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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749573/il-6-stat3-signaling-as-a-promising-target-to-improve-the-efficacy-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Hidemitsu Kitamura, Yosuke Ohno, Yujiro Toyoshima, Junya Ohtake, Shigenori Homma, Hideki Kawamura, Norihiko Takahashi, Akinobu Taketomi
Overcoming the immunosuppressive state in tumor microenvironments is a critical issue to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Interleukin (IL)-6, a pleiotropic cytokine, is highly produced in the tumor-bearing host. Previous studies have indicated that IL-6 suppresses the antigen presentation ability of dendritic cells (DCs) through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Thus, we focused on the precise effect of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling cascade on human DCs and the subsequent induction of antitumor T cell immune responses...
July 27, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749248/update-in-perioperative-medicine-practice-changing-evidence-published-in-2016
#2
Dennis W Regan, Deanne Kashiwagi, Brian Dougan, Karna Sundsted, Karen Mauck
This summary reviews 18 key articles published in 2016 which have significant practice implications for the perioperative medical care of surgical patients. Due to the multi-disciplinary nature of the practice of perioperative medicine, important new evidence is published in journals representing a variety of medical and surgical specialties. Keeping current with the evidence that drives best practice in perioperative medicine is therefore challenging. We set out to identify, critically review, and summarize key evidence which has the most potential for practice change...
July 27, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749245/advances-in-our-understanding-of-immunization-and-vaccines-for-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#3
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Kassem Sharif, Mohammad Adawi, Gali Aljadeff, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld
INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease. In SLE, immune system dysfunction is postulated to result by virtue of the disease itself as well as by the impact of treatment modalities employed. A myriad of immune dysregulations occur including complement system dysfunction among others. Infectious agents are known to complicate the disease course in close to 25-45 % of SLE patients. METHODS: In this review a discussion of the immunogenicity and safety of viral and bacterial vaccinations in SLE was performed...
July 27, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748901/renal-manifestations-in-hypocomplementic-urticarial-vasculitis-syndrome-is-it-a-distinct-pathology
#4
Badriya AlHermi, Zakiya Al Mosawi, Deena Mohammed
Hypocomplementic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by recurrent urticaria, arthritis, and glomerulonephritis (GN). Anti-C1q antibody is the marker of HUVS together with low levels of classical pathway complements which are C2, C3, C4, and C1q. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who presented with episodes of rashes, injected conjunctiva, abdominal pain, and arthritis, diagnosed as HUVS. He had low C3, low CH50, normal C4, and positive C1q antibody. His urinalysis showed intermittent microscopic hematuria only...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748881/predictive-factors-of-mortality-in-a-tunisian-cohort-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#5
Amel Harzallah, Hayet Kaaroud, Mariem Hajji, Ikram Mami, Rim Goucha, Fethi Ben Hamida, Samia Barbouch, Taieb Ben Abdallah
Mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has decreased with the advent of immunosuppressive therapy and the development of hemodialysis. This study aims to evaluate the survival rate, factors of poor prognosis, and causes of death in SLE in a Tunisian series. The records of all SLE patients followed up in a single center during 1974-2014 were reviewed. The causes of death were identified. Prognostic factors of survival were analyzed by multivariate analysis using the comparison of the survival rates by the log-rank test...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748879/early-clinical-manifestations-and-laboratory-findings-before-and-after-treatment-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-patients
#6
Wasim Ahmed Siddiqui, Issa Al Salmi, Amitabh Jha, Abbas Pakkyara, Mohammad Yasir, Faissal A M Shaheen
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the most frequently encountered opportunistic viral pathogens in kidney transplant recipients. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed all living related and unrelated kidney transplant recipients on regular follow-up from January 2006 to June 2015, who were suspected to have CMV clinically and confirmed by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CMV PCR was detected in 102 kidney transplant recipients. The median time of detection after kidney transplant was 21 months, ranging from 15 days to 84 months...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748661/emerging-diagnostic-challenges-and-characteristics-of-simian-betaretrovirus-infections-in-captive-macaque-colonies
#7
JoAnn L Yee, Richard Grant, Koen K Van Rompay, LaRene Kuller, Amanda Carpenter, Robin Watanabe, Rebeca Huebner, Brian Agricola, Jeremy Smedley, Jeffrey A Roberts
To better understand Simian betaretrovirus (SRV) seropositivity in virus-negative macaques, we transfused blood from SRV-infected or suspect donors into immunosuppressed naive recipients. Our results do not support typical SRV1-5 infection as the cause, but provide evidence for several possibilities including serological artifact, new/different SRV, or an endogenous virus.
August 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748653/oral-bexarotene-for-post-transplant-cutaneous-t-cell-lymphoma
#8
Daniel J Lewis, Simo Huang, Madeleine Duvic
Organ transplant recipients receiving immunosuppression have an increased risk of developing post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (PTLDs). Traditionally, PTLDs refer to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced B-cell lymphoma. However, post-transplant T-cell lymphoma may also occur and tends to have a poorer response to reduced immunosuppressive therapy. As such, additional therapy is often needed for post-transplant T-cell lymphoma, including post-transplant cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (PT-CTCL). We present only the third case of PT-CTCL occurring after liver transplantation...
July 26, 2017: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748621/outcomes-of-matched-sibling-donor-bone-marrow-transplantation-in-children-using-single-agent-calcineurin-inhibitors-as-prophylaxis-for-graft-versus-host-disease
#9
Caitlin W Elgarten, Danielle E Arnold, Nancy J Bunin, Alix E Seif
BACKGROUND: Optimal graft versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis prevents severe manifestations without excess immunosuppression. Standard prophylaxis includes a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) with low-dose methotrexate. However, single-agent CNI may be sufficient prophylaxis for a defined group of patients. Single-agent CNI has been used for GVHD prophylaxis for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor (MSD) bone marrow transplants (BMTs) in young patients at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia for over 20 years...
July 27, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748409/evolution-of-clinical-behavior-in-crohn-s-disease-factors-associated-with-complicated-disease-and-surgery
#10
Kátia Simone Cezário de Barros, Cristina Flores, Luciana Harlacher, Carlos Fernando Magalhães Francesconi
BACKGROUND: The phenotypic expression of Crohn's disease may vary over time. Establishment of Crohn's disease phenotypes is important for definition of patient care strategies. AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term evolution of patients based on disease phenotypes and the main factors associated with this evolution. METHODS: Data from 179 patients were collected from a unicentric prospective database. Montreal classification was employed...
July 26, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747940/surgical-treatment-for-pulmonary-aspergilloma-early-and-long-term-results
#11
Mariusz Kasprzyk, Kornel Pieczyński, Krystian Mania, Piotr Gabryel, Cezary Piwkowski, Wojciech Dyszkiewicz
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary aspergilloma is a difficult therapeutic problem due to the low effectiveness of conservative treatment and high surgical morbidity. AIM: To analyze the early and late results of surgical treatment for pulmonary aspergilloma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2005 to 2015, 49 patients were treated surgically for pulmonary aspergilloma. Symptoms occurred in 85.7% of cases, including recurrent hemoptysis in 53%. A history of immunosuppressive therapy or chemotherapy was noted in 24...
June 2017: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747916/interferon-gamma-dna-methylation-is-affected-by-mycophenolic-acid-but-not-by-tacrolimus-after-t-cell-activation
#12
Fleur S Peters, Annemiek M A Peeters, Leo J Hofland, Michiel G H Betjes, Karin Boer, Carla C Baan
Immunosuppressive drug therapy is required to treat patients with autoimmune disease and patients who have undergone organ transplantation. The main targets of the immunosuppressive drugs tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid (MPA; the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil) are T cells. It is currently unknown whether these immunosuppressive drugs have an effect on DNA methylation-an epigenetic regulator of cellular function. Here, we determined the effect of tacrolimus and MPA on DNA methylation of the gene promoter region of interferon gamma (IFNγ), a pro-inflammatory cytokine...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747866/polysaccharide-from-wheat-bran-induces-cytokine-expression-via-the-toll-like-receptor-4-mediated-p38-mapk-signaling-pathway-and-prevents-cyclophosphamide-induced-immunosuppression-in-mice
#13
Ting Shen, Gongcheng Wang, Long You, Liang Zhang, Haiwei Ren, Weicheng Hu, Qian Qiang, Xinfeng Wang, Lilian Ji, Zhengzhong Gu, Xiangxiang Zhao
Wheat bran-derived polysaccharides have attracted particular attention due to their immunomodulatory effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their functions are poorly understood. The current study was designed to examine the effect of wheat bran polysaccharide (WBP) on RAW 264.7 cells and the underlying signaling pathways, which have not been explored. In addition, we also investigated the immuno-enhancement effects of WBP on cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppression in mice. WBP significantly increased the concentrations of intracellular nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW 264...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747781/targeting-phosphorylation-of-stat3-delays-tumor-growth-in-hpv-negative-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-mouse-model
#14
Lin-Lin Bu, Yi-Cun Li, Guang-Tao Yu, Jian-Feng Liu, Wei-Wei Deng, Wen-Feng Zhang, Lu Zhang, Zhi-Jun Sun
Although conventional chemoradiotherapy is effective for most anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) patients, HPV-negative ASCC patients respond poorly to this treatment and new therapeutic approach is required. Our group has previously established an HPV-negative ASCC mouse model and demonstrated that signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3) is hyper-activated in the model. Here, we show that in vivo inhibition of STAT3 by S3I-201 effectively delays tumor growth in ASCC mouse model indicated by significantly smaller tumor size and burden in the treatment group compared with control group at the same point...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747667/rna-sequencing-reveals-resistance-of-tlr4-ligand-activated-microglial-cells-to-inflammation-mediated-by-the-selective-jumonji-h3k27-demethylase-inhibitor
#15
Amitabh Das, Sarder Arifuzzaman, Taeho Yoon, Sun Hwa Kim, Jin Choul Chai, Young Seek Lee, Kyoung Hwa Jung, Young Gyu Chai
Persistent microglial activation is associated with the production and secretion of various pro-inflammatory genes, cytokines and chemokines, which may initiate or amplify neurodegenerative diseases. A novel synthetic histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase JMJD3 inhibitor, GSK-J4, was proven to exert immunosuppressive activities in macrophages. However, a genome-wide search for GSK-J4 molecular targets has not been undertaken in microglia. To study the immuno-modulatory effects of GSK-J4 at the transcriptomic level, triplicate RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed with resting, GSK-J4-, LPS- and LPS + GSK-J4-challenged primary microglial (PM) and BV-2 microglial cells...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747098/effect-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-on-t-cells-in-septic-context-immuno-suppression-or-immuno-stimulation
#16
Sebastien Le Burel, Cédric Thépenier, Laetitia Boutin, Jean-Jacques Lataillade, Juliette Peltzer
Sepsis is a complex process including a first wave of damage partially due to the body's response to pathogens, followed by a phase of immune cell dysfunction. The efficacy of a pharmacological approach facing a rapidly evolving system implies a perfect timing of administration, this difficulty could explain recent failure of clinical trials. MSC are usually defined as immunosuppressive, and their beneficial effects in preclinical models of acute sepsis have been shown to rely partly on such ability. If non regulated, this phenotype could be harmful in the immunosuppressed context arising hours after sepsis onset...
July 26, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747057/prevalence-risk-factors-and-response-to-treatment-of-extra-intestinal-manifestations-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
María Hernández-Tejero, Alicia Granja Navacerrada, Pilar Bernal Checa, Rubén Piqué Becerra, Alicia Algaba García, Iván Guerra Marina, Francisco Javier García-Alonso, Mariano Syed, Fernando Bermejo
INTRODUCTION: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease can experience extra-intestinal manifestations that may cause significant morbidity. AIMS: To describe the prevalence, characteristics, treatment and evolution of extra-intestinal manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease patients treated in our hospital and to identify associated risk factors. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study. All inflammatory bowel disease patients with extra-intestinal manifestations were considered as cases and inflammatory bowel disease patients without extra-intestinal manifestations were considered as controls...
July 27, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747056/fecal-transplantation-as-a-treatment-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-patients-with-ulcerative-colitis
#18
Marta Izquierdo Romero, Pilar Varela Trastoy, Alejo Mancebo Mata
Clostridium difficile (CD) infection is currently the most frequent etiology of nosocomial diarrhea. Besides, its incidence is progressively increasing in ambulatory patients. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a risk factor of CD infection itself, but also due to the regular immunosuppressive treatment used in these patients. At the present time, fecal transplantation (FT) is a safe and cost-effective alternative if the previous antibiotic treatments have failed. Similar outcomes between patients with IBD and general population have been reported...
July 27, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746799/lack-of-il-6-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-augments-type-1-immunity-and-increases-the-efficacy-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#19
Yosuke Ohno, Yujiro Toyoshima, Hideaki Yurino, Norikazu Monma, Huihui Xiang, Kentaro Sumida, Shun Kaneumi, Satoshi Terada, Shinichi Hashimoto, Kazuho Ikeo, Shigenori Homma, Hideki Kawamura, Norihiko Takahashi, Akinobu Taketomi, Hidemitsu Kitamura
Conquering immunosuppression in tumor microenvironments is crucial for effective cancer immunotherapy. It is well known that interleukin (IL)-6, a pleiotropic cytokine, is produced in the tumor-bearing state. In this study, we investigated the precise effects of IL-6 on antitumor immunity and the subsequent tumorigenesis in tumor-bearing hosts. CT26 cells, a murine colon cancer cell line, were intradermally injected into wild-type and IL-6-deficient mice. As a result, we found that tumor growth was decreased significantly in IL-6-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice and the reduction was abrogated by depletion of CD8(+) T cells...
July 26, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746570/brazilian-guidelines-for-the-clinical-management-of-paracoccidioidomycosis
#20
Maria Aparecida Shikanai-Yasuda, Rinaldo Pôncio Mendes, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Flávio de Queiroz-Telles, Adriana Satie Gonçalves Kono, Ana Maria Paniago, André Nathan, Antonio Carlos Francisconi do Valle, Eduardo Bagagli, Gil Benard, Marcelo Simão Ferreira, Marcus de Melo Teixeira, Mario León Silva-Vergara, Ricardo Mendes Pereira, Ricardo de Souza Cavalcante, Rosane Hahn, Rui Rafael Durlacher, Zarifa Khoury, Zoilo Pires de Camargo, Maria Luiza Moretti, Roberto Martinez
Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal disease occurring in Latin America that is associated with rural environments and agricultural activities. However, the incidence and prevalence of paracoccidiodomycosis is underestimated because of the lack of compulsory notification. If paracoccidiodomycosis is not diagnosed and treated early and adequately, the endemic fungal infection could result in serious sequelae. While the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis ( P. brasiliensis ) complex has been known to be the causal agent of paracoccidiodomycosis, a new species, Paracoccidioides lutzii ( P...
July 20, 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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