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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646409/neuroprotective-effects-of-g-csf-administration-in-microglia-mediated-reactive-t-cell-activation-in-vitro
#1
Wei Peng
G-CSF is a growth factor that has known neuroprotective effects in a variety of experimental brain injury models. As both antigen-presenting microglia and reactive T cells are key components in the development and progression of EAE, the aim of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of recombinant human G-CSF, as administered in microglia-mediated reactive T cell assay in vitro. Our results indicate that G-CSF treatment has no apparent effect for the resting un-activated microglia. G-CSF pre-protection of microglia increased protective cytokine IL-4 production and effectively inhibited the productions of NO and other inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and chemokine MCP-1) after LPS stimulation...
June 23, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645309/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infects-the-olfactory-bulb-shortly-following-ocular-infection-and-exhibits-a-long-term-inflammatory-profile-in-the-form-of-effector-and-hsv-1-specific-t-cells
#2
Chandra M Menendez, Daniel J J Carr
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can result in a life-threatening condition known as herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Trafficking patterns by which the virus reaches the central nervous system (CNS) following ocular infection are unresolved. We evaluated early viral dissemination pathways following ocular infection that involve trafficking to the olfactory bulb (OB). Additionally, we have characterized the capacity of HSV-1 to establish latency within OB tissue and profiled the local T lymphocyte response over the course of the acute infection into latency...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642820/intratumorally-injected-pro-inflammatory-allogeneic-dendritic-cells-as-immune-enhancers-a-first-in-human-study-in-unfavourable-risk-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#3
Anna Laurell, Maria Lönnemark, Einar Brekkan, Anders Magnusson, Anna Tolf, Anna Carin Wallgren, Bengt Andersson, Lars Adamson, Rolf Kiessling, Alex Karlsson-Parra
BACKGROUND: Accumulating pre-clinical data indicate that the efficient induction of antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells characterizing viral infections is caused by cross-priming where initially infected DCs produce an unique set of inflammatory factors that recruit and activate non-infected bystander DCs. Our DC-based immunotherapy concept is guided by such bystander view and accordingly, we have developed a cellular adjuvant consisting of pre-activated allogeneic DCs producing high levels of DC-recruiting and DC-activating factors...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642294/mhc-class-ii-invariant-chain-peptide-or-gamma-delta-t-cell-depletion-ameliorates-experimental-preeclampsia
#4
Piyali Chatterjee, Valorie L Chiasson, Geetha Seerangan, Eugene De Guzman, Moheb Milad, Kelsey R Bounds, Olga Gasheva, Richard P Tobin, Mohamad Hatahet, Shelley Kopriva, Kathleen A Jones, M Karen Newell-Rogers, Brett Mitchell
Excessive innate immune system activation and inflammation during pregnancy can lead to organ injury and dysfunction and preeclampsia; however, the molecular mechanisms involved are unknown.  We tested the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor activation induces MHC class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP) expression on immune cells, makes them pro-inflammatory, and are necessary to cause preeclampsia-like features in mice.  Treatment with VG1177, a competitive antagonist peptide for CLIP in the groove of MHC class II, was able to both prevent and treat preeclampsia-like features in mice...
June 22, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642092/chemokine-ccl17-is-expressed-by-dendritic-cells-in-the-cns-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-promotes-pathogenesis-of-disease
#5
Christina Ruland, Hannes Renken, Ivan Kuzmanov, Arezoo Fattahi Mehr, Kathrin Schwarte, Manuela Cerina, Alexander Herrmann, David-Marian Otte, Andreas Zimmer, Nicholas Schwab, Sven G Meuth, Volker Arolt, Luisa Klotz, Irmgard Förster, Stefanie Scheu, Judith Alferink
The CC chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17) and its cognate CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) are known to control leukocyte migration, maintenance of TH17 cells, and regulatory T cell (Treg) expansion in vivo. In this study we characterized the expression and functional role of CCL17 in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using a CCL17/EGFP reporter mouse model, we could show that CCL17 expression in the CNS can be found in a subset of classical dendritic cells (DCs) that immigrate into the CNS during the effector phase of MOG-induced EAE...
June 19, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642030/cyclic-mog35-55-ameliorates-clinical-and-neuropathological-features-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#6
Athanasios Lourbopoulos, George Deraos, Minos-Timotheos Matsoukas, Olga Touloumi, Aggeliki Giannakopoulou, Hubert Kalbacher, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Vasso Apostolopoulos, John Matsoukas
EAE is induced to susceptible mice using linear peptides of myelin proteins of the central nervous system. Specific peptide motifs within the peptide-binding groove of the MHC peptide-complex determines the affinity of the peptide in each animal and the consequent T-cell receptor recognition and activation of the cell. Altered peptide ligand (APL) vaccination is a novel approach based on an effort to induce T-cell tolerance or alter cytokine profile from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory. In the present study we synthesized the MOG35-55 peptide and altered its 3-dimensional conformation to make it a cyclic one (c-MOG35-55)...
June 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638736/transcriptional-factor-eb-regulates-macrophage-polarization-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#7
Liang Fang, Johnie Hodge, Fatma Saaoud, Junfeng Wang, Stephen Iwanowycz, Yuzhen Wang, Yvonne Hui, Trent D Evans, Babak Razani, Daping Fan
Tumor microenvironment (TME) contains a variety of infiltrating immune cells. Among them, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and their alternative activation contribute greatly to the progression of tumors. The mechanisms governing macrophage polarization in the TME are unclear. Here, we show that in TAMs or macrophages under tumor-conditioned medium treatment, the expression of transcription factor EB (TFEB) is reduced and more of the TFEB protein is in an inactive cytosolic form. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is identified as a main driving force for the reduced TFEB expression and activity in TAMs via activating ERK signaling...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634588/antitumor-effect-of-kml-b-treated-dendritic-cells-via-induction-of-lymphocyte-activation
#8
Jong-Jin Kim, Yun-Ho Hwang, Kyung-Yun Kang, Sung-Ju Lee, Jong-Bae Kim, Jina Choi, Sung-Tae Yee
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins with various biological activities, such as antitumor and immunomodulatory effects. Although lectins have various biological activities, they are still limited by cytotoxicity in normal cells. To overcome this problem, we used the noncytotoxic part of Korean mistletoe lectin B-chain (KML-B) to induce maturation of dendritic cells (DCs). A previous study reported that KML-B induces DC maturation by triggering TLR-4, including expression of costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, and CD86), MHC II, and secretion of cytokines in DCs...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632753/mait-cells-launch-a-rapid-robust-and-distinct-hyperinflammatory-response-to-bacterial-superantigens-and-quickly-acquire-an-anergic-phenotype-that-impedes-their-cognate-antimicrobial-function-defining-a-novel-mechanism-of-superantigen-induced-immunopathology
#9
Christopher R Shaler, Joshua Choi, Patrick T Rudak, Arash Memarnejadian, Peter A Szabo, Mauro E Tun-Abraham, Jamie Rossjohn, Alexandra J Corbett, James McCluskey, John K McCormick, Olivier Lantz, Roberto Hernandez-Alejandro, S M Mansour Haeryfar
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630088/the-islet-resident-macrophage-is-in-an-inflammatory-state-and-senses-microbial-products-in-blood
#10
Stephen T Ferris, Pavel N Zakharov, Xiaoxiao Wan, Boris Calderon, Maxim N Artyomov, Emil R Unanue, Javier A Carrero
We examined the transcriptional profiles of macrophages that reside in the islets of Langerhans of 3-wk-old non-obese diabetic (NOD), NOD.Rag1(-/-), and B6.g7 mice. Islet macrophages expressed an activation signature with high expression of Tnf, Il1b, and MHC-II at both the transcript and protein levels. These features are common with barrier macrophages of the lung and gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, injection of lipopolysaccharide induced rapid inflammatory gene expression, indicating that blood stimulants are accessible to the macrophages and that these macrophages can sense them...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628857/identification-of-b-and-t-cell-epitope-based-peptide-vaccine-from-igf-1-receptor-in-breast-cancer
#11
Manijeh Mahdavi, Violaine Moreau, Majid Kheirollahi
The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays a key role in proliferation, growth, differentiation, and development of several human malignancies including breast and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. IGF-1R targeted immunotherapeutic approaches are particularly attractive, as they may potentially elicit even stronger antitumor responses than traditional targeted approaches. Cancer peptide vaccines can produce immunologic responses against cancer cells by triggering helper T cell (Th) or cytotoxic T cells (CTL) in association with Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I or II molecules on the cell surface of antigen presenting cells...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628013/modulation-of-antitumor-immune-response-in-mouse-prostate-cancer-model
#12
N Mitskevich, T Tsertsvadze, K Mchedlishvili, K Matchavariani, G Guruli
Aim of study - prostate cancer is second most common cancer in men worldwide, and fifth leading cause of death from cancer in men (6.6% of the total men deaths). Unfortunately, once cancer spreads outside of prostate, it becomes incurable. Androgen deprivation can provide some relief, but resistance will develop eventually, and at that time no effective treatment options are left to the patient. Therefore, the search of alternative treatment modalities is paramount. In this article we evaluated the role of epigenetic modifier 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) and immunomodulator - Lenalidomide and their possible impact on the immune response in the murine prostate cancer model...
May 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623659/immune-activation-of-platelets-in-response-to-serial-phlebotomy-in-pigtailed-macaques-macaca-nemestrina
#13
Kelly A Metcalf Pate, Meghan S Vermillion, Claire E Lyons, Kevin M Najarro, Robert J Adams
Serial phlebotomy is a common sampling practice for repeated-measures studies in biomedical research. In NHP, the effect ofserial blood collection on RBC parameters has been characterized, but the effects on platelet parameters and other aspects of thehemogram have not been well studied. We sought to characterize the circulating platelet phenotype throughout the course of 7serial phlebotomies spanning 30 d in pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Phlebotomy was performed on 23 animals at days0, 2, 4, 7, 10, 21, and 30 to quantify the circulating platelet count and markers of both hemostatic and immune platelet activation...
June 16, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623530/participation-of-tumor-associated-myeloid-cells-in-progression-of-amelanotic-melanoma-rmm-tumor-line-in-f344-rats-with-particular-reference-to-mhc-class-ii-and-cd163-expressing-cells
#14
A Bondoc, H M Golbar, M Pervin, C Katou-Ichikawa, M Tanaka, T Izawa, M Kuwamura, J Yamate
Tumor progression is often influenced by infiltration of myeloid cells; depending on the M1- or M2-like activation status, these cells may have either inhibitory or promoting effects on tumor growth. We investigated the properties of tumor-associated myeloid cells in a previously established homotransplantable amelanotic melanoma (RMM tumor line) in F344 rats. RMM tumor nodules were allowed to reach the sizes of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 cm, respectively. Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry was performed for macrophage markers CD68 and CD163, and for the antigen-presenting cell marker, MHC class II...
June 16, 2017: Cancer Microenvironment: Official Journal of the International Cancer Microenvironment Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621565/light-emitting-diode-at-460%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-20%C3%A2-nm-increases-the-production-of-il-12-and-il-6-in-murine-dendritic-cells
#15
Tamires Marielem Carvalho-Costa, Maria Tays Mendes, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Virmondes Rodrigues, Giuliana Cristina Marre Bruschi Thedei, Carlo Jose Freire Oliveira, Geraldo Thedei
BACKGROUND DATA: Light emitting diode (LED) therapy has been proposed as an option for the treatment of many skin inflammatory processes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are important cells of skin that participate in the initiation and activation of skin immunity. The modulation of these cells by LED could explain much of its effects. OBJECTIVE: Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of LED at 460 ± 20 nm on cytokine production and the expression of surface markers on DCs...
June 15, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620932/fiber-type-composition-of-the-palmaris-brevis-muscle-implications-for-palmar-function
#16
Colin W Moore, Tyler S Beveridge, Charles L Rice
The palmaris brevis (PB) is a small muscle of variant morphology located on the ulnar aspect of the palm, superficial to the hypothenar eminence. Functionally, the PB has been proposed to protect the neurovasculature of the ulnar canal from compressive forces during repetitive or intermittent trauma associated with grasping. Although PB function has been inferred from cadaveric observations, it is unknown whether it has the contractile capacity and fatigue-resistance necessary to withstand these functional demands...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620374/canine-macrophage-dh82-cell-line-as-a-model-to-study-susceptibility-to-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection
#17
Pedro Henrique Braz Mendonça, Raphael Francisco Dutra Barbosa da Rocha, Julliane Brito de Braz Moraes, Isabel Ferreira LaRocque-de-Freitas, Jorgete Logullo, Alexandre Morrot, Marise Pinheiro Nunes, Celio Geraldo Freire-de-Lima, Debora Decote-Ricardo
Trypanosoma cruzi is an obligatory intracellular protozoan parasite, and it is the etiological agent of Chagas' disease that is endemic in the Americas. In addition to humans, a wide spectrum of mammals can be infected by T. cruzi, including dogs. Dogs develop acute and chronic disease, similar to human infection. T. cruzi can infect almost all cell types and after cell invasion, the metacyclics trypomastigotes localize in the cytoplasm, where they transform into amastigotes, the replicative form of T. cruzi in mammals...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619138/newcastle-disease-virus-like-particles-induce-dc-maturation-through-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-facilitate-dc-migration-by-ccr7-ccl19-ccl21-axis
#18
Jing Qian, Xiaohong Xu, Jiaxin Ding, Renfu Yin, Yixue Sun, Cong Xue, Jianzhong Wang, Chan Ding, Shengqing Yu, Xiufan Liu, Shunlin Hu, Chunfeng Wang, Yanlong Cong, Zhuang Ding
Newcastle disease virus-like particles (NDV VLPs) are a potential candidate vaccine, as shown by eliciting specific immune response against NDV in mice and chickens. Activation of dendritic cells (DCs) is critical to initiate immune response. However, the mechanism of how NDV VLPs induce DC maturation and migration remains elusive. In this study, we found that NDV VLPs are efficient in DC activation by up-regulating surface MHC II and costimulatory molecules, and proinflammatory cytokines through the TLR4/NF-κB pathway...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617661/molecular-dynamics-approach-to-probe-the-antigenicity-of-pagn-an-outer-membrane-protein-of-salmonella-typhi
#19
Nabajyoti Goswami, Md Iftikar Hussain, Probodh Borah
PagN is a highly immunogenic 27-kDa outer membrane adhesin present in Salmonella Typhi. It plays a major role in the pathogenesis of typhoid fever and has emerged as a strong vaccine candidate. In this report, we predict the three dimensional structure of PagN and describe the conformational dynamics associated with its 4 extracellular loops based on two 100-ns molecular dynamics simulations at 300 K and 310 K. The formation and deformation of the secondary structures on these loops were also investigated during the simulations which revealed loops L1 and L2 to be highly flexible, whereas the relative flexibility of loops L3 and L4 was minimal...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615725/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-similarities-between-human-blood-cd3-cd56-bright-cells-and-mouse-cd127-innate-lymphoid-cells
#20
David S J Allan, Ana Sofia Cerdeira, Anuisa Ranjan, Christina L Kirkham, Oscar A Aguilar, Miho Tanaka, Richard W Childs, Cynthia E Dunbar, Jack L Strominger, Hernan D Kopcow, James R Carlyle
For many years, human peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells have been divided into functionally distinct CD3(-) CD56(bright) CD16(-) and CD3(-) CD56(dim) CD16(+) subsets. Recently, several groups of innate lymphoid cells (ILC), distinct from NK cells in development and function, have been defined in mouse. A signature of genes present in mouse ILC except NK cells, defined by Immunological Genome Project studies, is significantly over-represented in human CD56(bright) cells, by gene set enrichment analysis...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
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