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Hypoxia Insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921430/-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Andrea Plíhalová, Kateřina Westlake, Jan Polák
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSA) is a disease very frequently occurring in people with type 2 diabetes, that significantly increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In a number of studies, OSA has been identified as an independent risk factor for the development of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Disorders of glucose homeostasis in patients with OSA are probably mediated by chronic intermittent hypoxia and/or sleep fragmentation through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis, pro-inflammatory paths or oxidative stress...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906687/economic-3d-printing-approach-for-transplantation-of-human-stem-cell-derived-%C3%AE-like-cells
#2
Jiwon Song, Jeffrey R Millman
Transplantation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) differentiated into insulin-producing β cells is a regenerative medicine approach being investigated for diabetes cell replacement therapy. This report presents a multifaceted transplantation strategy that combines differentiation into stem cell-derived β (SC-β) cells with 3D printing. By modulating the parameters of a low-cost 3D printer, we created a macroporous device composed of polylactic acid (PLA) that houses SC-β cell clusters within a degradable fibrin gel...
December 1, 2016: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901270/adipose-tissue-inflammation-by-intermittent-hypoxia-mechanistic-link-between-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-and-metabolic-dysfunction
#3
Silke Ryan
Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition and recognized as a major public health burden conveying a significant risk of cardiometabolic diseases and mortality. Type 2 diabetes (T2D), insulin resistance (IR) and glucose tolerance are common in subjects with OSA and this association is at least in part independent of the effects of obesity. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for the majority of patients with OSA but the benefit of CPAP on glycaemic health is uncertain...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900262/impaired-histone-deacetylases-5-and-6-expression-mimics-the-effects-of-obesity-and-hypoxia-on-adipocyte-function
#4
Julien Bricambert, Dimitri Favre, Saška Brajkovic, Amélie Bonnefond, Raphael Boutry, Roberto Salvi, Valérie Plaisance, Mohamed Chikri, Giulia Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Bart Staels, Vittorio Giusti, Robert Caiazzo, François Pattou, Gérard Waeber, Philippe Froguel, Amar Abderrahmani
OBJECTIVE: The goal of the study was to investigate the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in adipocyte function associated with obesity and hypoxia. METHODS: Total proteins and RNA were prepared from human visceral adipose tissues (VAT) of human obese and normal weight subjects and from white adipose tissue (WAT) of C57Bl6-Rj mice fed a normal or high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. HDAC activity was measured by colorimetric assay whereas the gene and protein expression were monitored by real-time PCR and by western blotting, respectively...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900258/adipocyte-specific-hypoxia-inducible-gene-2-promotes-fat-deposition-and-diet-induced-insulin-resistance
#5
Marina T DiStefano, Rachel J Roth Flach, Ozlem Senol-Cosar, Laura V Danai, Joseph V Virbasius, Sarah M Nicoloro, Juerg Straubhaar, Sezin Dagdeviren, Martin Wabitsch, Olga T Gupta, Jason K Kim, Michael P Czech
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue relies on lipid droplet (LD) proteins in its role as a lipid-storing endocrine organ that controls whole body metabolism. Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 (Hig2) is a recently identified LD-associated protein in hepatocytes that promotes hepatic lipid storage, but its role in the adipocyte had not been investigated. Here we tested the hypothesis that Hig2 localization to LDs in adipocytes promotes adipose tissue lipid deposition and systemic glucose homeostasis. METHOD: White and brown adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Adiponection cre+) and selective brown/beige adipocyte-deficient (Hig2(fl/fl) × Ucp1 cre+) mice were generated to investigate the role of Hig2 in adipose depots...
December 2016: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900001/expression-of-glucose-transporter-1-is-correlated-with-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-and-malignant-potential-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#6
Minoru Fujino, Shinichi Aishima, Koji Shindo, Yasunori Oda, Katsuya Morimatsu, Kosuke Tsutsumi, Takao Otsuka, Masao Tanaka, Yoshinao Oda
The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic usefulness of the expression of glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) and GLUT-2, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and insulin-like growth factor II messenger RNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). Immunohistochemical staining for GLUT-1, GLUT-2, HIF-1α and IMP3 was performed in 70 pNET specimens. The expression of GLUT-1 and HIF-1α was significantly higher in the World Health Organization grade 2 (G2), neuroendocrine carcinoma cases and mixed-type pNETs compared with the G1 cases...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860374/chemoprevention-of-obesity-by-dietary-natural-compounds-targeting-mitochondrial-regulation
#7
REVIEW
Ching-Shu Lai, Jia-Ching Wu, Chi-Tang Ho, Min-Hsiung Pan
Mitochondria are center stage in the control of energy homeostasis in many organs and tissue including adipose tissue. Recently, abundant evidences from experimental studies have clearly supported the strong correlation between mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes and obesity. Various physiological conditions, such as excessive nutrition, genetic factors, hypoxia and toxins disrupt mitochondrial function by impairing mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and oxidative capacity. Mitochondrial dysfunction in adipocytes could have impact on differentiation, adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity and with the significant alteration in their metabolic function, which ultimately results in obesity and type 2 diabetes...
November 16, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856259/potential-suppression-of-the-high-glucose-and-insulin-induced-retinal-neovascularization-by-sirtuin-3-in-the-human-retinal-endothelial-cells
#8
Xin-Bang Mao, Zhi-Peng You, Chen Wu, Jun Huang
Retinal neovascularization generally play roles in the formation of various severe eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. The regulation of neovascularization-related pathways by Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3), a major mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, give us a cue that Sirt3 may participate in the retinal neovascularization. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here, we established a retinal neovascularization model by using human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) under the induction of high glucose and insulin (HGI)...
November 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830021/tongxinluo-modulates-cytokine-secretion-by-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#9
Hehe Cui, Na Li, Xiangdong Li, Kang Qi, Qing Li, Chen Jin, Tianjie Wang, Lian Duan, Leipei Jiang, Guihao Chen, Zhigang Wang, Cong Wei, Yuejin Yang
Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) extensively secrete cytokines during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI). Tongxinluo (TXL) has been demonstrated to preserve the function of the endothelium and myocardium against MIRI. This study was designed to identify alterations in the paracrine function of CMECs under hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) conditions and assess its modulation by TXL. CMECs were exposed to different concentrations of TXL for 30 min and then subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation for 12 and 2 h, respectively...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796164/comparison-of-perfluorodecalin-and-hemoxcell-as-oxygen-carriers-for-islet-oxygenation-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-encapsulation
#10
Aida Rodriguez-Brotons, William Bietiger, Claude Peronet, Allan Langlois, Jordan Magisson, Carole Mura, Cynthia Sookhareea, Valerie Polard, Nathalie Jeandidier, Franck Zal, Michel Pinget, Séverine Sigrist, Elisa Maillard
Transplantation of encapsulated islets in a bioartificial pancreas is a promising alternative to free islet cell therapy to avoid immunosuppressive regimens. However, hypoxia, which can induce a rapid loss of islets, is a major limiting factor. The efficiency of oxygen delivery in an in vitro model of bioartificial pancreas involving hypoxia and confined conditions has never been investigated. Oxygen carriers such as perfluorocarbons and hemoglobin might improve oxygenation. To verify this hypothesis, this study aimed to identify the best candidate of perfluorodecalin (PFD) or HEMOXCell(®) to reduce cellular hypoxia in a bioartificial pancreas in an in vitro model of encapsulation ex vivo...
November 24, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763807/culture-at-low-glucose-up-regulates-mitochondrial-function-in-pancreatic-beta-cells-with-accompanying-effects-on-viability
#11
Ingrid K Hals, Rinku Singh, Zuheng Ma, Hanne Scholz, Anneli Björklund, Valdemar Grill
We tested whether exposure of beta cells at reduced glucose leads to mitochondrial adaptions and whether such adaptions modulate effects of hypoxia. Rat islets, human islets and INS-1 832/13 cells were pre-cultured short term at half standard glucose concentrations (5.5 mM for rat islets and cells, 2.75 mM for human islets) without overtly negative effects on subsequently measured function (insulin secretion and cellular insulin contents) or on viability. Culture at half standard glucose upregulated complex I and tended to upregulate complex II in islets and INS-1 cells alike...
October 20, 2016: Islets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737746/the-adipokine-cardiovascular-lifestyle-network-translation-to-clinical-practice
#12
Jeffrey I Mechanick, Shan Zhao, W Timothy Garvey
Adipokines are peptides, secreted by adipocytes and other cell types with targets in other tissues, participating in a complex network of humoral factors involved in obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular (CV) disease. This review describes recent information about adipokine effects on the CV system. Rather than simply providing a listing of adipokines and their respective effects, network analysis is used to enhance understanding. Various relationships and emergent processes in the adipokine-CV system network are discussed, with the most significant interactors being responses to hypoxia, regulation of cell migration, effects on blood coagulation, and platelet activation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736926/calbindin-d9k-ablation-disrupt-glucose-pancreatic-insulin-homeostasis
#13
Changhwan Ahn, Dongoh Lee, Jae-Hwan Lee, Hyun Yang, Beum-Soo An, Eui-Bae Jeung
It has been proposed that cellular Ca2+ signals activate hormone secretion. In pancreatic β cells, which produce insulin, Ca2+ signals have been known to contribute to insulin secretion. Prior to this study, we confirmed that insulin-secreting β cells express CaBP-9k, and assumed that CaBP-9k play a role in β cell insulin synthesis or secretion. Using CaBP-9k knock out (KO) mice, we demonstrated that ablation of CaBP-9k causes reducing insulin secretion and increasing serum glucose. To compare the role of CaBP-9k with pathophysiological conditions, we exposed wild-type and CaBP-9k KO mice to hypoxic conditions for 10 days...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732085/fgf2-high-molecular-weight-isoforms-contribute-to-osteoarthropathy-in-male-mice
#14
Patience Meo Burt, Liping Xiao, Caroline Dealy, Melanie C Fisher, Marja M Hurley
Humans with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and Hyp mice, the murine homolog of the disease, develop severe osteoarthropathy and the precise factors that contribute to this joint degeneration remain largely unknown. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a key regulatory growth factor in osteoarthritis. Although there are multiple FGF2 isoforms the potential involvement of specific FGF2 isoforms in joint degradation has not been investigated. Mice that overexpress the high molecular weight FGF2 isoforms in bone (HMWTg mice) phenocopy Hyp mice and XLH subjects and Hyp mice overexpress the HMWFGF2 isoforms in osteoblasts and osteocytes...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698070/arousal-from-sleep-and-sympathetic-excitation-during-wakefulness
#15
Keri S Taylor, Hisayoshi Murai, Philip J Millar, Nobuhiko Haruki, Derek S Kimmerly, Beverley L Morris, George Tomlinson, T Douglas Bradley, John S Floras
Obstructive apnea during sleep elevates the set point for efferent sympathetic outflow during wakefulness. Such resetting is attributed to hypoxia-induced upregulation of peripheral chemoreceptor and brain stem sympathetic function. Whether recurrent arousal from sleep also influences daytime muscle sympathetic nerve activity is unknown. We therefore tested, in a cohort of 48 primarily nonsleepy, middle-aged, male (30) and female (18) volunteers (age: 59±1 years, mean±SE), the hypothesis that the frequency of arousals from sleep (arousal index) would relate to daytime muscle sympathetic burst incidence, independently of the frequency of apnea or its severity...
October 3, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679426/is-the-canine-corpus-luteum-an-insulin-sensitive-tissue
#16
Liza Margareth Sousa, Renata Silva, Vanessa Fonseca, Rafael Leandro, Thiago Di Vincenzo, Ana Bárbara Alves-Wagner, Ubiratan Fabres Machado, Paula Papa
This study aimed to determine in the canine corpus luteum throughout the diestrus: 1) the influence of insulin on glucose utilization; 2) the regulation of genes potentially involved; and 3) the influence of hypoxia on glucose transporter expression and steroidogenesis, after treatment with cobalt chloride (CoCl2). Glucose uptake by luteal cells increased 2.7 folds (P<0.05) in response to insulin; a phenomenon related to increased expression of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671893/re-appraisal-of%C3%A2-putative-glyoxalase-1-deficient-mouse-and%C3%A2-dicarbonyl-stress-on-embryonic-stem-cells-in-vitro
#17
Alaa Shafie, Mingzhan Xue, Guy Barker, Daniel Zehnder, Paul J Thornalley, Naila Rabbani
Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) is a cytoplasmic enzyme with a cytoprotective function linked to metabolism of the cytotoxic side-product of glycolysis, methylglyoxal. It prevents dicarbonyl stress - the abnormal accumulation of reactive dicarbonyl metabolites increasing protein and DNA damage. Increased Glo1 expression delays ageing and suppresses carcinogenesis, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and vascular complications of diabetes and renal failure. Surprisingly gene trapping by the International Mouse Knockout Consortium (IMKC) to generate putative Glo1 knockout mice produced a mouse line with phenotype characterised as normal and healthy...
September 26, 2016: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664190/sex-differences-in-adult-rat-insulin-and-glucose-responses-to-arginine-programming-effects-of-neonatal-separation-hypoxia-and-hypothermia
#18
Ashley L Gehrand, Brian Hoeynck, Mack Jablonski, Cole Leonovicz, Risheng Ye, Philipp E Scherer, Hershel Raff
Acute neonatal hypoxia, a common stressor, causes a spontaneous decrease in body temperature which may be protective. There is consensus that hypothermia should be prevented during acute hypoxia in the human neonate; however, this may be an additional stress with negative consequences. We hypothesize that maintaining body temperature during hypoxia in the first week of postnatal life alters the subsequent insulin, glucose, and glucagon secretion in adult rats. Rat pups were separated from their dam daily from postnatal days (PD) 2-6 for the following 90 min experimental treatments: (1) normoxic separation (control), (2) hypoxia (8% O2) allowing spontaneous hypothermia, (3) normoxic hypothermia with external cold, and (4) exposure to 8% O2 while maintaining body temperature using external heat...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628582/hypoxia-and-extra-cellular-matrix-gene-expression-in-adipose-tissue-associates-with-reduced-insulin-sensitivity-in-black-south-african-women
#19
Liske M Kotzé-Hörstmann, Dheshnie Keswell, Kevin Adams, Thandiwe Dlamini, Julia H Goedecke
Black South African women are more insulin resistant and have increased gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue hypertrophy than white South African women. We tested the hypothesis that adipose tissue hypoxia and extracellular matrix gene expression in gluteal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is higher in black than white women, and associates with reduced insulin sensitivity in black women. Insulin sensitivity (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test), gluteal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA levels of hypoxia- and extracellular matrix-related genes were measured in normal-weight and obese premenopausal black (n = 30) and white (n = 26) South African women at baseline, and in black women, at 5-year follow-up (n = 10)...
September 14, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625023/hif-1%C3%AE-in-myeloid-cells-promotes-adipose-tissue-remodeling-toward-insulin-resistance
#20
Akiko Takikawa, Arshad Mahmood, Allah Nawaz, Tomonobu Kado, Keisuke Okabe, Seiji Yamamoto, Aminuddin Aminuddin, Satoko Senda, Koichi Tsuneyama, Masashi Ikutani, Yasuharu Watanabe, Yoshiko Igarashi, Yoshinori Nagai, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Keiichi Koizumi, Johji Imura, Nobuhito Goda, Masakiyo Sasahara, Michihiro Matsumoto, Kumiko Saeki, Takashi Nakagawa, Shiho Fujisaka, Isao Usui, Kazuyuki Tobe
Adipose tissue hypoxia is an important feature of pathological adipose tissue expansion. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in adipocytes reportedly induces oxidative stress and fibrosis, rather than neoangiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A. We previously reported that macrophages in crown-like structures (CLSs) are both hypoxic and inflammatory. In the current study, we examined how macrophage HIF-1α is involved in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation, neovascularization, hypoxia, and insulin resistance using mice with myeloid cell-specific HIF-1α deletion that were fed an HFD...
December 2016: Diabetes
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