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Hypoxia Insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179648/diet-induced-weight-loss-decreases-adipose-tissue-oxygen-tension-with-parallel-changes-in-adipose-tissue-phenotype-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-overweight-humans
#1
R G Vink, N J Roumans, M Čajlaković, J P M Cleutjens, M V Boekschoten, P Fazelzadeh, M A A Vogel, E E Blaak, E C Mariman, M A van Baak, G H Goossens
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia is present in rodent models of obesity, evidence for this in humans is limited. Here, we investigated the effects of diet-induced weight loss on abdominal subcutaneous AT oxygen tension (pO2), AT blood flow (ATBF), AT capillary density, AT morphology and transcriptome, systemic inflammatory markers, and insulin sensitivity in humans. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen overweight and obese individuals underwent a dietary intervention (DI), consisting of a 5-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD, 500 kcal/d) (WL), and a subsequent 4-week weight stable diet (WS)...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177762/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-disturbs-insulin-secretion-and-causes-pancreatic-injury-via-mapk-signaling-pathway
#2
Yeying Wang, Bing Hai, Xiaoqun Niu, Li Ai, Yu Cao, Ran Li, Yongxia Li
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a breath disorder during sleep with a most prominent character of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to damage multiple tissues and cause metabolism disorders. In this study, we established rat varying OSA model by graded concentration of CIH (12.5% O2, 10% O2, 7.5%O2 and 5% O2) for 12 weeks, and found that CIH stimulated insulin secretion, reduced the insulin/proinsulin ratio in the pancreatic tissue, and caused pancreatic tissue lesions and cells apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner...
November 28, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138561/cd44-expression-in-endothelial-colony-forming-cells-regulates-neurovascular-trophic-effect
#3
Susumu Sakimoto, Valentina Marchetti, Edith Aguilar, Kelsey Lee, Yoshihiko Usui, Salome Murinello, Felicitas Bucher, Jennifer K Trombley, Regis Fallon, Ravenska Wagey, Carrie Peters, Elizabeth L Scheppke, Peter D Westenskow, Martin Friedlander
Vascular abnormalities are a common component of eye diseases that often lead to vision loss. Vaso-obliteration is associated with inherited retinal degenerations, since photoreceptor atrophy lowers local metabolic demands and vascular support to those regions is no longer required. Given the degree of neurovascular crosstalk in the retina, it may be possible to use one cell type to rescue another cell type in the face of severe stress, such as hypoxia or genetically encoded cell-specific degenerations. Here, we show that intravitreally injected human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) that can be isolated and differentiated from cord blood in xeno-free media collect in the vitreous cavity and rescue vaso-obliteration and neurodegeneration in animal models of retinal disease...
January 26, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131740/adipose-tissue-is-influenced-by-hypoxia-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-independent-of-obesity
#4
C E Thorn, B Knight, E Pastel, L J McCulloch, B Patel, A C Shore, K Kos
AIMS: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and diabetes independent of obesity. We investigated whether adipose tissue dysfunction is exacerbated due to increased tissue hypoxia. METHODS: Adipose tissue (AT) oxygenation was measured with a Clarke-type electrode (pATO2) in 16 men with OSAS before and after 4 months of continuous positive airway pressure therapy (CPAP) and in BMI-matched controls. Oxygenation was simultaneously monitored in arterial blood by pulse oximetry (SaO2); mixed blood in AT microcirculation by reflectance spectroscopy (SATO2) along with blood flow...
January 25, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112704/evaluation-and-treatment-of-hyperglycemia-in-critically-ill-patients
#5
Andrea Balloni, Federico Lari, Fabrizio Giostra
The hyperglycemic reaction to stress is part of adaptive metabolic response to critical illness, especially hypoxia, hemorrhage and sepsis. It involves neuro-endocrine and immune pathways leading to the development of insulin resistance and hepatic glucose production by gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Over the last years the concept of stress related hyperglycemia has been replaced by the concept of dysglycemia and its three domains: hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability. Each of the three domains is independently associated with increased risk of mortality in patients admitted in intensive care unit and non critically ill patients, both medical and surgical...
January 16, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107636/visceral-white-adipose-tissue-following-chronic-intermittent-and-sustained-hypoxia-in-mice
#6
David Gozal, Alex Gileles-Hillel, Rene Cortese, Yan Li, Isaac Almendros, Zhuanhong Qiao, Ahamed A Khalyfa, Jorge Andrade, Abdelnaby Khalyfa
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis, a process induced by hypoxia in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) in the context of obesity, mediates obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and insulin resistance. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH) induce body weight reductions and insulin resistance of differing magnitude, suggesting different HIF-1α-related activity. METHODS: 8-week old male C57BL/6J mice (n=10-12/group) were exposed to either IH, SH,or room air (RA)...
January 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104753/the-effect-of-adrenal-medullectomy-on-metabolic-responses-to-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-in-the-frequently-sampled-intravenous-glucose-tolerance-test
#7
Mi-Kyung Shin, Woobum Han, Hoon Joo, Shannon Bevans-Fonti, Masakazu Shiota, Darko Stefanovski, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with type 2 diabetes. We have previously developed a mouse model of intermittent hypoxia (IH) mimicking oxyhemoglobin desaturations in patients with sleep apnea and have shown that IH increases fasting glucose, hepatic glucose output, and plasma catecholamines. We hypothesize that adrenal medulla modulates glucose responses to IH, and that such responses can be prevented by adrenal medullectomy. We performed adrenal medullectomy or sham surgery in lean C57BL/6J mice, which were exposed to IH or intermittent air (control) for 4 weeks followed by the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) in unanesthetized unrestrained animals...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098405/shielding-engineered-islets-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhance-survival-under-hypoxia
#8
Bhawna Chandravanshi, Ramesh Ramchandra Bhonde
In the present study we focused on the improvisation of islet survival in hypoxia.The Islet like cell aggregates (ICAs) derived from wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ MSC) were cultured with and without WJ MSC for 48h in hypoxia and normoxia and tested for their direct trophic effect on β cell survival. The WJ MSCs themselves secreted insulin upon glucose challenge and expressed the pancreatic markers at both transcription and translational level (C-peptide, Insulin,Glucagon and Glut 2). Direct contact of MSCs with ICAs facilitated highest viability under hypoxia as evidenced by fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097474/igf-1r-regulates-the-extracellular-level-of-active-mmp-2-pathological-neovascularization-and-functionality-in-retinas-of-oir-mouse-model
#9
Valeria E Lorenc, Paula V Subirada Caldarone, María C Paz, Darío G Ferrer, José D Luna, Gustavo A Chiabrando, María C Sánchez
In ischemic proliferative diseases such as retinopathies, persistent hypoxia leads to the release of numerous neovascular factors that participate in the formation of abnormal vessels and eventually cause blindness. The upregulation and activation of metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) represent a final common pathway in this process. Although many regulators of the neovascular process have been identified, the complete role of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) appears to be significantly more complex...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096202/hasf-c3orf58-is-a-novel-ligand-of-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor
#10
Akshay Bareja, Conrad Hodgkinson, Alan Payne, Richard Pratt, Victor Dzau
We have recently shown that Hypoxia and Akt induced Stem cell Factor (HASF) protects the heart from ischemia-induced damage and promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation. While we have identified certain signaling pathways responsible for these protective effects, the receptor mediating these effects was unknown. Here, we undertook studies to identify the HASF receptor. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified a partial fragment of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) as a binding partner of HASF. Subsequent co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that HASF bound to full-length IGF1R...
January 17, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090638/late-gestational-intermittent-hypoxia-induces-metabolic-and-epigenetic-changes-in-male-adult-offspring-mice
#11
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Rene Cortese, Zhuanhong Qiao, Honggang Ye, Riyue Bao, Jorge Andrade, David Gozal
Pregnancy, particularly late gestation, has been associated with a relatively high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Intermittent hypoxia (IH), a hallmark of OSA, could impose significant long-term effects on somatic growth, energy homeostasis, and metabolic function in offspring. We hypothesized that IH during late pregnancy (LG-IH) may increase the propensity for metabolic dysregulation and obesity in adult offspring via epigenetic modifications. Time-pregnant female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to LG-IH or room air (LG-RA) during days 13-18 of gestation...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087818/three-hours-of-intermittent-hypoxia-increases-circulating-glucose-levels-in-healthy-adults
#12
Lauren P Newhouse, Michael J Joyner, Timothy B Curry, Marcello C Laurenti, Chiara Dalla Man, Claudio Cobelli, Adrian Vella, Jacqueline K Limberg
An independent association exists between sleep apnea and diabetes. Animal models suggest exposure to intermittent hypoxia, a consequence of sleep apnea, results in altered glucose metabolism and fasting hyperglycemia. However, it is unknown if acute exposure to intermittent hypoxia increases glucose concentrations in nondiabetic humans. We hypothesized plasma glucose would be increased from baseline following 3 h of intermittent hypoxia in healthy humans independent of any effect on insulin sensitivity. Eight (7M/1F, 21-34 years) healthy subjects completed two study visits randomized to 3 h of intermittent hypoxia or continuous normoxia, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079384/hypoxia-and-h2o2-dual-sensitive-vesicles-for-enhanced-glucose-responsive-insulin-delivery
#13
Jicheng Yu, Chenggen Qian, Yuqi Zhang, Zheng Cui, Yong Zhu, Qundong Shen, Frances S Ligler, John B Buse, Zhen Gu
A glucose-responsive closed-loop insulin delivery system mimicking pancreas activity without long-term side effect has the potential to improve diabetic patients' health and quality of life. Here, we developed a novel glucose-responsive insulin delivery device using a painless microneedle-array patch containing insulin-loaded vesicles. Formed by self-assembly of hypoxia and H2O2 dual-sensitive diblock copolymer, the glucose-responsive polymersome-based vesicles (d-GRPs) can disassociate and subsequently release insulin triggered by H2O2 and hypoxia generated during glucose oxidation catalyzed by glucose specific enzyme...
January 12, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054425/synergism-between-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-signaling-and-neuropeptides-extends-lifespan-in-the-nematode-caenorhabditis-elegans
#14
Rachel Abergel, Leonid Livshits, Maayan Shaked, Arijit Kumar Chatterjee, Einav Gross
Oxygen (O2 ) homeostasis is important for all aerobic animals. However, the manner by which O2 sensing and homeostasis contribute to lifespan regulation is poorly understood. Here, we use the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to address this question. We demonstrate that a loss-of-function mutation in the neuropeptide receptor gene npr-1 and a deletion mutation in the atypical soluble guanylate cyclase gcy-35 O2 sensor interact synergistically to extend worm lifespan. The function of npr-1 and gcy-35 in the O2 -sensing neurons AQR, PQR, and URX shortens the lifespan of the worm...
January 4, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053000/myoblast-replication-is-reduced-in-the-iugr-fetus-despite-maintained-proliferative-capacity-in-vitro
#15
Susan M Soto, Amy C Blake, Stephanie R Wesolowski, Paul J Rozance, Kristen B Barthel, Bifeng Gao, Byron Hetrick, Carrie E McCurdy, Natalia G Garza, William W Hay, Leslie A Leinwand, Jacob E Friedman, Laura D Brown
Adults who were affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) suffer from reductions in muscle mass and insulin resistance, suggesting muscle growth may be restricted by molecular events that occur during fetal development. To explore the basis of restricted fetal muscle growth, we used a sheep model of progressive placental insufficiency-induced IUGR to assess myoblast proliferation within intact skeletal muscle in vivo and isolated myoblasts stimulated with insulin in vitro Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle weights were reduced by 25% in IUGR fetuses compared to those in controls (CON)...
2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045397/role-of-innate-and-adaptive-immunity-in-obesity-associated-metabolic-disease
#16
Tracey McLaughlin, Shelley E Ackerman, Lei Shen, Edgar Engleman
Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, possibly related to adipose cell hypertrophy, hypoxia, and/or intestinal leakage of bacteria and their metabolic products, likely plays a critical role in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR). Cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system residing in adipose tissues, as well as in the intestine, participate in this process. Thus, M1 macrophages, IFN-γ-secreting Th1 cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells promote IR, in part through secretion of proinflammatory cytokines...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030556/hepatocyte-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-mediates-the-development-of-liver-fibrosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Omar A Mesarwi, Mi-Kyung Shin, Shannon Bevans-Fonti, Christina Schlesinger, Janet Shaw, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. This progression correlates with the severity of OSA-associated hypoxia. In mice with diet induced obesity, hepatic steatosis leads to liver tissue hypoxia, which worsens with exposure to intermittent hypoxia. Emerging data has implicated hepatocyte cell signaling as an important factor in hepatic fibrogenesis. We hypothesized that hepatocyte specific knockout of the oxygen sensing α subunit of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of the global response to hypoxia, may be protective against the development of liver fibrosis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005939/muscle-arnt-hif1%C3%AE-is-dispensable-in-myofiber-type-determination-vascularization-and-insulin-sensitivity
#18
Pierre-Marie Badin, Danesh H Sopariwala, Sabina Lorca, Vihang A Narkar
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator/ hypoxia-inducible factor 1 beta (ARNT/ HIF1β), a member of bHLH-PAS family of transcriptional factors, plays a critical role in metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. The contributions of ARNT in pancreas, liver and adipose tissue to energy balance through gene regulation have been described. Surprisingly, the impact of ARNT signaling in the skeletal muscles, one of the major organs involved in glucose disposal, has not been investigated, especially in type II diabetes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003935/aggregation-of-engineered-human-%C3%AE-cells-into-pseudoislets-insulin-secretion-and-gene-expression-profile-in-normoxic-and-hypoxic-milieu
#19
Marie-José Lecomte, Séverine Pechberty, Cécile Machado, Sandra Da Barroca, Philippe Ravassard, Raphaël Scharfmann, Paul Czernichow, Bertrand Duvillié
Innovative treatments to cure type 1 diabetes are being actively researched. Among the different strategies, the replacement of β-cells has given promising results. Classically, islets from cadaveric donors are transplanted into diabetic patients, but recently phase I clinical trials that use stem cell-derived β-cells have been started. Such protocols require either an immunosuppressive treatment or the macroencapsulation of the β-cells. They involve cell aggregation and the exposure of the cells to hypoxia...
December 3, 2016: Cell Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938560/-effect-of-targeted-inhibition-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-by-3-5-hydroxymethyl-2-furyl-1-benzylindazole-on-the-progression-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats
#20
W D Shen, W Zhang, Q H Xu, P F Liu
Objective: To investigate the effect of targeted inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) by 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1) on the progression of non-alcoholic fat liver diseases (NAFLD) in rats. Methods: A total of 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, and intervention group, and the rats were given high-fat feed to establish the rat model of fatty liver disease. After the establishment of the model, the rats in the intervention group were given intraperitoneally injected YC-1 (at a dose of 2 mg/kg) every two weeks and were observed at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
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