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Francielle Tatiana Mathias, Douglas Henrique Fockink, Geonildo Rodrigo Disner, Viviane Prodocimo, João Luiz Coelho Ribas, Luiz Pereira Ramos, Marta Margarete Cestari, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis
Ibuprofen is a pharmaceutical drug widely used by the global population and it has been found in aquatic ecosystems in several countries. This study evaluated the effects of ibuprofen in environmental concentrations (0, 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/L) on the freshwaterspecies Rhamdia quelen exposed for 14 days. In the posterior kidney, ibuprofen increased glutathione-S-transferase activity in all groups exposed. Furthermore, increased glutathione peroxidase activity and the levels of reduced glutathione in the group exposed to 10 μg/L...
March 11, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Jes M Sanders, Alexandra B Steverson, Anna E Pawlowski, Daniel Schneider, Chad J Achenbach, Donald M Lloyd-Jones, Matthew J Feinstein
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected (HIV+) persons have elevated risks for various manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No studies to our knowledge have compared atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter (AFL) prevalence and associated characteristics for HIV+ persons and matched uninfected controls. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Persons with diagnoses of HIV receiving care at a large urban academic medical center were frequency-matched 1:2 on age, sex, race, zip code, and clinic location with uninfected persons...
2018: PloS One
Dimitrios Chanouzas, Alexander Small, Richard Borrows, Simon Ball
BACKGROUND: The measurement of CMV specific cellular immunity in organ transplant recipients could contribute additional acuity to serology based, CMV infection risk stratification, facilitating optimisation of immunosuppression and anti-viral prophylaxis. METHODS: A pilot study of renal transplant recipient (RTR's) responses in the T-SPOT.CMV ELISPOT based assay. 108 RTR's were recruited 3 months post-transplantation, immediately prior to the cessation of stratified anti-viral prophylaxis, used in recipients from seropositive donors...
2018: PloS One
Yawara Kawano, Oksana Zavidij, Jihye Park, Michele Moschetta, Katsutoshi Kokubun, Tarek H Mouhieddine, Salomon Manier, Yuji Mishima, Naoka Murakami, Mark Bustoros, Romanos Sklavenitis Pistofidis, Mairead Reidy, Yu J Shen, Mahshid Rahmat, Pavlo Lukyanchykov, Esilida Sula Karreci, Shokichi Tsukamoto, Jiantao Shi, Satoshi Takagi, Daisy Huynh, Antonio Sacco, Yu-Tzu Tai, Marta Chesi, P Leif Bergsagel, Aldo M Roccaro, Jamil Azzi, Irene M Ghobrial
Despite significant advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), most patients succumb to disease progression. One of the major immunosuppressive mechanisms that is believed to play a role in myeloma progression, is the expansion of regulatory T-cells (Tregs). In this study, we demonstrate that myeloma cells drive Treg expansion and activation by secreting type-1 interferon (IFN). Blocking IFNAR1 (interferon alpha and beta receptor 1) on Tregs significantly decreases both, myeloma-associated Treg immunosuppressive function and myeloma progression...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Ewa Wielosz, Maria Majdan
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem connective tissue disease characterized by vascular damage with non-specific inflammation and progressive fibrosis. The disease exhibits a large heterogeneity in both clinical and serological features. This diversity refers to the course of the disease, which is difficult to predict in many cases. Although poor prognostic factors are well known, it is not always possible to predict the course of the disease and the prognosis. Furthermore, the activity of disease is difficult to assess since both reversible and irreversible lesions can occur in one patient...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Dorota Suszek, Maria Majdan
Cryoglobulinemia is defined as the presence of cryoglobulins in the blood. Cryoglobulinemia is often observed in the course of many diseases (infection, hematological disorders, autoimmune disorders) or has an idiopathic character. The classification of cryoglobulinemia is based on the immunological analysis of cryoglobulins and the activity of the rheumatoid factor (RF). The presence of cryoglobulins may induce cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) which manifests with skin changes, arthritis and the dysfunction of internal organs...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Honglin Jin, Chao Wan, Zhenwei Zou, Guifang Zhao, Lingling Zhang, Yuanyuan Geng, Tong Chen, Ai Huang, Fagang Jiang, Jue-Ping Feng, Jonathan F Lovell, Jing Chen, Gang Wu, Kunyu Yang
Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments (TMEs) create tremendous obstacles for an effective cancer therapy. Herein, we developed a melittin-RADA32 hybrid peptide hydrogel loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) for a potent chemoimmunotherapy against melanoma through the active regulation of TMEs. The formed melittin-RADA32-DOX (MRD) hydrogel has an interweaving nanofiber structure and exhibits excellent biocompatibility, controlled drug release properties both in vitro and in vivo, and an enhanced killing effect to melanoma cells...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Luciano Rossetti
Luciano Rossetti, MD, Executive Vice President, Global Head of R&D at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany speaks to Laura Dormer, Commissioning Editor Luciano Rossetti, MD, is Executive Vice President, Global Head of R&D at Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany, and a member of the Healthcare Executive Committee. As Global Head of R&D, Rossetti leads the strategy for Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany's discovery and development efforts in healthcare. He joined Merck KGaA in July 2014, and has since led the acceleration of several key programs through the pipeline and advanced the innovation of Merck KGaA's discovery teams into development...
March 20, 2018: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
Zhi-Hua Zhang, Li Xin Li, Ping Li, Shao-Cheng Lv, Bing Pan, Qiang He
Previous studies have indicated that sirolimus (SRL) may be effective for HCC patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). However, the following results are still contradictory and do not have a clear conclusion. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis by retrieving published data in EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library up to October 2017. Both efficiency and safety of SRL were analyzed using pooled odds ratio (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs). A total of 11 studies involving 7,695 HCC patients were included...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Delphine R Nelson, Jeffrey Fadrowski, Alicia Neu
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressed kidney transplant patients may have suboptimal response to vaccinations. The aim of this study was to determine antibody response to a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D) in adolescents with a kidney transplant. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-center, cohort study. Adolescent patients (11-22 years old) with a functioning kidney transplant for at least 3 months and no previous meningococcal vaccination were eligible for enrollment...
March 20, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Marlene Seegräber, Jerome Srour, Alexandra Walter, Macarena Knop, Andreas Wollenberg
Dupilumab is a new treatment option for patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. It blocks IL-4/IL13-signaling and thereby inhibits receptor signaling downstream the JAK-STAT-pathway. Three of the main disease mechanisms of atopic dermatitis are affected by blocking this pathway; the decrease of skin barrier function, the class switch to IgE and the TH2-differentiation. Areas Covered: Dupilumab showed promising results in clinical trials of phase I-III. Clinical outcome parameters such as SCORAD, EASI, IGA and BSA improved with dupilumab...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Alexandra Ljimani, Hans-Jörg Wittsack, Rotem S Lanzman
Renal transplantation is the therapy of choice for patients with end-stage renal diseases. Improvement of immunosuppressive therapy has significantly increased the half-life of renal allografts over the past decade. Nevertheless, complications can still arise. An early detection of allograft dysfunction is mandatory for a good outcome. New advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have enabled the noninvasive assessment of different functional renal parameters in addition to anatomic imaging. Most of these techniques were widely tested on renal allografts in past decades and a lot of clinical data are available...
March 19, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Nathan Punwani, Noah Merin, Ann Mohrbacher, George Yaghmour, Allison Sano, Laleh Ramezani, Preet M Chaudhary, Giridharan Ramsingh
Microtransplantation (MST), a type of HLA-mismatched allogeneic cellular therapy, is a promising, cellular therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). MST transfuses granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized, HLA-mismatched donor peripheral blood stem cells into patients undergoing conventional chemotherapy. MST, using haploidentical donors, has been shown to yield clinical benefit without any permanent marrow engraftment in AML. Consequently, graft-versus-host disease concerns are rendered irrelevant with no need for immunosuppression...
2018: Leukemia Research Reports
Chunhui Lai, Siliang Duan, Fang Ye, Xiaoqiong Hou, Xi Li, Jin Zhao, Xia Yu, Zixi Hu, Zhuoran Tang, Fengzhen Mo, Xiaomei Yang, Xiaoling Lu
PURPOSE: Dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer vaccines is a newly emerging and potent form of immune therapy. As for any new technology, there are still considerable challenges that need to be addressed. Here, we investigate the antitumor potential of a novel liposomal vaccine, M/CpG-ODN-TRP2-Lipo. METHODS: We developed a vaccination strategy by assembling the DC-targeting mannose and immune adjuvant CpG-ODN on the surface of liposomes, which were loaded with melanoma-specific TRP2180-188 peptide as liposomal vaccine...
2018: Theranostics
A C Jemilohun, O G Adewoye
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a rare cause of chronic liver disease (CLD). It presents with varied clinical features from acute hepatitis to CLDs like chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholic liver disease, making it difficult to diagnose in the absence of a high index of suspicion and adequate laboratory support. Autoantibody-mediated hepatocyte injury is the major feature of AIH. We present a 44 year old woman with recurrent jaundice, ascites, splenomegaly, coagulopathy, negative chronic viral hepatitis screening, elevated IgG and positive anti-smooth muscle antibody...
December 2017: Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine
Tariq A Bhat, Suresh Gopi Kalathil, Paul N Bogner, Austin Miller, Paul V Lehmann, Thomas H Thatcher, Richard P Phipps, Patricia J Sime, Yasmin Thanavala
Despite advocacy to reduce smoking-related diseases, >1 billion people worldwide continue to smoke. Smoking is immunosuppressive and an important etiological factor in the development of several human disorders including respiratory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, there is a critical gap in the knowledge of the role of secondhand smoke (SHS) in inflammation and immunity. We therefore studied the influence of SHS on pulmonary inflammation and immune responses to respiratory infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) recurrently found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Yuki Katayama, Masashi Tachibana, Nozomi Kurisu, Yukako Oya, Yuichi Terasawa, Hiroshi Goda, Kouji Kobiyama, Ken J Ishii, Shizuo Akira, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Fuminori Sakurai
Oncolytic reovirus, which possesses 10 segments of dsRNA genome, mediates antitumor effects via not only virus replication in a tumor cell-specific manner, but also activation of antitumor immunity; however, the mechanism(s) of reovirus-induced activation of antitumor immunity have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies have demonstrated that overcoming an immunosuppressive environment in tumor-bearing hosts is important to achieve efficient activation of antitumor immunity. Among the various types of cells involved in immunosuppression, it has been revealed that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are significantly increased in tumor-bearing hosts and play crucial roles in the immunosuppression in tumor-bearing hosts...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Monia Cito, Silvia Pellegrini, Lorenzo Piemonti, Valeria Sordi
The experience in the field of islet transplantation shows that it is possible to replace β cells in a patient with type 1 diabetes (T1D), but this cell therapy is limited by the scarcity of organ donors and by the danger associated to the immunosuppressive drugs. Stem cell therapy is becoming a concrete opportunity to treat various diseases. In particular, for a disease like T1D, caused by the loss of a single specific cell type that does not need to be transplanted back in its originating site to perform its function, a stem cell-based cell replacement therapy seems to be the ideal cure...
March 2018: Endocrine Connections
Antonis Fanouriakis, Christina Adamichou, Sofia Koutsoviti, Stylianos Panopoulos, Chrysanthi Staveri, Anastasia Klagou, Christina Tsalapaki, Lamprini Pantazi, Styliani Konsta, Clio P Mavragani, Despoina Dimopoulou, Styliani Ntali, Georgios Katsikas, Kyriaki A Boki, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos, Pinelopi Konstantopoulou, Stamatis-Nick Liossis, Antonia Elezoglou, Maria Tektonidou, Prodromos Sidiropoulos, Abdulsamet Erden, Petros P Sfikakis, George Bertsias, Dimitrios T Boumpas
BACKGROUND: Low disease activity is a validated target of current systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of belimumab to achieve low disease activity states in real-life settings. METHODS: Multicentre prospective observational study of consecutive SLE patients receiving belimumab for at least 3 months, due to active disease refractory to at least one conventional immunosuppressant. Disease activity, including the recently defined lupus low disease activity state (LLDAS) and remission (clinical SLEDAI-2K = 0), accrual of organ damage, flares and side effects were documented...
February 23, 2018: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
M Iglesias, M Ramírez-Berumen, P Butrón, J Alberú-Gómez, F Salazar-Hernández, J Macias-Gallardo, R P Leal-Villalpando, J Zamudio-Bautista, V Acosta, L Jauregui, A Hernández-Campos, V Espinosa-Cruz, J Vázquez-Lamadrid, J González-Sánchez, J Cuellar-Rodriguez, J G Sierra-Madero, R Gaytan-Cervantes, S Contreras-Barbosa, A Navarro-Lara, J Guzman-Gonzalez, J Domínguez-Cherit, M Vilatoba, S Toussaint-Caire, F Vega-Boada, F J Gómez-Pérez, M Mayorquin-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: The function reported after arm transplantation is deemed beneficial relative to the marked disability that upper arm amputation causes. OBJECTIVE: We report a 51-year-old man with a Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score of 75.83 who underwent bilateral arm transplantation in October 2015. PROCEDURE: The right arm was transplanted at the glenohumeral joint level, including transplantation of the humeral head, joint capsule, and rotator cuff ligaments and tendons...
March 16, 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
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