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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651067/necrotizing-lip-infection-causing-septic-thrombophlebitis-of-the-neck-a%C3%A2-rare-variant-of-lemierre-syndrome
#1
Karl Cuddy, Nariman Saadat, Baber Khatib, Ashish Patel
Lemierre syndrome is an uncommon condition in which internal jugular vein thrombosis presents after recent oropharyngeal infection. Frequently, this is accompanied by septic emboli. This report outlines a variant of this disease process, with septic thrombophlebitis of the neck associated with a necrotizing skin infection of the lower lip and chin. A 25-year-old man with lower lip and chin swelling, initially managed with intravenous antibiotics, progressed to the development of a left facial vein thrombus, septic emboli to the lungs, and a necrotizing lower lip and chin infection that was managed with debridement, thrombectomy, and prolonged hemodynamic and pulmonary support...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651010/macrophages-but-not-neutrophils-are-critical-for-proliferation-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-and-ensuing-host-damaging-inflammation
#2
Jennifer Mesureur, Joana R Feliciano, Nelly Wagner, Margarida C Gomes, Lili Zhang, Monica Blanco-Gonzalez, Michiel van der Vaart, David O'Callaghan, Annemarie H Meijer, Annette C Vergunst
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) can cause devastating pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet the precise mechanisms underlying inflammation, recurrent exacerbations and transition from chronic stages to acute infection and septicemia are not known. Bcc bacteria are generally believed to have a predominant extracellular biofilm life style in infected CF lungs, similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but this has been challenged by clinical observations which show Bcc bacteria predominantly in alveolar macrophages...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650975/defective-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-and-keratinocyte-autonomous-defects-contribute-to-skin-phenotype-of-mouse-embryos-lacking-the-hsp90-co-chaperone-p23
#3
Marta Madon-Simon, Iwona Grad, Pilar Bayo, Paloma Pérez, Didier Picard
p23 is a small acidic protein with intrinsic molecular chaperone activity. It is best known as a co-chaperone of the major cytosolic molecular chaperone Hsp90. p23 binds the N-terminus of Hsp90 and stabilizes the ATP-bound and N-terminally closed Hsp90 dimer. It is in this configuration that many Hsp90 clients are most stably bound. Considering the important role of p23 in the Hsp90 cycle, it came as a surprise that it is not absolutely essential for viability in the budding yeast or for mouse development. Mice without p23 develop quite normally until birth and then all die perinatally because of immature lungs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650536/surveillance-for-lung-metastasis-from-giant-cell-tumor-of-bone
#4
Mamer Rosario, Han-Soo Kim, Ji Yeon Yun, Ilkyu Han
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Literature on surveillance for lung metastasis from giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is scarce. We aimed to develop one by determining: (1) the optimal surveillance schedule by analyzing time-to-event data, taking into account the predictive factors, and (2) the effective diagnostic modality. METHODS: A total of 333 patients who underwent surgery for GCTB were followed for at least 2 years. All had chest radiography, and 169 had additional CT for surveillance...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650393/orthotopic-patient-derived-pancreatic-cancer-xenografts-engraft-into-the-pancreatic-parenchyma-metastasize-and-induce-muscle-wasting-to-recapitulate-the-human-disease
#5
Kristina L Go, Daniel Delitto, Sarah M Judge, Michael H Gerber, Thomas J George, Kevin E Behrns, Steven J Hughes, Andrew R Judge, Jose G Trevino
OBJECTIVE: Limitations associated with current animal models serve as a major obstacle to reliable preclinical evaluation of therapies in pancreatic cancer (PC). In an effort to develop more reliable preclinical models, we have recently established a subcutaneous patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model. However, critical aspects of PC responsible for its highly lethal nature, such as the development of distant metastasis and cancer cachexia, remain underrepresented in the flank PDX model...
June 22, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650258/helper-t-cell-responses-to-respiratory-viruses-in-the-lung-development-virus-suppression-and-pathogenesis
#6
Kosuke Miyauchi
The lung is an important line of defense that is exposed to respiratory infectious pathogens, including viruses. Lung epithelial cells and/or alveolar macrophages are initially targeted by respiratory viruses. Once respiratory viruses invade the cells of the lung, innate immunity is activated to inhibit viral replication. Innate immune signaling also activates virus-specific adaptive immune responses. The helper T cells play pivotal roles in the humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. Helper T cells are categorized into several distinct subsets (e...
June 26, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649876/myasthenia-gravis-induced-by-nivolumab-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Yoshikazu Hasegawa, Shigeru Kawai, Takayo Ota, Hiroshi Tsukuda, Masahiro Fukuoka
A 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed with non-small-cell lung cancer presented with left eyelid ptosis and grade 4 creatine phosphokinase elevation after the 2nd cycle of nivolumab monotherapy. Nivolumab has demonstrated promising efficacy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer in several trials. Dyspnea and muscle weakness developed rapidly with an acute exacerbation. She underwent plasmapheresis and intravenous immune globulin followed by treatment with low-dose prednisolone. She had gradual symptoms improvement...
June 26, 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649564/primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-an-update-on-clinical-aspects-genetics-diagnosis-and-future-treatment-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Virginia Mirra, Claudius Werner, Francesca Santamaria
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an orphan disease (MIM 244400), autosomal recessive inherited, characterized by motile ciliary dysfunction. The estimated prevalence of PCD is 1:10,000 to 1:20,000 live-born children, but true prevalence could be even higher. PCD is characterized by chronic upper and lower respiratory tract disease, infertility/ectopic pregnancy, and situs anomalies, that occur in ≈50% of PCD patients (Kartagener syndrome), and these may be associated with congenital heart abnormalities...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649488/hemoptysis-in-a-previously-healthy-elderly-patient-with-an-unrecognized-tracheal-bronchus-a-case-report
#9
Moayad Ismail, Paunel Vukasinov, Hung-I Liao, Parvez Mir
A 83-year-old healthy female with no past medical history presented with persistent hemoptysis and respiratory failure. She was found to have a tracheal bronchus on bronchoscopy. Patient underwent pulmonary lavage and sterile irrigation. Patient was stable, but developed excessive hemoptysis which prompted a repeat, emergent, bronchoscopy was performed to advance the ET tube to isolate the left lung from the bleeding right lung. Despite the effort taken, the patient became pulseless from the hypoxia caused by blood spillover into the entire tracheobronchial field...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649460/pulmonary-diseases-induced-by-ambient-ultrafine-and-engineered-nanoparticles-in-twenty-first-century
#10
Tian Xia, Yifang Zhu, Lina Mu, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Sijin Liu
Air pollution is a severe threat to public health globally, affecting everyone in developed and developing countries alike. Among different air pollutants, particulate matter (PM), particularly combustion-produced fine PM (PM2.5) has been shown to play a major role in inducing various adverse health effects. Strong associations have been demonstrated by epidemiological and toxicological studies between increases in PM2.5 concentrations and premature mortality, cardiopulmonary diseases, asthma and allergic sensitization, and lung cancer...
December 2016: National Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649446/phenotypic-profiling-of-cftr-modulators-in-patient-derived-respiratory-epithelia
#11
Saumel Ahmadi, Zoltan Bozoky, Michelle Di Paola, Sunny Xia, Canhui Li, Amy P Wong, Leigh Wellhauser, Steven V Molinski, Wan Ip, Hong Ouyang, Julie Avolio, Julie D Forman-Kay, Felix Ratjen, Jeremy A Hirota, Johanna Rommens, Janet Rossant, Tanja Gonska, Theo J Moraes, Christine E Bear
Pulmonary disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis, a disease caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. Heterogeneity in CFTR genotype-phenotype relationships in affected individuals plus the escalation of drug discovery targeting specific mutations highlights the need to develop robust in vitro platforms with which to stratify therapeutic options using relevant tissue. Toward this goal, we adapted a fluorescence plate reader assay of apical CFTR-mediated chloride conductance to enable profiling of a panel of modulators on primary nasal epithelial cultures derived from patients bearing different CFTR mutations...
April 14, 2017: NPJ Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649432/an-individual-based-model-for-collective-cancer-cell-migration-explains-speed-dynamics-and-phenotype-variability-in-response-to-growth-factors
#12
Damian Stichel, Alistair M Middleton, Benedikt F Müller, Sofia Depner, Ursula Klingmüller, Kai Breuhahn, Franziska Matthäus
Collective cell migration is a common phenotype in epithelial cancers, which is associated with tumor cell metastasis and poor patient survival. However, the interplay between physiologically relevant pro-migratory stimuli and the underlying mechanical cell-cell interactions are poorly understood. We investigated the migratory behavior of different collectively migrating non-small cell lung cancer cell lines in response to motogenic growth factors (e.g. epidermal growth factor) or clinically relevant small compound inhibitors...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649372/the-use-of-high-frequency-ventilation-during-general-anaesthesia-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Karolina Galmén, Piotr Harbut, Jacob Freedman, Jan G Jakobsson
Various forms of high-frequency ventilation (HFV) have been described. HFV is broadly defined as artificial ventilation of the lungs with sub-deadspace tidal volumes delivered using supra-physiological frequencies. HFV has been used in anaesthesia and intensive care for special procedures and conditions since the 1960s. Clinical interest in the use and the technical evolution of HFV has developed over time. There is a renewed interest in HFV for avoiding parenchymal movement during stereotactic tumour ablation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649366/pneumocystis-jirovecii-detection-in-asymptomatic-patients-what-does-its-natural-history-tell-us
#14
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Stéphane Bretagne
Pneumocystis jirovecii is an unusual ascomycetous fungus that can be detected in the lungs of healthy individuals. Transmission from human to human is one of its main characteristics in comparison with other fungi responsible for invasive infections. P. jirovecii is transmitted through the air between healthy individuals, who are considered to be the natural reservoir, at least transiently. In immunocompromised patients, P. jirovecii multiplies, leading to subacute infections and acute life-threatening pneumonia, called Pneumocystis pneumonia [PCP]...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649247/an-antigen-presenting-and-apoptosis-inducing-polymer-microparticle-prolongs-alloskin-graft-survival-by-selectively-and-markedly-depleting-alloreactive-cd8-t-cells
#15
Wei Wang, Khawar Ali Shahzad, Miaochen Li, Aifeng Zhang, Lei Zhang, Tao Xu, Xin Wan, Chuanlai Shen
Selectively depleting the pathogenic T cells is a fundamental strategy for the treatment of allograft rejection and autoimmune disease since it retains the overall immune function of host. The concept of killer artificial antigen-presenting cells (KaAPCs) has been developed by co-coupling peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) multimer and anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (mAb) onto the polymeric microparticles (MPs) to induce the apoptosis of antigen-specific T cells. But little information is available about its in vivo therapeutic potential and mechanism...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649127/the-novel-%C3%AE-glucan-ycp-improves-the-survival-rates-and-symptoms-in-septic-mice-by-regulating-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#16
Dan Liu, Ming You, Guang-Feng Zhao, Xiu-Jun Li, Yu-Xian Song, Huan Dou, Wen-Bing Yao, Xiang-Dong Gao, Ya-Yi Hou
Sepsis is a life-threatening health condition that is initially characterized by uncontrolled inflammation, followed by the development of persistent immunosuppression. YCP is a novel α-glucan purified from the mycelium of the marine fungus Phoma herbarum YS4108, which has displayed strong antitumor activity via enhancing host immune responses. In this study, we investigated whether YCP could influence the development of sepsis in a mouse model. Caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis was established in mice that were treated with YCP (20 mg/kg, ip or iv) 2 h before, 4 and 24 h after the CLP procedure, and then every other day...
June 26, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648953/synthesis-of-thiazole-linked-indolyl-3-glyoxylamide-derivatives-as-tubulin-polymerization-inhibitors
#17
Sravanthi Devi Guggilapu, Lalita Guntuku, T Srinivasa Reddy, Atulya Nagarsenkar, Dilep Kumar Sigalapalli, V G M Naidu, Suresh K Bhargava, Nagendra Babu Bathini
A series of thiazole linked indolyl-3-glyoxylamide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against DU145 (prostate), PC-3 (prostate), A549 (lung) and HCT-15 (colon) cancer cell lines by employing the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Among all the synthesized compounds, compound 13d displayed cytotoxicity of IC50 = 93 nM towards DU145 cancer cell line. The most active compound 13d was also tested on RWPE-1 cells and was found to be safe compared to the DU145 cells...
June 15, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648944/tubulin-beta-3-and-4-are-involved-in-the-generation-of-early-fibrotic-stages
#18
Marta E Wawro, Katarzyna Sobierajska, Wojciech M Ciszewski, Waldemar Wagner, Marta Frontczak, Katarzyna Wieczorek, Jolanta Niewiarowska
The endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a fundamental cellular mechanism that occurs under both physiological and pathological conditions and includes the fibrotic stages of numerous organs, namely, the skin, kidneys, heart, lungs and liver. Endothelial cells that undergo EndMT are one of the main source of (myo)fibroblasts in fibrotic tissues. A critical step in cellular transdifferentiation is morphological change, which is engineered by the reorganization of cytoskeletal elements such as microtubules...
June 22, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648907/sulfated-dehydropolymer-of-caffeic-acid-in-vitro-anti-lung-cell-death-activity-and-in-vivo-intervention-in-emphysema-induced-by-vegf-receptor-blockade
#19
Tien M Truong, Hua Li, Sneha Dhapare, Umesh R Desai, Nobert F Voelkel, Masahiro Sakagami
Induced lung cell death and impaired hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling are proposed as a pathobiologic mechanism for alveolar structural destruction and loss in emphysema. We hypothesized that our sulfated dehydropolymer of caffeic acid, CDSO3, exerts anti-cell death activities and therapeutic interventions in emphysema by virtue of Fe(2+) chelation-based HIF-1α/VEGF stabilization and elevation. The Fe(2+) chelating activity was determined in the chromogenic ferrozine-Fe(2+) chelation inhibitory assay...
June 22, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648905/antibodies-against-immune-checkpoint-molecules-restore-functions-of-tumor-infiltrating-t-cells-in-hepatocellular-carcinomas
#20
Guoying Zhou, Dave Sprengers, Patrick P C Boor, Michail Doukas, Hannah Schutz, Shanta Mancham, Alexander Pedroza-Gonzalez, Wojciech G Polak, Jeroen de Jonge, Marcia Gaspersz, Haidong Dong, Kris Thielemans, Qiuwei Pan, Jan N M IJzermans, Marco J Bruno, Jaap Kwekkeboom
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ligand binding to inhibitory receptors on immune cells, such as programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA4), downregulates the T-cell-mediated immune response (called immune checkpoints). Antibodies that block these receptors increase anti-tumor immunity in patients with melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell cancer. Tumor-infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been found to be functionally compromised...
June 22, 2017: Gastroenterology
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