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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454398/immunological-effects-of-vaccines-combined-with-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-on-a-murine-wehi-3-leukemia-model
#1
Jinqiu Chen, Miling Zhang, Fuling Zhou, Jin Wang, Ben Niu, Wanggang Zhang
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilizes regulatory T cells (Tregs) from bone marrow into the peripheral blood, by reducing the expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α). However, G-CSF has rarely been studied in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) immunotherapy. The present study performed a Transwell migration assay in vitro to determine the contribution of SDF-1α to the migration of leukemia cells, and the effects of G-CSF were evaluated. The effects of G-CSF on SDF-1α and Tregs in the AML microenvironment were examined, by employing a WEHI-3-grafted BALB/c mouse AML model (AML-M4)...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454374/arsenic-trioxide-inhibits-tumor-induced-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-and-enhances-t-cell-activity
#2
Qingmin Gao, Jingwei Jiang, Zhaohui Chu, Hao Lin, Xinli Zhou, Xiaohua Liang
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), one of the major orchestrators of the immunosuppressive network, are associated with immune suppression and considered a prime target for cancer immunotherapy. At present, various strategies have been explored to deplete and/or inactivate MDSCs in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effect of arsenic trioxide (ATO) on MDSCs derived from tumor-bearing mice. This study examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of ATO administration on MDSCs from C57/j mice bearing either the B16 or H22 tumor...
April 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454269/bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-under-influence-of-experimental-breast-cancer-and-physical-activity
#3
Douglas R Abdalla, Bruno B M Gomes, Eddie F C Murta, Márcia A Michelin
Immune cells are required in the immune response against tumours, although sometimes without success. The present study aimed to investigate dendritic cell (DC) maturation in animals with induced immunosuppression that were subjected to physical activity (PA). Immunosuppression was induced using 7,12-dimethyl-benzanthracene (DMBA). A total of 56 Balb/c mice were divided into four groups, including the control group, non-DMBA administered/PA group (GII), DMBA administered/non-PA group (GIII) and the DMBA administered/PA group (GIV)...
March 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454112/the-challenge-of-treating-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-cryoglobulinemic-vasculitis-in-the-era-of-anti-cd20-monoclonal-antibodies-and-direct-antiviral-agents
#4
REVIEW
Dario Roccatello, Savino Sciascia, Daniela Rossi, Laura Solfietti, Roberta Fenoglio, Elisa Menegatti, Simone Baldovino
Mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome (MC) is a systemic vasculitis involving kidneys, joints, skin, and peripheral nerves. While many autoimmune, lymphoproliferative, and neoplastic disorders have been associated with this disorder, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is known to be the etiologic agent in the majority of patients. Therefore, clinical research has focused on anti-viral drugs and, more recently, on the new, highly potent Direct-acting Antiviral Agents (DAAs). These drugs assure sustained virologic response (SVR) rates >90%...
April 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453853/single-molecule-sequencing-revealing-the-presence-of-distinct-jc-polyomavirus-populations-in-patients-with-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy
#5
Hanna Seppälä, Elina Virtanen, Mika Saarela, Pia Laine, Lars Paulín, Laura Mannonen, Petri Auvinen, Eeva Auvinen
Background.: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a fatal disease caused by reactivation of JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) in immunosuppressed individuals and lytic infection by neurotropic JCPyV in glial cells. The exact content of neurotropic mutations within individual JCPyV strains has not been studied to our knowledge. Methods.: We exploited the capacity of single-molecule real-time sequencing technology to determine the sequence of complete JCPyV genomes in single reads...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453842/a-cluster-of-fatal-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-infection-in-organ-transplant-setting
#6
Dariusz Lipowski, Marta Popiel, Karol Perlejewski, Shota Nakamura, Iwona Bukowska-Osko, Ewa Rzadkiewicz, Tomasz Dzieciatkowski, Anna Milecka, Wojciech Wenski, Michal Ciszek, Alicja Debska-Slizien, Ewa Ignacak, Kamila Caraballo Cortes, Agnieszka Pawelczyk, Andrzej Horban, Marek Radkowski, Tomasz Laskus
Background.: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection has become a major health problem in Europe and is currently a common cause of viral brain infection in many countries. Encephalitis in transplant recipients, althrough rare, is becoming a recognized complication. Our study provides the first description of transmission of TBEV through transplantation of solid organs. Methods.: Three patients who received solid organ transplants from a single donor (2 received kidney, and 1 received liver) developed encephalitis 17-49 days after transplantation and subsequently died...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453840/modulation-of-the-host-environment-by-human-cytomegalovirus-with-viral-interleukin-10-in-peripheral-blood
#7
Vivian P Young, Margarette C Mariano, Carolyn C Tu, Kathryn M Allaire, Selmir Avdic, Barry Slobedman, Juliet V Spencer
Background.: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a herpesvirus with both lytic and latent life cycles. Human cytomegalovirus encodes 2 viral cytokines that are orthologs of human cellular interleukin 10 (cIL-10). Both cytomegalovirus interleukin 10 (cmvIL-10) and Latency-associated cytomegalovirus interleukin 10 (LAcmvIL-10) (collectively vIL-10) are expressed during lytic infection and cause immunosuppressive effects that impede virus clearance. LAcmvIL-10 is also expressed during latent infection of myeloid progenitor cells and monocytes and facilitates persistence...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449322/a-bacterium-with-close-genetic-identity-to-pseudomonas-mandelii-associated-with-spring-fish-kills-in-wild-bluegill-lepomis-macrochirus-rafinesque-and-pumpkinseed-sunfish-lepomis-gibbosus-linnaeus
#8
J Lovy, D Dicarlo-Emery, J M Hutcheson
Pseudomonas fluorescens are known bacterial pathogens in fish. The P. fluorescens group contains at least nine different bacterial species, although species from fish have rarely been differentiated. Two isolated fish kills affecting wild bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, and pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus), occurred in the spring of 2015 during cool water temperatures (12.5°C-15.5°C). Disease signs included severe bacteraemia with rare gross external signs. Pure bacterial cultures isolated from kidneys of all affected fish were identified as P...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449273/systematic-review-the-safety-of-vedolizumab-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
REVIEW
W A Bye, V Jairath, S P L Travis
BACKGROUND: Vedolizumab specifically recognises the α4β7 integrin and selectively blocks gut lymphocyte trafficking: potentially, it offers gut-specific immunosuppression. AIM: To review the safety of vedolizumab and summarise post-marketing data to assess if any safety concerns that differ from registration trials have emerged. METHOD: A systematic bibliographic search identified six registration trials and nine cohort studies. RESULTS: Integrated data from registration trials included 2830 vedolizumab-exposed patients (4811 person-years exposure [PYs]) and 513 placebo patients...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449252/serum-phosphorus-levels-and-fracture-following-renal-transplantation
#10
Jasna Aleksova, Phillip Wong, William R Mulley, Kay Weng Choy, Robert McLachlan, Peter R Ebeling, Peter G Kerr, Frances Milat
PURPOSE: Increased fracture rates are observed in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) compared with the general population. Risk factors include age, diabetes, dialysis vintage, immunosuppression, and mineral and bone disorders(1). Low serum phosphorus levels occur post-transplantation; however its relationship with fracture risk has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors for fracture in RTRs at a single tertiary referral centre. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 146 patients (75M, 71F) who had been referred for dual energy x-ray densitometry (DXA) post-renal transplantation was performed...
April 27, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449246/review-article-hepatitis-e-a-concise-review-of-virology-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-and-therapy
#11
REVIEW
M C Donnelly, L Scobie, C L Crossan, H Dalton, P C Hayes, K J Simpson
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading cause of acute icteric hepatitis and acute liver failure in the developing world. During the last decade, there has been increasing recognition of autochthonous (locally acquired) HEV infection in developed countries. Chronic HEV infection is now recognised, and in transplant recipients this may lead to cirrhosis and organ failure. AIM: To detail current understanding of the molecular biology of HEV, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and propose future directions for basic science and clinical research...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449211/operational-tolerance-in-kidney-transplantation-and-associated-biomarkers
#12
REVIEW
Annick Massart, Lidia Ghisdal, Marc Abramowicz, Daniel Abramowicz
In the 1960s, our predecessors won a historical battle against acute rejection and ensured that transplantation became a common life-saving treatment. In parallel to this success, or perhaps because of it, we lost the battle for long-lived transplants, being overwhelmed with chronic immune insults and the toxicities of immunosuppression. It is likely that current powerful treatments block acute rejection, but at the same time condemn the few circulating donor cells that would have been able to elicit immunoregulatory host responses towards the allograft...
April 27, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448786/microbiological-features-and-clinical-impact-of-the-type-vi-secretion-system-t6ss-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-causing-bacteremia
#13
Jungok Kim, Ji-Young Lee, Haejeong Lee, Ji Young Choi, Dae Hun Kim, Yu Mi Wi, Kyong Ran Peck, Kwan Soo Ko
We investigated the genetic background and microbiological features of T6SS-positive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates and clinical impact of the T6SS in patients with A. baumannii bacteremia. One hundred and sixty-two A. baumannii isolates from patients with bacteremia in two tertiary-care hospitals in Korea were included in this study. Approximately one-third (51/162, 31.5%) of the A. baumannii clinical isolates possessed the hcp gene, and the hcp-positive isolates were found in several genotypes in multilocus sequence typing...
April 27, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448723/pediatric-uveitis-in-a-well-defined-population-improved-outcomes-with-immunosuppressive-therapy
#14
David S Curragh, Marie O'Neill, Clara E McAvoy, Madeleine Rooney, Eibhlin McLoone
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to assess the incidence, etiology, visual outcomes, and complication rates of pediatric uveitis patients at a dedicated multidisciplinary uveitis clinic in Northern Ireland. METHODS: Data were collected from charts of all patients attending the clinic at the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust between 2011 and 2015. Demographics, disease characteristics, treatments, visual acuity, and complications were recorded. RESULTS: There were 94 patients with uveitis onset before the age of 16 years...
April 27, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448204/future-research-opportunities-in-peri-prosthetic-joint-infection-prevention
#15
Elie Berbari, John Segreti, Javad Parvizi, Sandra I Berríos-Torres
Peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a serious complication of prosthetic joint arthroplasty. A better understanding and reversal of modifiable risk factors may lead to a reduction in the incidence of incisional (superficial and deep) and organ/space (e.g., PJI) surgical site infections (SSI). Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) published the Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. This targeted update applies evidence-based methodology in drafting recommendations for potential strategies to reduce the risk of SSI both across surgical procedures and specifically in prosthetic joint arthroplasty...
April 27, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448071/azathioprine-maintenance-therapy-to-prevent-relapses-in-autoimmune-pancreatitis
#16
Nicolò de Pretis, Antonio Amodio, Laura Bernardoni, Pietro Campagnola, Fabiana Capuano, Suresh T Chari, Stefano Crinò, Armando Gabbrielli, Arianna Massella, Mark Topazian, Luca Frulloni
OBJECTIVES: Steroids are used to induce remission in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Low-dosage steroid therapy or immunosuppressant (IMs) has been proposed as maintenance therapy to prevent AIP relapse. Few and conflicting data have been published on the efficacy of azathioprine (AZA) in preventing AIP relapse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indication and efficacy of AZA as maintenance therapy to prevent disease relapse in AIP. METHODS: Patients suffering from AIP diagnosed according to the ICDC in type 1, type 2, and not otherwise specified (NOS) were divided in those treated with AZA (AZA(+) group) as maintenance therapy and not treated with maintenance therapy (AZA(-) group)...
April 27, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448047/a-syngeneic-mouse-model-of-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-for-quantitative-and-longitudinal-assessment-of-preclinical-therapies
#17
Katherine A Murphy, Britnie R James, Andrew Wilber, Thomas S Griffith
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) affects > 60,000 people in the United States annually, and ~ 30% of RCC patients have multiple metastases at the time of diagnosis. Metastatic RCC (mRCC) is incurable, with a median survival time of only 18 months. Immune-based interventions (e.g., interferon (IFN) and interleukin (IL)-2) induce durable responses in a fraction of mRCC patients, and multikinase inhibitors (e.g., sunitinib or sorafenib) or anti-VEGF receptor monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are largely palliative, as complete remissions are rare...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448002/measurement-of-t-cell-alloreactivity-using-imaging-flow-cytometry
#18
Stephen C Juvet, Sajad Moshkelgosha, Sharon Sanderson, Joanna Hester, Kathryn J Wood, Andrew Bushell
The measurement of immunological reactivity to donor antigens in transplant recipients is likely to be crucial for the successful reduction or withdrawal of immunosuppression. The mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR), limiting dilution assays, and trans-vivo delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) assay have all been applied to this question, but these methods have limited predictive ability and/or significant practical limitations that reduce their usefulness. Imaging flow cytometry is a technique that combines the multiparametric quantitative powers of flow cytometry with the imaging capabilities of fluorescent microscopy...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447926/treatment-of-primary-central-nervous-system-posttransplant-lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-an-adult-kidney-transplant-recipient-a-case-report
#19
Mashya Abbassi, Roger Riley, Mark Malkin, Yang Tang, Bipin Rajendran, Victor Yazbeck
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a serious complication of solid-organ transplant. Extranodal involvement is common; however, isolated involvement of the central nervous system is extremely rare and represents a particularly difficult therapeutic challenge with no current consensus on optimal treatment. Here, we describe a 70-year-old woman who developed Epstein-Barr virus-related primary central nervous system lymphoma 19 months after kidney transplant. Immunosuppression was reduced, and the patient was started on high-dose methotrexate, which was complicated by acute kidney injury and discontinued...
April 27, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447661/the-nonsystemic-vasculitic-neuropathies
#20
REVIEW
Michael P Collins, Robert D Hadden
Nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy (NSVN) is an under-recognized single-organ vasculitis of peripheral nerves that can only be diagnosed with a nerve biopsy. A Peripheral Nerve Society guideline group published consensus recommendations on the classification, diagnosis and treatment of NSVN in 2010, and new diagnostic criteria for vasculitic neuropathy were developed by the Brighton Collaboration in 2015. In this Review, we provide an update on the classification, diagnosis and treatment of NSVN. NSVN subtypes include Wartenberg migratory sensory neuropathy and postsurgical inflammatory neuropathy...
April 27, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
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