell-functions-accumulate-when-cd4-is-downregulated-by-cd4-t-cells-in-african-green-monkeys
#5
Carol L Vinton, Alexandra M Ortiz, Nina Calantone, Joseph C Mudd, Claire Deleage, David R Morcock, Sonya Whitted, Jacob D Estes, Vanessa M Hirsch, Jason M Brenchley
African green monkeys (AGMs) are a natural host of SIV that do not develop simian AIDS. Adult AGMs naturally have low numbers of CD4(+) T cells and a large population of MHC class II-restricted CD8αα T cells that are generated through CD4 downregulation in CD4(+) T cells. In this article, we study the functional profiles and SIV infection status in vivo of CD4(+) T cells, CD8αα T cells, and CD8αβ T cells in lymph nodes, peripheral blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of AGMs and rhesus macaques (in which CD4 downregulation is not observed)...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437562/no-post-copulatory-selection-against-mhc-homozygous-offspring-evidence-from-a-pedigreed-captive-rhesus-macaque-colony
#6
E H M Sterck, R E Bontrop, N de Groot, A J M de Vos-Rouweler, G G M Doxiadis
The heterozygosity status of polymorphic elements of the immune system, such as the Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC), are known to increase the potential to cope with a wider variety of pathogens. Pre- and post-copulatory processes may regulate MHC heterozygosity. In a population where mating occurs among individuals that share identical MHC-haplotypes, post-copulatory selection may disfavour homozygous offspring or ones with two MHC-haplotypes identical to its mother. We tested these ideas by determining the incidence of MHC-heterozygous and MHC-homozygous individuals in a pedigreed, partially consanguineous captive rhesus monkey colony...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433952/what-chickens-might-tell-us-about-the-mhc-class-ii-system
#7
REVIEW
Aimée Parker, Jim Kaufman
Almost all knowledge about the structure and function of MHC class II molecules outside of mammals comes from work with chickens. Most of the genes implicated in the class II system are present in chickens, so it is likely that the machinery of antigen processing and peptide-loading is similar to mammals. However, there is only one isotype (lineage) of classical class II genes, with one monomorphic DR-like BLA gene and two polymorphic BLB genes, located near one DMA and two DMB genes. The DMB2 and BLB2 genes are widely expressed at high levels, whereas the DMB1 and BLB1 genes are only expressed at highest levels in spleen and intestine, suggesting the possibility of two class II systems in chickens...
April 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433719/isolation-and-characterization-of-monocyte-macrophage-from-peripheral-blood-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis
#8
Zhenxia Sha, Linqing Wang, Luming Sun, Yadong Chen, Yuan Zheng, Mei Xin, Chen Li, Songlin Chen
In the present study, the peripheral blood cells of half smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) were examined by blood smear under the light microscopy. The proportion of main types of blood cells are as following: erythrocyte occupied the majority (92.3%), followed by thrombocyte (4.15%), granulocyte (1.7%), lymphocyte (1.5%) and monocyte (0.3%), respectively. Meanwhile, the isolation method of monocytes was established, by density gradient centrifugation to isolate mononuclear leukocytes of peripheral blood...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433527/characterization-of-leukocyte-subsets-in-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-with-cross-reactive-monoclonal-antibodies-specific-for-bovine-mhc-class-i-and-class-ii-molecules-and-leukocyte-differentiation-molecules
#9
Francesco Grandoni, Mahmoud M Elnaggar, Gaber S Abdellrazeq, Federica Signorelli, Lindsay M Fry, Cinzia Marchitelli, Victoria Hulubei, Samy A Khaliel, Helmy A Torky, William C Davis
Although buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) are a major component of the livestock industry worldwide, limited progress has been made in the study of the mechanisms regulating the immune response to pathogens and parasites affecting their health and productivity. This has been, in part, attributable to the limited availability of reagents to study immune responses in buffalo. As reported here, a set of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), developed against bovine, ovine and caprine leukocyte differentiation molecules (LDM) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, were identified and used to compare expression of LDM in Italian and Egyptian buffalo...
April 20, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432936/the-immunosuppressive-characteristics-of-fb1-by-inhibition-of-maturation-and-function-of-bmdcs
#10
Yinhuan Li, Yanhong Fan, Bingbing Xia, Qiuping Xiao, Qingqing Wang, Weidong Sun, Haibin Zhang, Chenghua He
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is one kind of mycotoxins that has the neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity, hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity produced by the fungus Fusarium verticillioides, which commonly infects corn and other crops and is harmful to animal and human health upon consumption of FB1-contaminated feed or food. However, the mechanism of immunotoxicity, especially the immunosuppression induced by FB1 is still unclear. The most pivotal cells in the induction of immune responses are dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we used murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) as a model system to elucidate the effect of FB1 on the function of BMDCs through biological methods...
April 19, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420000/-epicatechin-suppresses-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-via-the-activation-of-the-sp1-sirt1-signaling-pathway
#11
Zeng-Xiang Dong, Lin Wan, Ren-Jun Wang, Yuan-Qi Shi, Guang-Zhong Liu, Si-Jia Zheng, Hui-Ling Hou, Wei Han, Xin Hai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Flavonol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) is present in high amounts in cocoa and tea products, and has been shown to exert beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the precise mechanism of EPI on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy has not yet been determined. In this study, we examined whether EPI could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy. METHODS: We utilised cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and mice for immunofluorescence, immunochemistry, qRT-PCR, and western blot analyses...
April 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419545/intermolecular-interactions-between-dm%C3%AE-and-dm%C3%AE-proteins-in-bula-dm-complex-of-water-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis
#12
Leena Rawal, Deepak Panwar, Sher Ali
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) with its 3 classes represents a cluster of tightly linked genes with defined immunological and non-immunological functions. The DM, a MHC class II molecule is formed by the non-covalent association of DMα and DMβ chains. It binds with the processed peptide antigens and presents them to T lymphocytes, thereby triggering the immune responses. Startlingly, the expression pattern and structural organization of DMα and DMβ proteins in buffalo remains undefined. We isolated and purified the DMα and DMβ proteins from Bubalus bubalis using gel filtration chromatography...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419492/expression-and-trafficking-of-mhc-related-protein-1-mr1
#13
REVIEW
R Lamichhane, J E Ussher
MHC related protein 1 (MR1) is a non-polymorphic MHC class IB antigen presenting molecule that is the restricting molecule for mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a prominent population of innate-like antibacterial T cells. The MAIT cell-MR1 axis represents a new paradigm in antigen presentation, with the MR1 ligand derived from vitamin B compounds or their metabolic precursors. Many bacteria and some fungi produce the activating ligand for MR1. In evolution, MR1 is highly conserved in most, but not all, mammals...
April 17, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417619/human-leukocyte-antigen-hla-class-i-and-ii-polymorphism-in-iranian-healthy-population-from-yazd-province
#14
Behrouz Nikbin, Mohammad Hossein Nicknam, Hossein Hadinedoushan, Bita Ansaripour, Batol Moradi, Mirsaeed Yekaninejad, Mahdi Aminikhah, Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar, Aliakbar Amirzargar
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic loci in the human genome and have been widely studied in various populations and ethnic groups. Investigations into the HLA genes and proteins have been useful tool for anthropological, transplantation and disease association studies. The polymorphism of the HLA class I (A, B, C) and class II (DRB1, DQA1, DQB1) genes were investigated in 90 unrelated Iranian individuals from Yazd province located in the center of Iran using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP)...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414303/development-of-potent-class-ii-transactivator-gene-delivery-systems-capable-of-inducing-de-novo-mhc-ii-expression-in-human-cells-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo
#15
M de Lucena Palma, P Duangkhae, B Douradinha, I F T Viana, P O Rigato, R Dhalia, R B Mailliard, S M Barratt-Boyes, E J M do Nascimento, T M Oshiro, A J da Silva Duarte, E T de A Marques
Class II Transactivator (CIITA) induces transcription of MHC II genes and can potentially be used to improve genetic immunotherapies by converting non-immune cells into cells capable of presenting antigens to CD4(+) T cells. However, CIITA expression is tightly controlled and it remains unclear whether distinct non-immune cells differ in this transactivator regulation. Here we describe the development of gene delivery systems capable of promoting the efficient CIITA expression in non-immune cell lines and in primary human cells of an ex vivo skin explant model...
April 17, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412740/combination-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-variant-iii-peptide-pulsed-dendritic-cell-vaccine-with-mir-326-results-in-enhanced-killing-on-egfrviii-positive-cells
#16
Jianlong Li, Feng Wang, Guangzhi Wang, Ying Sun, Jinquan Cai, Xing Liu, Junhe Zhang, Xiaoyan Lu, Yongli Li, Meng Chen, Lingchao Chen, Chuanlu Jiang
The mutant Type III variant of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII) is present in approximately one-third of glioblastoma (GBM) patients. It is never found in normal tissues; therefore, it represents a candidate target for GBM immunotherapy. PEPvIII, a peptide sequence from EGFRvIII, was designed to represent a target of glioma and is presented by MHC I/II complexes. Dendritic cells (DCs) have great potential to sensitize CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells to precisely target and eradicate GBM. Here, we show that PEPvIII could be loaded by DCs and presented to T lymphocytes, especially PEPvIII-specific CTLs, to precisely kill U87-EGFRvIII cells...
February 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408901/serine-rich-repeat-adhesins-contribute-to-streptococcus-gordonii-induced-maturation-of-human-dendritic-cells
#17
Eun Byeol Ko, Sun Kyung Kim, Ho Seong Seo, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han
Dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the induction of immunity by recognition, capture, process, and presentation of antigens from infectious microbes. Streptococcus gordonii is able to cause life-threatening systemic diseases such as infective endocarditis. Serine-rich repeat (SRR) glycoproteins of S. gordonii are sialic acid-binding adhesins mediating the bacterial adherence to the host and the development of infective endocarditis. Thus, the SRR adhesins are potentially involved in the bacterial adherence to DCs and the maturation and activation of DCs required for the induction of immunity to S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407015/parkinson-s-disease-associated-genetic-variation-is-linked-to-quantitative-expression-of-inflammatory-genes
#18
Steven Pierce, Gerhard A Coetzee
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked dozens of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with Parkinson's disease (PD) risk. Ascertaining the functional and eventual causal mechanisms underlying these relationships has proven difficult. The majority of risk SNPs, and nearby SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD), are found in intergenic or intronic regions and confer risk through allele-dependent expression of multiple unknown target genes. Combining GWAS results with publicly available GTEx data, generated through eQTL (expression quantitative trait loci) identification studies, enables a direct association of SNPs to gene expression levels and aids in narrowing the large population of potential genetic targets for hypothesis-driven experimental cell biology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406043/cardioprotective-effect-of-magnetic-hydrogel-nanocomposite-loaded-n-%C3%AE-l-rhamnopyranosyl-vincosamide-isolated-from-moringa-oleifera-leaves-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiac-toxicity-in-rats-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#19
Mostafa Cheraghi, Mehrdad Namdari, Hadis Daraee, Babak Negahdari, Hammed T Aiyelabegan
Cardioprotective effect of N, α-L-rhamnopyranosyl vincosamide (VR), isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera plant in doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity rats was evaluated. Twelve (12) rats were randomly selected into 3 groups; 2 rats received distilled water in the control group, 5 rats in group I received varying concentration of VR treatment, and group II containing 5 rats received varying concentration of VR-loaded magnetic hydrogel nanocomposite. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes activities level were analysed after two weeks...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405623/bcg-vaccination-induces-hiv-target-cell-activation-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-trial
#20
Melanie A Gasper, Anneke C Hesseling, Isaac Mohar, Landon Myer, Tali Azenkot, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Willem Hanekom, Mark F Cotton, I Nicholas Crispe, Donald L Sodora, Heather B Jaspan
BACKGROUND. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered at birth to protect infants against tuberculosis throughout Africa, where most perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurs. We examined whether BCG vaccination alters the levels of activated HIV target T cells in HIV-exposed South African infants. METHODS. HIV-exposed infants were randomized to receive routine (at birth) or delayed (at 8 weeks) BCG vaccination. Activated and CCR5-expressing peripheral blood CD4(+) T cell, monocyte, and NK cell frequencies were evaluated by flow cytometry and immune gene expression via PCR using Biomark (Fluidigm)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
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