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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352076/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-permeability-the-yin-and-yang-in-alcohol-dependence-and-alcoholic-liver-disease
#1
REVIEW
Peter Stärkel, Sophie Leclercq, Philippe de Timary, Bernd Schnabl
Alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease represent a major public health problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. By yet incompletely understood mechanisms, chronic alcohol abuse is associated with increased intestinal permeability and alterations of the gut microbiota composition, allowing bacterial components, bacteria, and metabolites to reach the portal and the systemic circulation. These gut-derived bacterial products are recognized by immune cells circulating in the blood or residing in remote organs such as the liver leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines which are considered important mediators of the liver-gut-brain communication...
January 31, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351865/interventions-to-support-effective-communication-between-maternity-care-staff-and-women-in-labour-a-mixed-methods-systematic-review
#2
Yan-Shing Chang, Kirstie Coxon, Anayda Gerarda Portela, Marie Furuta, Debra Bick
OBJECTIVES: the objectives of this review were (1) to assess whether interventions to support effective communication between maternity care staff and healthy women in labour with a term pregnancy could improve birth outcomes and experiences of care; and (2) to synthesize information related to the feasibility of implementation and resources required. DESIGN: a mixed-methods systematic review. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: studies which reported on interventions aimed at improving communication between maternity care staff and healthy women during normal labour and birth, with no apparent medical or obstetric complications, and their family members were included...
December 27, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351520/beyond-clinical-complexity-non-medical-barriers-to-nursing-home-care-for-rural-residents
#3
Carrie Henning-Smith, Katy B Kozhimannil, Michelle M Casey, Shailendra Prasad
We conducted a qualitative content analysis of barriers to nursing home admission for rural residents. Data came from semi-structured interviews with 23 rural hospital discharge planners across five states (Georgia, Idaho, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin). From those, we identified four themes around non-medical barriers to rural nursing home placement with particular salience in rural areas: financial issues; transportation; nursing home availability and infrastructure; and timeliness. We also identified policy and programmatic interventions across four themes: loosen bureaucratic requirements; improve communication between facilities; increase rural long-term care capacity; and address underlying social determinants of health...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349654/the-role-of-mentors-in-early-intervention-referrals-overlooked-views-of-pediatric-residency-training-directors
#4
Nicole Megan Edwards
Objectives There continues to be a pressing need to increase referrals to family-centered early intervention (EI) for more eligible infants and toddlers with inadequate consideration for the role of senior, mentoring professionals. Methods To address a dearth in our understanding, a subset of Pediatric Residency Training Directors shared views on EI, referral, and relevant training efforts. Results Participating directors primarily reported limited understanding of EI. Greater knowledge of family-focused EI correlated with its perceived helpfulness (r = ...
January 18, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348198/interleukin-10-stiffens-the-heart
#5
Daniela Cihakova
Cardiac-resident macrophages are a diverse population of cells that have a critical role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. A new understanding of communication between macrophages and cardiac fibroblasts could lead to novel therapeutic strategies for heart failure with preserved ejection function.
January 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344461/using-role-plays-as-an-empathy-education-tool-for-ophthalmology-postgraduate
#6
Kirti Singh, Mainak Bhattacharyya, Vikas Veerwal, Arshi Singh
Purpose: To assess the role of an "empathy sensitizing module" (ESM) in ophthalmology postgraduates in promoting effective empathetic communication. Methodology: Thirty-nine ophthalmology postgraduates were taught effective empathetic communication using specially designed module, comprising of five illustrative role-plays. We evaluated the impact of the training by (a) self-assessment of empathy quotient by residents using Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE scale) before and 6 weeks after ESM training and (b) nonparticipant observation (NPO) by trained faculty in real-life settings over the next 4 months...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344454/critical-review-of-family-health-advisory-services-assessment-in-mbbs-training-program-in-community-medicine
#7
Kiran Goswami, H Salve, S Malhotra, Y Kumar
Context: Family Health Advisory Services (FHAS) posting as well as its assessment is resource demanding but fails to enjoy priority. Study focuses on a holistic overview of the assessment process to understand need for change. Aims: The aim of this study is to identify perceived gaps in current assessment practices related to FHAS posting. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional mixed method study among all the V semester students currently undergoing assessment for the posting, past students (selected VII semester students and interns), preceptors (supervising residents - postgraduate students in department and senior resident, health assistants, medical social service officer), and involved faculty...
December 2017: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343681/oral-health-in-china-from-vision-to-action
#8
REVIEW
Xuedong Zhou, Xin Xu, Jiyao Li, Deyu Hu, Tao Hu, Wei Yin, Yujiang Fan, Xingdong Zhang
Chinese president Xi Jinping made clear at the National Health and Wellness Conference that health is the prerequisite for people's all-around development and a precondition for the sustainable development of China. Oral health is an indispensable component of overall health in humans. However, the long neglect of oral health in overall health agendas has made oral diseases an increasing concern. With this perspective, we described the global challenges of oral diseases, with an emphasis on the challenges faced by China...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342495/improving-perinatology-residents-skills-in-breaking-bad-news-a-randomized-intervention-study
#9
Maria Silvia Vellutini Setubal, Maria Ângela Reis Goes Monteiro Antonio, Eliana Martorano Amaral, John Boulet
OBJECTIVE:  Breaking bad news (BBN) is particularly difficult in perinatology. Previous research has shown that BBN skills can be learned and improved when taught and practiced. This project evaluated whether a structured training session would enhance perinatology residents' skills in BBN. METHODS:  This was a randomized controlled intervention study with year 1 to 4 Perinatology residents from a medical school in Brazil, during the 2014/15 school year. A total of 61 out of 100 (61%) eligible residents volunteered to a structured training program involving communicating a perinatal loss to a simulated patient (SP) portraying the mother followed by the SP's immediate feedback, both video recorded...
January 17, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340509/uncovering-a-tragic-flaw-in-revolutionary-health-policies-from-health-and-communicative-inequities-to-communicative-justice-in-health
#10
Charles L Briggs
This article analyzes a contradiction facing efforts by left-leaning governments in Latin America to transform health into a fundamental social right. Policies and practices that confront health inequities generally fail to address health/communicative inequities, hierarchical distributions of rights to shape what counts as legitimate knowledge of health. This ethnographic analysis focuses on an epidemic of a mysterious disease - identified clinically as bat-transmitted rabies - in the Delta Amacuro rainforest of Venezuela in 2007-2008, tracing how parents who lost 1-3 children faced acute health/communicative inequities in clinical settings, epidemiological investigations, work with healers, news coverage, health policy, and health communication...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337535/anion-mediated-photophysical-behavior-in-a-c60-fullerene-3-rotaxane-shuttle
#11
Timothy A Barendt, Ilija Rašović, Maria A Lebedeva, George A Farrow, Alexander Auty, Dimitri Chekulaev, Igor V Sazanovich, Julia A Weinstein, Kyriakos Porfyrakis, Paul D Beer
By addressing the challenge of controlling molecular motion, mechanically interlocked molecular machines are primed for a variety of applications in the field of nanotechnology. Specifically, the designed manipulation of communication pathways between electron donor and acceptor moieties that are strategically integrated into dynamic photoactive rotaxanes and catenanes may lead to efficient artificial photosynthetic devices. In this pursuit, a novel [3]rotaxane molecular shuttle consisting of a four station bis-naphthalene diimide (NDI) and central C60 fullerene bis-triazolium axle component and two mechanically bonded ferrocenyl functionalized -isophthalamide anion binding site-containing macrocycles is constructed using an anion template synthetic methodology...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335771/risk-perception-of-heat-waves-and-its-spatial-variation-in-nanjing-china
#12
Lei Huang, Qianqi Yang, Jie Li, Jin Chen, Ruoying He, Can Zhang, Kai Chen, Steven Guanpeng Dong, Yang Liu
The intensity, frequency, and duration of heat waves are expected to increase with climate change. In this study, we found a significant difference of public perceived effects of heat waves and trust in government among urban, suburban, and rural districts. Rural residents had a significant higher effect perception than urbanites and also showed stronger willingness to have medical insurance or regular physical examinations. Meanwhile, suburban residents had the lowest trust perception in government among these three districts, which may be due to suburban districts' unique social structure and complex social issues...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335085/-impact-of-transition-readiness-on-quality-of-life-in-children-with-chronic-diseases
#13
Jia-Li Ma, Nan Sheng, Wen-Wen Ding, Ying Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current quality of life in children with chronic diseases, and to explore the impact of transition readiness on quality of life. METHODS: A total of 332 children with chronic diseases from two children's hospitals in Shanghai, China were enrolled. A self-designed demographic questionnaire, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQLTM 4.0), and Self-Management and Transition to Adulthood with Rx=Treatment (STARx) Questionnaire were used to evaluate transition readiness and quality of life...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334259/development-of-three-dimensional-brain-arteriovenous-malformation-model-for-patient-communication-and-young-neurosurgeon-education
#14
Mengqi Dong, Guangzhong Chen, Kun Qin, Xiaowen Ding, Dong Zhou, Chao Peng, Shaojian Zeng, Xianming Deng
PURPOSE: Rapid prototyping technology is used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) models and facilitate presurgical patient communication and medical education for young surgeons. METHODS: Two intracranial AVM cases were selected for this study. Using 3D CT angiography or 3D rotational angiography images, the brain AVM models were reconstructed on personal computer and the rapid prototyping process was completed using a 3D printer...
January 15, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333881/reproductive-travel-to-ghana-testimonies-transnational-relationships-and-stratified-reproduction
#15
Trudie Gerrits
In this article, I address reproductive travel to Ghana, based on research conducted in two private fertility clinics. Both clinics attract clients from West African countries as well as Ghanaian people living in US and Europe. Their motivations to visit these clinics include positive "testimonies" about treatment results, "bioavailability" of matching donor material and surrogates, lower treatment costs and the circumvention of restricting regulations in the country of residence. Next to structural features in the countries of residence and in Ghana, I discuss the centrality of communication technologies facilitating reproductive travel and argue that the "international choreographies" of reproductive travel are co-shaped by the unique biographies and transnational relationships of the people involved...
January 15, 2018: Medical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330842/self-perceived-long-term-transfer-of-learning-after-postpartum-hemorrhage-simulation-training
#16
Brena C P Melo, Ana R Falbo, Jette Led Sorensen, Jeroen J G van Merriënboer, Cees van der Vleuten
OBJECTIVE: To explore long-term transfer (application of acquired knowledge and skills on the job) after postpartum hemorrhage simulation training based on either instructional design (ID) principles or conventional best practice. METHODS: In this qualitative study, semi-structured interviews with obstetrics and gynecology healthcare practitioners were conducted between August 7 and September 26, 2015, in Recife, Brazil. The participants were randomly selected from each of two postpartum hemorrhage simulations attended 2 years earlier (one ID and one conventional best practice)...
January 13, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#17
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329263/effect-of-radiological-countermeasures-on-subjective-well-being-and-radiation-anxiety-after-the-2011-disaster-the-fukushima-health-management-survey
#18
Michio Murakami, Yoshitake Takebayashi, Yoshihito Takeda, Akiko Sato, Yasumasa Igarashi, Kazumi Sano, Tetsuo Yasutaka, Wataru Naito, Sumire Hirota, Aya Goto, Tetsuya Ohira, Seiji Yasumura, Koichi Tanigawa
After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in 2011, concerns about radiation exposure and decline in subjective well-being have been reported. To tackle these problems, various countermeasures in relation to radiation have been implemented. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the effects of radiological countermeasures on subjective well-being (e.g., satisfaction with life (SWL) and emotional well-being) and radiation anxiety, through a questionnaire survey targeting Fukushima residents (N = 1023)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325541/interprofessional-collaboration-in-nursing-homes-interprof-development-and-piloting-of-measures-to-improve-interprofessional-collaboration-and-communication-a-qualitative-multicentre-study
#19
Christiane A Müller, Nina Fleischmann, Christoph Cavazzini, Susanne Heim, Svenja Seide, Christina Geister, Britta Tetzlaff, Andreas Hoell, Jochen Werle, Siegfried Weyerer, Martin Scherer, Eva Hummers
BACKGROUND: Given both the increase of nursing home residents forecast and challenges of current interprofessional interactions, we developed and tested measures to improve collaboration and communication between nurses and general practitioners (GPs) in this setting. Our multicentre study has been funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (FK 01GY1124). METHODS: The measures were developed iteratively in a continuous process, which is the focus of this article...
January 11, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324559/nurse-experiences-of-medication-administration-to-people-with-swallowing-difficulties-living-in-aged-care-facilities-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#20
Aida Sefidani Forough, Simon Y M Wong, Esther T L Lau, Jose Manuel Serrano Santos, Greg J Kyle, Kathryn J Steadman, Julie A Y Cichero, Lisa M Nissen
OBJECTIVE: To identify nurses' experiences of administering oral medications to residents of aged care facilities (ACFs) with swallowing difficulties. INTRODUCTION: Administering medicines to older people with swallowing difficulties is a challenging task. Nurses frequently modify oral medications e.g. by crushing/splitting tablets or opening capsules, to facilitate the administration process. These practices are associated with an increased risk of medication administration errors...
January 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
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