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Hypoxia Insulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735414/adipocyte-derived-lysophosphatidylcholine-activates-adipocyte-and-adipose-tissue-macrophage-nod-like-receptor-protein-3-inflammasomes-mediating-homocysteine-induced-insulin-resistance
#1
Song-Yang Zhang, Yong-Qiang Dong, Pengcheng Wang, Xingzhong Zhang, Yu Yan, Lulu Sun, Bo Liu, Dafang Zhang, Heng Zhang, Huiying Liu, Wei Kong, Gang Hu, Yatrik M Shah, Frank J Gonzalez, Xian Wang, Changtao Jiang
The adipose Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome senses danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and initiates insulin resistance, but the mechanisms of adipose inflammasome activation remains elusive. In this study, Homocysteine (Hcy) is revealed to be a DAMP that activates adipocyte NLRP3 inflammasomes, participating in insulin resistance. Hcy-induced activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes were observed in both adipocytes and adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and mediated insulin resistance. Lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC) acted as a second signal activator, mediating Hcy-induced adipocyte NLRP3 inflammasome activation...
April 27, 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733850/chronic-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-protects-vascular-endothelium-by-ameliorating-autophagy-in-metabolic-syndrome-rats
#2
Fang Cui, Yue Guan, Jing Guo, Yan-Ming Tian, Hao-Fei Hu, Xiang-Jian Zhang, Yi Zhang
AIMS: The study aimed to investigate the protective effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) on endothelium function and relaxation of mesenteric artery in metabolism syndrome (MS) rats. MAIN METHODS: Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (CON), CIHH (treated with 28-days hypobaric hypoxia simulating an altitude of 5000 m, 6 h daily), MS (induced by high fat diet and 10% fructose water feeding), and MS + CIHH groups...
May 4, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731703/metabolic-syndrome-and-neuroprotection
#3
REVIEW
Melisa Etchegoyen, Mariana H Nobile, Francisco Baez, Barbara Posesorski, Julian González, Néstor Lago, José Milei, Matilde Otero-Losada
Introduction: Over the years the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has drastically increased in developing countries as a major byproduct of industrialization. Many factors, such as the consumption of high-calorie diets and a sedentary lifestyle, bolster the spread of this disorder. Undoubtedly, the massive and still increasing incidence of MetS places this epidemic as an important public health issue. Hereon we revisit another outlook of MetS beyond its classical association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM2), for MetS also poses a risk factor for the nervous tissue and threatens neuronal function...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730286/vaspin-alleviates-myocardial-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-via-activating-autophagic-flux-and-restoring-lysosomal-function
#4
Feihong Yang, Li Xue, Ziqi Han, Feng Xu, Shengchuan Cao, Shuai Dai, Baoshan Liu, Qiuhuan Yuan, Zheng Wang, Ping Guo, Yuguo Chen
Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin), as a secretory adipokine, was reported to exert a protective role on insulin resistance. Recent studies showed that serum vaspin level was downregulated in patients with coronary artery disease. However, whether vaspin exerted specific effects on myocardial injury remains unknown. In this study, we determined to explore the role of vaspin overexpression in myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that the systemic delivery of adeno-associated virus-vaspin to mice reduced myocardial infarct size and apoptosis, and improved cardiac function after reperfusion, accompanied with upregulated autophagic flux and restored lysosomal function in the ischaemic heart...
May 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721149/low-frequency-intermittent-hypoxia-promotes-subcutaneous-adipogenic-differentiation
#5
Yan Wang, Judith C W Mak, Mary Y K Lee, Aimin Xu, Mary S M Ip
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by intermittent hypoxia (IH), is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders. The mass and function of adipose tissue are largely dependent on adipogenesis. The impact of low-frequency IH on adipogenesis is unknown. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to IH (4 min for 10% O2 and 2 min for 21% O2 ) or intermittent normoxia (IN) for 6 weeks. The degree of adipogenic differentiation was evaluated by adipogenic transcriptional factors, adipocyte-specific proteins, and oily droplet production in both subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720669/mixed-bacillus-species-enhance-the-innate-immune-response-and-stress-tolerance-in-yellow-perch-subjected-to-hypoxia-and-air-exposure-stress
#6
Nour Eissa, Han-Ping Wang, Hong Yao, ElSayed Abou-ElGheit
Stress enhances the disease susceptibility in fish by altering the innate immune responses, which are essential defense mechanisms. The use of probiotics is increasingly popular in the aquaculture industry. Yellow perch is a promising candidate for aquaculture. We investigated the efficiency of a mixed Bacillus species in minimizing the potential problems resulting from husbandry practices such as hypoxia and exposure to air in yellow perch. We showed that hypoxia and air exposure conditions induced a significant reduction in the early innate immune response (lysozyme activity, interferon-induced-GTP-binding protein-Mx1 [mx], interleukin-1β [il1β], serum amyloid-A [saa]), and a substantial increase in cortisol, heat shock protein (Hsp70), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (Sod1) that associated with a decline in insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf1)...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718759/increased-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-1-phosphorylation-in-decidualized-stromal-mesenchymal-cells-in-human-intrauterine-growth-restriction-placentas
#7
Sahil S Singal, Karen Nygard, Robert Gratton, Thomas Jansson, Madhulika B Gupta
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often caused by placental insufficiency, which is believed to be associated with decreased delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the placental barrier. We recently reported that hypoxia and/or leucine deprivation triggered hyperphosphorylation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in decidualized human immortalized endometrial stromal cells (HIESCs), resulting in decreased insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) bioactivity. To test the hypothesis that human IUGR is associated with increased decidual IGFBP-1 phosphorylation at discrete sites, we used IUGR and gestational age matched appropriate for gestational age (AGA) placentas ( n=5 each)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693586/ellagic-acid-alleviates-hepatic-oxidative-stress-and-insulin-resistance-in-diabetic-female-rats
#8
Simran Alexandria Polce, Cameron Burke, Lucas Martins França, Benjamin Kramer, Antonio Marcus de Andrade Paes, Maria Alicia Carrillo-Sepulveda
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects more than 70% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and has become one of the most common metabolic liver diseases worldwide. To date, treatments specifically targeting NAFLD do not exist. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD in diabetes. Accordingly, the goal of this present study was to determine whether Ellagic acid (EA), a natural antioxidant polyphenol found in berries and nuts, mitigates hepatic oxidative stress and insulin resistance in T2DM rats, and thus alleviates NAFLD...
April 25, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687041/meta-inflammation-and-cardiometabolic-disease-in-obesity-can-heat-therapy-help
#9
REVIEW
Brett R Ely, Zachary S Clayton, Carrie E McCurdy, Joshua Pfeiffer, Christopher T Minson
Obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The current theory linking metabolic disease and obesity involves ischemic adipose tissue initiating an inflammatory cascade that results in systemic insulin resistance and may eventually lead to type II diabetes mellitus. Diabetes and associated metabolic dysfunction increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and fatal cardiovascular events. By targeting key steps in this process, ischemia and inflammation, this cascade may be prevented or reversed and thus metabolic and cardiovascular health may be preserved in obesity...
2018: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686511/effects-of-scrambling-trumpet-creeper-flavone-on-transient-cerebral-ischemia-model-tia-in-rats
#10
Mingsan Miao, Xu Zhang, Fan Zhang, Can Wang, Xiaoyan Fang, Ming Bai, Cuishan Xu, Leshang Teng
To investigate the effects of Scrambling Trumpet Creeper flavone on neurological function score, brain tissue lesion and related biochemical indexes in rat TIA model. Methods: TIA model was induced by tail vein injection of t-butanol (t-BHP). The rats in each administration group were given large, medium and low dose of Scrambling Trumpet Creeper flavone 0.1% CMC suspension, nimodipine and Yangxueqingnao particles group 0.1% CMC suspension, model group and blank group fed the same volume 0.1% CMC. Once a day, continuous administration of 7d...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678877/deferoxamine-ameliorates-adipocyte-dysfunction-by-modulating-iron-metabolism-in-ob-ob-mice
#11
Hong-Fa Yan, Zhao-Yu Liu, Zhi-Ang Guan, Chuang Guo
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms underlying obesity and anti-obesity processes have garnered remarkable attention as potential therapeutic targets for obesity-associated metabolic syndromes. Our prior work has shown the healing efficacy of iron reduction therapies for hepatic steatosis in a rodent model of diabetes and obesity. In this study, we investigated how iron depletion by deferoxamine (DFO) affected adipocyte dysfunction in the epididymal adipose tissues of ob/ob mice. METHODS: Male ob/ob mice were assigned to either a vehicle-treated or DFO-treated group...
April 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671418/the-role-of-k-atp-channels-in-cerebral-ischemic-stroke-and-diabetes
#12
REVIEW
Vivian Szeto, Nai-Hong Chen, Hong-Shuo Sun, Zhong-Ping Feng
ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels are ubiquitously expressed on the plasma membrane of cells in multiple organs, including the heart, pancreas and brain. KATP channels play important roles in controlling and regulating cellular functions in response to metabolic state, which are inhibited by ATP and activated by Mg-ADP, allowing the cell to couple cellular metabolic state (ATP/ADP ratio) to electrical activity of the cell membrane. KATP channels mediate insulin secretion in pancreatic islet beta cells, and controlling vascular tone...
April 19, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650791/impairments-in-adipose-tissue-microcirculation-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-assessed-by-real-time-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound
#13
Donghua Hu, Devika Remash, Ryan D Russell, Timothy Greenaway, Stephen Rattigan, Kathryn A Squibb, Graeme Jones, Dino Premilovac, Stephen M Richards, Michelle A Keske
BACKGROUND: In obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), adipose tissue expansion (because of larger adipocytes) results in reduced microvascular density which is thought to lead to adipocyte hypoxia, inflammation, and reduced nutrient delivery to the adipocyte. Adipose tissue microvascular responses in humans with T2D have not been extensively characterized. Furthermore, it has not been determined whether impaired microvascular responses in human adipose tissue are most closely associated with adiposity, inflammation, or altered metabolism...
April 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623044/long-term-intermittent-work-at-high-altitude-right-heart-functional-and-morphological-status-and-associated-cardiometabolic-factors
#14
Julio Brito, Patricia Siques, Rosario López, Raul Romero, Fabiola León-Velarde, Karen Flores, Nicole Lüneburg, Juliane Hannemann, Rainer H Böger
Background: Living at high altitude or with chronic hypoxia implies functional and morphological changes in the right ventricle and pulmonary vasculature with a 10% prevalence of high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH). The implications of working intermittently (day shifts) at high altitude (hypobaric hypoxia) over the long term are still not well-defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the right cardiac circuit status along with potentially contributory metabolic variables and distinctive responses after long exposure to the latter condition...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599831/effect-of-curcumin-on-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-in-hypoxic-hepg2-cells-via-the-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor-signaling-pathway
#15
Yihui Chen, Wei Zhong, Baohua Chen, Chuanyu Yang, Song Zhou, Jing Liu
To investigate the anti-angiogenic effect and underlying molecular mechanisms of curcumin on HepG2 cells under hypoxic conditions, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) knockout HepG2 cells were constructed using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 genome-editing system. Hypoxic conditions were generated using cobalt chloride (CoCl2 ). An MTT assay was performed to measure the effects of curcumin on cell viability in hypoxia-induced IGF-1R knockout HepG2 cells, while western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of IGF-1R, phosphorylated (p)-protein kinase B (Akt), p-extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk)1/2, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593651/distinct-shift-in-beta-cell-glutaredoxin-5-expression-is-mediated-by-hypoxia-and-lipotoxicity-both-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#16
Sebastian Friedrich Petry, Lia Mingzhe Sun, Anna Knapp, Sabrina Reinl, Thomas Linn
Histomorphological and functional alterations in pancreatic islet composition directly correlate with hyperglycemia severity. Progressive deterioration of metabolic control in subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes is predominantly caused by impaired beta-cell functionality. The glutaredoxin system is supposed to wield protective properties for beta-cells. Therefore, we sought to identify a correlation between the structural changes observed in diabetic pancreatic islets with altered glutaredoxin 5 expression, in order to determine an underlying mechanism of beta-cell impairment...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593339/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-of-primary-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-in-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma
#17
Antigoni Manousopoulou, Annette Hayden, Massimiliano Mellone, Diana J Garay-Baquero, Cory H White, Fergus Noble, Monette Lopez, Gareth J Thomas, Timothy J Underwood, Spiros D Garbis
BACKGROUND: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the major stromal component of the tumour microenvironment (TME). The present study aimed to examine the proteomic profiles of CAFs vs. normal fibroblasts (NOFs) from patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma to gain insight into their pro-oncogenic phenotype. METHODS: CAFs/NOFs from four patients were sub-cultured and analysed using quantitative proteomics. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were subjected to bioinformatics and compared with published proteomics and transcriptomics  datasets...
March 29, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589215/cellular-glucose-uptake-during-breath-hold-diving-in-experienced-male-breath-hold-divers
#18
Nicola Sponsiello, Danilo Cialoni, Massimo Pieri, Alessandro Marroni
BACKGROUND: The physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms that govern diving, both self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) and breath-hold diving (BH-diving), are in large part well known, even if there are still many unknown aspects, in particular about cell metabolism during BH-diving. The scope of this study was to investigate changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and the catecholamine response to BH-diving, to better understand if the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake mechanism is involved in cellular metabolism in this sport...
March 27, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583066/naturally-occurring-hair-growth-peptide-water-soluble-chicken-egg-yolk-peptides-stimulate-hair-growth-through-induction-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-production
#19
Toshio Nakamura, Haruo Yamamura, Kyungho Park, Caroline Pereira, Yoshikazu Uchida, Noriko Horie, Mujo Kim, Satoshi Itami
Alopecia is divided into two categories: androgenic alopecia and nonandrogenic alopecia. An androgen-dependent abnormality of biological functions causes alopecia in males, but the role of androgens is not yet elucidated in female pattern hair loss (FPHL). Modulation of androgenic activity is not effective in certain kinds of androgenic alopecia in females, as well as in cases of nonandrogenic alopecia in males and females. The hair growth drug, minoxidil, stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production as well as vascularization and hair growth in females...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582442/relationship-between-fetal-peak-systolic-velocity-in-middle-cerebral-artery-and-umbilical-blood-gas-values-and-hemoglobin-levels-in-diabetic-pregnant-women
#20
Mehmet S Kutuk, Mehmet Dolanbay, Ayse F Gokmen Karasu, Mahmut T Ozgun
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between peak systolic velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCA-PSV) and fetal hypoxia in diabetic pregnant women requiring insulin therapy. METHODS: The data of diabetic pregnant women using insulin who were followed in our departments were reviewed retrospectively. The relationships between MCA-PSV and umbilical cord pO2, pCO2, base deficit, hemoglobin, and birth weight were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 120 cases were included in the final analysis...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
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