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Nicole S Nicholas, Aikaterini Pipili, Michaela S Lesjak, Simon M Ameer-Beg, Jenny L C Geh, Ciaran Healy, Alistair D MacKenzie Ross, Maddy Parsons, Frank O Nestle, Katie E Lacy, Claire M Wells
Cancer cells are thought to use actin rich invadopodia to facilitate matrix degradation. Formation and maturation of invadopodia requires the co-ordained activity of Rho-GTPases, however the molecular mechanisms that underlie the invadopodia lifecycle are not fully elucidated. Previous work has suggested a formation and disassembly role for Rho family effector p-21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1) however, related family member PAK4 has not been explored. Systematic analysis of isoform specific depletion using in vitro and in vivo invasion assays revealed there are differential invadopodia-associated functions...
September 27, 2016: Oncotarget
Yingmei Wang, Limei Hu, Ping Ji, Fei Teng, Wenyan Tian, Yuexin Liu, David Cogdell, Jinsong Liu, Anil K Sood, Russell Broaddus, Fengxia Xue, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is one of the most common malignancies of the female reproductive system. Migration and invasion inhibitory protein (MIIP) gene was recently discovered candidate tumor suppress gene which located at chromosome 1p36.22. 1p36 deletion was found in many types of tumor including EC. In the present study, we will determine the role and mechanism of MIIP in EC metastasis. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to measure MIIP expression in normal and EC tissue...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Rachel A Johnston, Kristina L Paxton, Frank R Moore, Robert K Wayne, Thomas B Smith
The annual migration of a bird can involve thousands of kilometers of non-stop flight, requiring accurately timed seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling this endogenous programme can provide functional and evolutionary insights into the circannual biological clock and the potential of migratory species to adapt to changing environments. Under naturally-timed photoperiod conditions, we maintained captive Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) and performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the ventral hypothalamus and optic chiasma to evaluate transcriptome-wide gene expression changes of individuals in migratory condition...
October 16, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Pham Thi Be Tu, Binh Cao Quan Nguyen, Shinkichi Tawata, Cheong-Yong Yun, Eung Gook Kim, Hiroshi Maruta
We previously demonstrated that the oncogenic kinase PAK4, which both melanomas and normal melanocytes express at a very high level, is essential for their melanogenesis. In the present study, using the highly sensitive "Macaroni-Western" (IP-ATP-Glo) kinase assay, we investigated the melanogenic potential of another oncogenic kinase PAK1, which melanoma (B16F10) cells express only at a very minute level. After transfecting melanoma cells with PAK1-shRNA for silencing PAK1 gene, melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and kinase activity of PAK1 were compared between the wild-type and transfectants...
October 17, 2016: Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics
Olga Villamar Cruz, Tatiana Y Prudnikova, Daniela Araiza-Olivera, Carlos Perez-Plasencia, Neil Johnson, Andrea J Bernhardy, Michael Slifker, Catherine Renner, Jonathan Chernoff, Luis E Arias-Romero
Cells that are deficient in homologous recombination, such as those that have mutations in any of the Fanconi Anemia (FA)/BRCA genes, are hypersensitive to inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). However, FA/BRCA-deficient tumors represent a small fraction of breast cancers, which might restrict the therapeutic utility of PARP inhibitor monotherapy. The gene encoding the serine-threonine protein kinase p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) is amplified and/or overexpressed in several human cancer types including 25-30% of breast tumors...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Jeffrey J Coleman, Tomomi Komura, Julia Munro, Michael P Wu, Rakhee R Busanelli, Angela N Koehler, Méryl Thomas, Florence F Wagner, Edward B Holson, Eleftherios Mylonakis
AIM: Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) phenethyl ester (CAPE), the major constituent of propolis, is able to increase the survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans after infection with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. RESULTS: CAPE increases the expression of several antimicrobial proteins involved in the immune response to C. albicans. Structural derivatives of CAPE were synthesized to identify structure-activity relationships and decrease metabolic liability, ultimately leading to a compound that has similar efficacy, but increased in vivo stability...
October 14, 2016: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Ming-Jenn Chen, De-Wei Wu, Yao-Chen Wang, Chi-Yi Chen, Huei Lee
PAK1 confers resistance to the estrogen antagonist tamoxifen in breast cancer. However, a role for PAK1 remains to be elucidated for chemoresistance and prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We provide evidence that PAK1 confers cisplatin resistance by increasing β-catenin expression through ERK/GSK3β signaling. The increased β-catenin expression promotes sphere cell formation and expression of stemness markers and this β-catenin-induced stemness is responsible for PAK1-mediated cisplatin resistance...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jaesuk Yun, So Young Kim, Kyung Sik Yoon, Heejung Shin, Ho-Sang Jeong, Hyejoo Chung, Young-Hoon Kim, Jisoon Shin, Hye Jin Cha, Kyoung Moon Han, Seungha Hyeon, Tac-Hyung Lee, Hye-Kyung Park, Hyung Soo Kim
Astemizole, a non-sedating histamine H1 receptor blocker, is widely known to cause cardiac arrhythmia, which prolongs the QT interval. However, the precise molecular mechanism involved in antihistamine-induced cardiovascular adverse effects other than hERG channel inhibition is still unclear. In this study, we used DNA microarray analysis to detect the mechanisms involved in life-threatening adverse effects caused by astemizole. Rat primary cardiomyocytes were treated with various concentrations of astemizole for 24 h and the corresponding cell lysates were analyzed using a DNA microarray...
September 28, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
D Fumagalli, T R Wilson, R Salgado, X Lu, J Yu, C O'Brien, K Walter, L Y Huw, C Criscitiello, I Laios, V Jose, D N Brown, F Rothé, M Maetens, D Zardavas, P Savas, D Larsimont, M J Piccart-Gebhart, S Michiels, M R Lackner, C Sotiriou, S Loi
BACKGROUND: Estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers (BCs) constitute the most frequent BC subtype. The molecular landscape of ER+ relapsed disease is not well characterized. In this study, we aimed to describe the genomic evolution between primary (P) and matched metastatic (M) ER+ BCs after failure of adjuvant therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 182 ER+ metastatic BC patients with long-term follow-up were identified from a single institution. P tumor tissue was available for all patients, with 88 having matched M material...
October 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Xinyong Tian, Tomomi Ohmura, Alok S Shah, Sophia Son, Yufeng Tian, Anna A Birukova
Rapid changes in microtubule (MT) polymerization dynamics affect regional activity of small GTPases RhoA and Rac1, which play a key role in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton and endothelial cell (EC) permeability. This study tested the role of End Binding Protein-1 (EB1) in the mechanisms of increased and decreased EC permeability caused by thrombin and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and mediated by RhoA and Rac1 GTPases, respectively. Stimulation of human lung EC with thrombin inhibited peripheral MT growth, which was monitored by morphological and biochemical evaluation of peripheral MT and the levels of stabilized MT...
September 23, 2016: Cellular Signalling
Shuting Xia, Zikai Zhou, Zhengping Jia
The Rho family small GTPases and their effectors, including PAKs, are extensively studied in the context of the actin cytoskeleton, excitatory synaptic function, spine morphology and memory formation. However, their roles in inhibitory synaptic function remain poorly understood. We have recently shown that PAK1 is a potent regulator of GABAergic synaptic transmission. Thus, disruption of PAK1 leads to significant impairments in inhibitory postsynaptic currents which are manifested as reduced GABA presynaptic releases...
September 20, 2016: Small GTPases
Ling Shao, Jiuru Zhao, Haiqiang Zhang
Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is the causative pathogen of the outbreaks of an acute hemorrhagic and contagious viraemia responsible for the significant mortality in several cyprinid species. However, the endocytic pathway(s) and their regulatory molecules have not been characterized for SVCV. Here, using a combination of specific pharmacological inhibitors, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy and RT-qPCR, we found that SVCV entered grass carp ovary cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis in a low-pH dependent manner...
September 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Bo Hu, Sezgi Arpag, Xuebao Zhang, Wiebke Möbius, Hauke Werner, Gina Sosinsky, Mark Ellisman, Yang Zhang, Audra Hamilton, Jonathan Chernoff, Jun Li
Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous systems extend their membranes to wrap axons concentrically and form the insulating sheath, called myelin. The spaces between layers of myelin are sealed by myelin junctions. This tight insulation enables rapid conduction of electric impulses (action potentials) through axons. Demyelination (stripping off the insulating sheath) has been widely regarded as one of the most important mechanisms altering the action potential propagation in many neurological diseases. However, the effective nerve conduction is also thought to require a proper myelin seal through myelin junctions such as tight junctions and adherens junctions...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Sankar Jagadeeshan, R Vivek Sagayaraj, Navina Paneerselvan, Syed Shabin Ghouse, Raghunathan Malathi
p21-activated kinase 1 (Pak1)-a key node protein kinase regulating various cellular process including angiogenesis-has been recognised to be a therapeutic target for multitude of diseases, and hence, various small molecule inhibitors targeting its activity have been tested. However, the direct toxic and anti-angiogenic effects of these pharmacologic agents have not been examined. In this study, we evaluate the translational efficacy of Pak1 inhibitor IPA-3 using zebrafish toxicity model system to stratify its anti-angiogenic potential and off-target effects to streamline the compound for further therapeutic usage...
August 31, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Akira Takaguri, Saya Inoue, Takashi Kubo, Kumi Satoh
Impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle cells causes insulin resistance associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. Although interleukin (IL)-1β has been considered to be implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, the action of prolonged stimulation with IL-1β on the insulin signaling pathway in skeletal muscle cells remains poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the effect of IL-1β stimulation on insulin signal transduction from the insulin receptor (IR), resulting in glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in skeletal muscle cells...
November 2016: Cell Biology International
Nuria Socoro-Yuste, Marie-Claire Dagher, Anne Gonzalez De Peredo, Julie Mondet, Affif Zaccaria, Florence Roux Dalvai, Isabelle Plo, Jean Yves Cahn, Pascal Mossuz
Besides genetic abnormalities in MPN patients, several studies have reported alterations in protein expression that could contribute towards the clinical phenotype. However, little is known about protein modifications in Ph(-) MPN erythrocytes. In this context, we used a quantitative mass spectrometry proteomics approach to study the MPN erythrocyte proteome. LC-MS/MS (LTQ Orbitrap) analysis led to the identification of 51 and 86 overexpressed proteins in Polycythemia Vera and Essential Thrombocythemia respectively, compared with controls...
August 24, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Qingxue Li, Elizabeth Fischer, Jeffrey I Cohen
: Previously we showed that THY-1 has a critical role in the initial stage of infection of certain cell types with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and that THY-1 is important for HCMV-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt during virus entry. THY-1 is known to interact with integrins and is a major cargo protein of clathrin-independent endocytic vesicles. Since macropinocytosis involves integrin signaling, is PI3K/Akt dependent, and is a clathrin-independent endocytic process, we determined whether THY-1 has a role in HCMV entry by macropinocytosis...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Alan Hammer, Maria Diakonova
BACKGROUND: The serine/threonine kinase PAK1 is an important regulator of cell motility. Both PAK1 and the hormone/cytokine prolactin (PRL) have been implicated in breast cancer cell motility, however, the exact mechanisms guiding PRL/PAK1 signaling in breast cancer cells have not been fully elucidated. Our lab has previously demonstrated that PRL-activated tyrosine kinase JAK2 phosphorylates PAK1 on tyrosines 153, 201, and 285, and that tyrosyl phosphorylated PAK1 (pTyr-PAK1) augments migration and invasion of breast cancer cells...
2016: BMC Cell Biology
Beata Fuchsova, Anabel Alvarez Juliá, Hooriyah S Rizavi, Alberto Carlos Frasch, Ghanshyam N Pandey
The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) of group I are the main effectors for the small Rho GTPases, critically involved in neurodevelopment, plasticity and maturation of the nervous system. Moreover, the neuronal complexity controlled by PAK1/PAK3 signaling determines the postnatal brain size and synaptic properties. Stress induces alterations at the level of structural and functional synaptic plasticity accompanied by reductions in size and activity of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). These abnormalities are likely to contribute to the pathology of depression and, in part, reflect impaired cytoskeleton remodeling pointing to the role of Rho GTPase signaling...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
Li Peng, Yadong Wang, Xiaorong Chang, Huangan Wu, Mi Liu, Hong Wang, Jiaolong Chen, Wang Chao, Renfu Quan, Zongbao Yang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of moxa-burning heat stimulating acupoints of Liangmen (ST 21) and Zusanli (ST 36) on the proliferation and apoptosis signaling proteins in rats with stress-induced gastric ulcer. METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups: negative control (NC), ulcer control (UC), acupoints of stomach meridian (ASM), and acupoints control (AC). The acute gastric ulcer model was established by bound and water immersion. Rats in NC and UC groups didn't receive any moxa-burning heat stimulating treatment, while rats in ASM and AC groups were treated with buringmoxa heat stimulating the acupoints of Liangmen (ST 21) and Zusanli (ST 36) and their controlled points, respectively...
June 2016: Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chung i Tsa Chih Ying Wen Pan
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