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Lung development

Farzana Kastury, E Smith, Ranju R Karna, Kirk G Scheckel, A L Juhasz
In this study, methodological factors influencing the dissolution of metal(loid)s in simulated lung fluid (SLF) was assessed in order to develop a standardised method for the assessment of inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5 . To achieve this aim, the effects of solid to liquid (S/L) ratio (1:100 to 1:5000), agitation (magnetic agitation, occasional shaking, orbital and end-over-end rotation), composition of SLF (artificial lysosomal fluid: ALF; phagolysosomal simulant fluid: PSF) and extraction time (1-120 h) on metal(loid) bioaccessibility were investigated using PM2...
June 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jingjing Huang, Tingting Weng, Junsuk Ko, Ning-Yuan Chen, Yu Xiang, Kelly Volcik, Leng Han, Michael R Blackburn, Xiang Lu
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a life-threatening disease that has a poor prognosis and low survival rate. Cleavage factor Im 25 (CFIm25) is a RNA-binding protein that if down-regulated causes 3'UTR shortening and thus promotes the transcript stability of target genes. It is not clear whether CFIm25 and alternative polyadenylation (APA) play a role during cancer development. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of CFIm25 in lung cancer cell proliferation...
June 18, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
István Szabadkai, Robert Torka, Rita Garamvölgyi, Ferenc Baska, Pál Gyulavári, Sándor Boros, Eszter Illyés, Axel Choidas, Axel Ullrich, László Őrfi
The overexpression of AXL kinase has been described in many types of cancer. Due to its role in proliferation, survival, migration and resistance AXL represents a promising target in the treatment of the disease. In this study we present a novel compound family which successfully targets the AXL kinase. Through optimization and detailed SAR studies we developed low nanomolar inhibitors and after further biological characterization we identified a selective and applicable AXL kinase inhibitor with favorable pharmacokinetic profile...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez
Exacerbation of COPD is associated with a worsening of lung function and symptoms, and a serious loss in functional status and health related quality of life. It also represents the major cause for emergency hospitalization in COPD patients which places the patient at risk for developing further muscle weakness. Actually, loss of muscle function developed fast and continued to decrease over time during hospitalization and may be further compromised when disease deterioration would require the use of ventilator support...
May 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Joseph R Iacona, Nicholas J Monteleone, Carol S Lutz
Arachidonic acid (AA) can be converted into prostaglandins (PGs) or leukotrienes (LTs) by the enzymatic actions of cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), respectively. PGs and LTs are lipid signaling molecules that have been implicated in various diseases, including multiple cancers. 5-LO and its activating protein (FLAP) work together in the first two conversion steps of LT production. Previous work has suggested a role for LTs in cancer development and progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, and have previously been shown to be involved in cancer...
June 1, 2018: Oncotarget
Lingchi Ding, Weidong Yao, Junguo Lu, Jun Gong, Xiaodong Zhang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a large class of RNAs that have previously been identified to be involved in certain diseases, including the development of cancer. However, the role of circ_001569 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown. In the present study, it was demonstrated that expression levels of circ_001569 were significantly increased in NSCLC tissues compared with in adjacent normal tissues. Increased circ_001569 expression was closely associated with tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and Tumor-Node-Metastasis classification in NSCLC...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Xiuzhi Zhou, Li Cai, Junjie Liu, Xiaomin Hua, Ying Zhang, Huilin Zhao, Bin Wang, Boqing Li, Pengzhou Gai
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an important gene in the development of lung adenocarcinoma. However, there is controversy regarding the association between EGFR mutations and survival time of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. In the present study, tissue specimens and clinical data were collected from 219 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who had not undergone prior radiotherapy or chemotherapy. EGFR mutations were detected using a fluorescence polymerase chain reaction method, and the association between EGFR mutations and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Ling Hu, Jing Tang, Xiaohuan Huang, Tao Zhang, Xiaoling Feng
Hypoxia has been reported to be a critical microenvironmental factor that induces cancer metastasis and proliferation in gastric, liver and hepatic cancers; however, the underlying mechanisms of this are largely unknown. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as crucial factors of several aspects of tumor malignancy, including tumorigenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance. However, the potential association of lncRNAs with hypoxia-induced cancer malignancy remains to be determined. In the present study, the differential expression of lncRNAs following the induction of hypoxia in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells was analyzed reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Hongli Li, Chao Feng, Songtao Shi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proven to regulate gene expression at the protein translation level. miRNA abnormal expression has been associated with the development of lung cancer. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the mechanism of miR-196 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The miR-196b and GATA-6 (GATA6) expression levels were examined in NSCLC by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Transwell assay was used to assess cell migration and invasion. Moreover, the specific target of miR-196b in NSCLC was verified by the luciferase reporter assay...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Yan Gao, Xian Du, Jing Zeng, Ruimin Wu, Yijia Chen, Fuyan Li, Wei Li, Hong Zhou, Yi Yang, Zhijun Pei
The glycoprotein dickkopf 1 (DKK1) is highly expressed in lung cancer cell lines and tissues. Our previous study demonstrated that DKK1 promoter activity is low in lung cancer cell lines. This may be because it lacks the necessary transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) required for higher activity levels. However, it is difficult to computationally predict functionally significant TREs, as TREs from different locations can affect large segments of distant DNA. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project features multiple integrated technologies and approaches for the discovery and definition of functional elements, including enhancer elements and enhancer-blocking insulators...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Yuri Taniguchi, Hajime Horiuchi, Teppei Morikawa, Kazuhiro Usui
There are various mechanisms underlying the resistance of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). We herein report a case of pulmonary adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion and T790M) that acquired resistance to osimertinib treatment because of transformation into small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). A 67-year-old ex-smoking woman was diagnosed with left upper lobe adenocarcinoma of clinical stage IIIA (cT2bN2M0). She was treated with chemoradiotherapy (cisplatin and vinorelbine plus radiation), gefitinib, cisplatin, and pemetrexed followed by pemetrexed maintenance therapy and erlotinib...
May 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Chuanyin Li, Xiaona Wang, Yingfu Li, Xinwen Zhang, Mingbo Sun, Shuyuan Liu, Le Sun, Li Shi, Yufeng Yao
Background: Recent studies have revealed that the TERT gene plays crucial roles in cancer initiation and development. Genome-wide analysis studies and case-control studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms in the TERT gene are associated with various cancers. Materials and methods: In the current study, we analyzed the associations of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TERT gene with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a Chinese Han population...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Kai Zhao, Zulei Li, Hui Tian
Introduction: Lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) accounts for more than a half of non-small cell lung cancer with high morbidity and mortality. Progression of treatment has not accelerated the improvement of its prognosis. Hence, it is an urgent need to develop novel biomarkers for its early diagnosis and treatment. Materials and methods: In this study, we proposed to identify LAC survival-related genes through comprehensive analysis of large-scale gene expression profiles...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Tony Navas, Thomas D Pfister, Simona Colantonio, Amina Aziz, Lynda Dieckman, Richard G Saul, Jan Kaczmarczyk, Suzanne Borgel, Sergio Y Alcoser, Melinda G Hollingshead, Young H Lee, Donald P Bottaro, Tara Hiltke, Gordon Whiteley, Naoko Takebe, Robert J Kinders, Ralph E Parchment, Joseph E Tomaszewski, James H Doroshow
The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumors are associated with tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, drug resistance, and poor prognosis, necessitating the development of reagents for unambiguous detection of CSC- and EMT-associated proteins in tumor specimens. To this end, we generated novel antibodies to EMT- and CSC-associated proteins, including Goosecoid, Sox9, Slug, Snail, and CD133. Importantly, unlike several widely used antibodies to CD133, the anti-CD133 antibodies we generated recognize epitopes distal to known glycosylation sites, enabling analyses that are not confounded by differences in CD133 glycosylation...
2018: PloS One
Hélder Melro, Jorge Gomes, Gabriela Moura, Alda Marques
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) impacts differently on patients at similar grades, suggesting that factors other than lung function may influence patients' experience of the disease. Recent studies have found associations between genetic variations and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Identifying these associations might be fundamental to predict the disease progression and develop tailored interventions. This systematic review aimed to identify the genetic variations associated with PROs in COPD...
2018: PloS One
Ying Wang, Qiuyun Liu, Haojie Chen, Jun You, Bin Peng, Fanfan Cao, Xue Zhang, Qing Chen, Georges Uzan, Limin Xu, Denghai Zhang
The development of resistance to therapy continues to be a serious clinical problem in lung cancer management. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) is one of the most common chemotherapy drugs to treat non-small-cell lung cancer. However, almost all treatments fail after ∼1 year of treatment because of drug tolerance, probably occurring from the threonine 790 mutation (T790M) of the EGFR, resulting in overactivation of the EGFR. Celastrol is a natural compound that exhibits antiproliferative activity...
June 20, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
Sergio Harari, Paolo Spagnolo, Elisabetta Cocconcelli, Francesca Luisi, Vincent Cottin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare systemic disease that occurs almost exclusively in women. In the last few years, our understanding of disease pathobiology has improved substantially; in addition, a guideline document has recently been developed that provides recommendations for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients with LAM. Yet, significant gaps in knowledge remain. RECENT FINDINGS: Groundbreaking insights into the cellular biochemistry of LAM have led to the reclassification of the disease as a low-grade, destructive, metastasizing neoplasm...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
David E Wamble, Michael Ciarametaro, Robert Dubois
BACKGROUND: Developments in diagnostics, medical devices, procedures, and prescription drugs have increased life expectancy and quality of life after diagnosis for many diseases. Previous research has shown that, overall, increased investment in medical technology has led to increased health outcomes. In addition, the value of investment in specific innovations, particularly in new pharmaceuticals or biopharmaceuticals, has frequently been shown through an evaluation of the associated health outcomes and costs...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Naoto Ishimaru, Hisashi Ohnishi, Mao Fujii, Masako Yumura, Sho Yoshimura, Saori Kinami
We describe a case of microscopic polyangiitis manifested as pleuritis confirmed by thoracoscopic biopsy. An 80-year-old man presented with a three-day history of shortness of breath and cough. Chest radiography revealed patchy opacities in the lower fields of the bilateral lung and right-sided pleural effusion. Thoracentesis revealed lymphocytic pleural exudates. Thoracoscopic biopsy specimens were compatible with fibrotic pleuritis. He developed rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with elevated myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titer in blood and pleural effusion...
June 21, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Elena Bargagli, Viola Bonti, Alessandra Bindi, Vieri Scotti, Massimo Pistolesi, Luca Voltolini, Katia Ferrari
Patients treated for lung cancer may develop lung toxicity induced by chemotherapy (DILD), radiation or combined radiation recall pneumonitis. In the literature, some cases of immune-mediated pneumonitis have been reported associated with immunotherapy. The clinical and radiologic features of interstitial lung toxicity are unspecific, dyspnoea and dry cough are the most common symptoms while the most frequent radiological pattern is the cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP). Why only some individuals treated with these drugs develop interstitial lung toxicity is unclear...
June 21, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
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