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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382830/-drug-therapy-and-the-most-common-drugs-for-childhood-psychiatric-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Anita Puustjärvi, Hannu Raunio, Anne Lecklin, Kirsti Kumpulainen
Psychotropic drugs are more commonly prescribed for children, although scientific evidence about psychotrophic medication and long-term effects thereof in children is scarce. The drugs are often used off-label. ADHD drugs, antipsychotics and antidepressants and melatonin are the most commonly used drugs. ADHD medication possesses the most established status. Antipsychotic drugs are utilized for the treatment of psychoses, bipolar disorder, and conduct disorder symptoms in particular. Antidepressants are utilized for the treatment of childhood depression and anxiety disorders, melatonin for the treatment of children's sleep problems...
2016: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26799153/actigraph-measures-discriminate-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-from-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-typically-developing-controls
#2
Gianni L Faedda, Kyoko Ohashi, Mariely Hernandez, Cynthia E McGreenery, Marie C Grant, Argelinda Baroni, Ann Polcari, Martin H Teicher
BACKGROUND: Distinguishing pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be challenging. Hyperactivity is a core feature of both disorders, but severely disturbed sleep and circadian dysregulation are more characteristic of BD, at least in adults. We tested the hypothesis that objective measures of activity, sleep, and circadian rhythms would help differentiate pediatric subjects with BD from ADHD and typically developing controls. METHODS: Unmedicated youths (N = 155, 97 males, age 5-18) were diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria with Kiddie-SADS PL/E...
June 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246793/treatment-refractory-anxiety-definition-risk-factors-and-treatment-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Peter Roy-Byrne
A sizable proportion of psychiatric patients will seek clinical evaluation and treatment for anxiety symptoms reportedly refractory to treatment. This apparent lack of response is either due to "pseudo-resistance" (a failure to have received and adhered to a recognized and effective treatment or treatments for their condition) or to true "treatment resistance." Pseudo-resistance can be due to clinician errors in selecting and delivering an appropriate treatment effectively, or to patient nonadherence to a course of treatment...
June 2015: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26047808/an-exploratory-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-web-based-integrated-bipolar-parenting-intervention-ibpi-for-bipolar-parents-of-young-children-aged-3-10
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Steven Jones, Laura D Wainwright, Jelena Jovanoska, Helen Vincent, Peter J Diggle, Rachel Calam, Rob Parker, Rita Long, Debbie Mayes, Matthew Sanders, Fiona Lobban
BACKGROUND: Communication, impulse control and motivation can all be affected by Bipolar Disorder (BD) making consistent parenting more difficult than for parents without mental health problems. Children of parents with BD (CPB) are at significantly increased risk of a range of mental health issues including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), anxiety, depression, substance use, and sleep disorders. Furthermore, CPB are also at elevated risk for BD compared to the general population...
2015: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25312027/wake-promoting-pharmacotherapy-for-psychiatric-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Bernardo Dell'Osso, Cristina Dobrea, Laura Cremaschi, Chiara Arici, A Carlo Altamura
Medications promoting wakefulness are currently used in psychopharmacology in different contexts and with different objectives. In particular, they may be used for the treatment of syndromes that primarily show significant impairment in alertness/wakefulness (e.g., excessive sleepiness and other sleep disorders) as well as for the symptomatic treatment of different neuropsychiatric disorders that, in turn, are not exclusively characterized by sleep-wake disturbances (like mood disorders, for instance). In addition, several psychotropic compounds, including some antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and anxiolytics have well-established sedating side effects that may go beyond the therapeutic target and require the symptomatic use of wake-promoting agents...
December 2014: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25253607/-adhd-should-be-given-more-attention-early-interventions-prevents-unnecessary-suffering
#6
REVIEW
Elisabeth Fernell, Lena Nylander, Björn Kadesjö, Christopher Gillberg
ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental/neuropsychiatric disorder affecting about 5 percent of children. About 2-3 percent meet diagnostic criteria in adulthood as well. The core symptoms include inattention with or without hyperactivity/restlessness and impulsivity. The main cognitive deficit involves executive functions, probably related to a weak reward system. Symptoms will affect daily functioning at home, among friends and at school/work. In girls and women particularly, a correct diagnosis of ADHD is often late, or is not at all appropriately considered...
September 24, 2014: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25176856/c-13a-systematic-review-of-the-effects-of-metabolic-syndrome-on-cognition-in-relation-to-gender
#7
B Collins, A Harley, T Wroolie
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of disorders that includes obesity, visceral adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. MetS is associated with cardiovascular disease, cognitive decline, and dementia. This systematic review sought to understand the effects of MetS on cognition in relation to gender. DATA SELECTION: Studies were found using PubMed database. Keywords searched included metabolic syndrome, cognition, cognitive decline, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, neuropsychological, gender, male, and female...
September 2014: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25135782/circadian-clock-and-stress-interactions-in-the-molecular-biology-of-psychiatric-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Dominic Landgraf, Michael J McCarthy, David K Welsh
Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by circadian rhythm abnormalities, including disturbed sleep/wake cycles, changes in locomotor activity, and abnormal endocrine function. Animal models with mutations in circadian "clock genes" commonly show disturbances in reward processing, locomotor activity and novelty seeking behaviors, further supporting the idea of a connection between the circadian clock and psychiatric disorders. However, if circadian clock dysfunction is a common risk factor for multiple psychiatric disorders, it is unknown if and how these putative clock abnormalities could be expressed differently, and contribute to multiple, distinct phenotypes...
October 2014: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24372351/dimensional-psychopathology-in-preschool-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder
#9
Hagai Maoz, Tina Goldstein, David A Axelson, Benjamin I Goldstein, Jieyu Fan, Mary Beth Hickey, Kelly Monk, Dara Sakolsky, Rasim S Diler, David Brent, Satish Iyengar, David J Kupfer, Boris Birmaher
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to compare the dimensional psychopathology, as ascertained by parental report, in preschool offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) and offspring of community control parents. METHODS: 122 preschool offspring (mean age 3.3 years) of 84 parents with BP, with 102 offspring of 65 control parents (36 healthy, 29 with non-BP psychopathology), were evaluated using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the CBCL-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP), the Early Childhood Inventory (ECI-4), and the Emotionality Activity Sociability (EAS) survey...
2014: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24206928/characteristics-symptomatology-and-naturalistic-treatment-in-individuals-at-risk-for-bipolar-disorders-baseline-results-in-the-first-180-help-seeking-individuals-assessed-at-the-dresden-high-risk-project
#10
Karolina Leopold, Susann Ratzer, Christoph U Correll, Maren Rottmann-Wolf, Steffi Pfeiffer, Philipp Ritter, Michael Bauer, Andrea Pfennig
BACKGROUND: Considering results from the early recognition and intervention in psychosis, identification and treatment of individuals with at-risk states for the development of bipolar disorders (BD) could improve the course and severity of illness and prevent long-term consequences. Different approaches to define risk factors and groups have recently been published, data on treatment options are still missing. METHODS: Help-seeking persons at the early recognition center in Dresden, Germany, were assessed with a standardized diagnostic procedure including following risk factors for BD: familial risk, increasing mood swings, subsyndromal (hypo)manic symptoms, specific sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances, anxiety/fearfulness, affective disorder, decreased psychosocial functioning, increasing periodic substance use, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
January 2014: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23777594/frequency-and-relevance-of-psychoeducation-in-psychiatric-diagnoses-results-of-two-surveys-five-years-apart-in-german-speaking-european-countries
#11
Christine Rummel-Kluge, Michael Kluge, Werner Kissling
BACKGROUND: Psychoeducation has been shown to reduce relapse rates in several psychiatric disorders. Studies investigating for which psychiatric diagnoses psychoeducation is offered and assessing its perceived relevance compared to other interventions are lacking. METHODS: A two-part questionnaire addressing these questions was sent to the heads of all psychiatric hospitals in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Results were compared with those from a similar survey 5 years earlier...
2013: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23390136/homozygous-and-heterozygous-disruptions-of-ank3-at-the-crossroads-of-neurodevelopmental-and-psychiatric-disorders
#12
Zafar Iqbal, Geert Vandeweyer, Monique van der Voet, Ali Muhammad Waryah, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor, Judith A Besseling, Laura Tomas Roca, Anneke T Vulto-van Silfhout, Bonnie Nijhof, Jamie M Kramer, Nathalie Van der Aa, Muhammad Ansar, Hilde Peeters, Céline Helsmoortel, Christian Gilissen, Lisenka E L M Vissers, Joris A Veltman, Arjan P M de Brouwer, R Frank Kooy, Sheikh Riazuddin, Annette Schenck, Hans van Bokhoven, Liesbeth Rooms
AnkyrinG, encoded by the ANK3 gene, is involved in neuronal development and signaling. It has previously been implicated in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia by association studies. Most recently, de novo missense mutations in this gene were identified in autistic patients. However, the causative nature of these mutations remained controversial. Here, we report inactivating mutations in the Ankyrin 3 (ANK3) gene in patients with severe cognitive deficits. In a patient with a borderline intelligence, severe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism and sleeping problems, all isoforms of the ANK3 gene, were disrupted by a balanced translocation...
May 15, 2013: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23118256/use-of-psychotropic-medication-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
Daniel L Coury, Evdokia Anagnostou, Patricia Manning-Courtney, Ann Reynolds, Lynn Cole, Robin McCoy, Agnes Whitaker, James M Perrin
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to examine rates of psychotropic medication use and identify associated child and family characteristics among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) enrolled in an autism registry maintained by the Autism Treatment Network (ATN). METHODS: The sample, derived from the ATN registry, consists of 2853 children aged 2 to 17 years with diagnoses of ASD supported by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule with available data on medication use...
November 2012: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22876267/trichotillomania-bipolar-disorder-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-a-six-year-old-girl
#14
Ibone Olza-Fernández, Inmaculada Palanca-Maresca, Sara Jiménez-Fernández, María Rosario Cazorla-Calleja
A six-year-old girl was referred to our child psychiatry outpatient clinic by the Pediatric Neurology Unit with a diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and trichotillomania. She had neither eyebrows nor eyelashes. The clinical picture was of irritability, frequent tantrums, and aggressive behaviour. During the following year she presented several brief episodes of intense mood changes, which typically started with night-time onset trichotillomania and sleep disturbance. The episodes lasted no longer than five days and recurred within one or two months...
August 2012: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22734579/circadian-preference-is-associated-with-emotional-and-affective-temperaments
#15
Gustavo L Ottoni, Eduardo Antoniolli, Diogo R Lara
Chronotype has long been associated with mental disorders and temperamental features. This study aims to investigate the association of circadian preference with a new model for emotional and affective temperament. In this Web survey, 6436 subjects (27.2% males) answered the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS), the Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS), and questions on subjective sleep parameters for a sleep-based chronotype measure. Temperament was more strongly correlated with daily energy score than with chronotype...
July 2012: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22608760/the-sleep-phenotypes-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-the-role-of-arousal-during-sleep-and-implications-for-treatment
#16
Silvia Miano, Pasquale Parisi, Maria Pia Villa
About 25-50% of children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience sleep problems. An appropriate assessment and treatment of such problems might improve the quality of life in such patients and reduce both the severity of ADHD and the impairment it causes. According to data in the literature and to the overall complexity of the interaction between ADHD and sleep, five sleep phenotypes may be identified in ADHD: (i) a sleep phenotype characterized mainly by a hypo-arousal state, resembling narcolepsy, which may be considered a "primary" form of ADHD (i...
August 2012: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21905994/chronotherapeutics-and-psychiatry-setting-the-clock-to-relieve-the-symptoms
#17
REVIEW
Andrew N Coogan, Johannes Thome
Circadian rhythms are near 24-h cycles in a number of physiological and behavioural parameters and the underpinning circadian timing systems is one of the key homeostatic regulatory systems in mammalian physiology. Many common psychiatric conditions are associated with disrupted sleep, including a common occurrence of delayed or advanced phase sleep syndromes, which in themselves may be indicative of dysregulated circadian timing in these disorders. In this article we discuss the evidence for abnormal circadian rhythms in seasonal affective disorder, bipolar disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
September 2011: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21843282/a-preliminary-study-of-sleep-in-adolescents-with-bipolar-disorder-adhd-and-non-patient-controls
#18
Benjamin C Mullin, Allison G Harvey, Stephen P Hinshaw
OBJECTIVES: To compare the sleep of adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) to groups of adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type (ADHD-C) and those without psychopathology. METHODS: A sample of 13 adolescents diagnosed with BD who were not in the midst of a mood episode, 14 adolescents with ADHD-C, and 21 healthy controls, all between the ages of 11 and 17 years served as participants. They were psychiatrically evaluated using a structured diagnostic interview and completed four nights of in-home sleep monitoring using actigraphy and sleep diaries...
June 2011: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21831530/severe-mood-dysregulation-in-the-light-of-circadian-functioning
#19
Sarah Heiler, Tanja Legenbauer, Thorsten Bogen, Thomas Jensch, Martin Holtmann
Severe affective and behavioral dysregulation, labeled as severe mood dysregulation (SMD), is a widely spread phenomenon among adolescent psychiatric patients. This phenotype constitutes severe impairment across multiple settings, including various symptoms, such as non-episodic anger, mood instability, and hyperarousal. Moreover, SMD patients often show depression and reduced need for sleep. Despite a lifetime prevalence of 3.3%, systematic research is still scarce, and treatments that have been established do not account for the range of symptoms present in SMD...
October 2011: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21802741/risk-constellations-prior-to-the-development-of-bipolar-disorders-rationale-of-a-new-risk-assessment-tool
#20
REVIEW
Karolina Leopold, Philipp Ritter, Christoph U Correll, Carolin Marx, Seza Özgürdal, Georg Juckel, Michael Bauer, Andrea Pfennig
BACKGROUND: The precise characterisation of a high risk status for the development of a psychiatric disorder and the question of how well this predicts disease manifestation is of major importance as negative consequences of late diagnosis and treatment have been well demonstrated. In the absence of well defined and disease specific biological markers for bipolar disorder, the recognition of premature stages must rely on combinations of risk factors that have been associated with later disease manifestation...
February 2012: Journal of Affective Disorders
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