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Maria Sole Morelli, Alberto Greco, Gaetano Valenza, Alberto Giannoni, Michele Emdin, Enzo Pasquale Scilingo, Nicola Vanello
Brain activations related to the control of breathing are not completely known. The respiratory system is a non-linear system. However, the relationship between neural and respiratory dynamics is usually estimated through linear correlation measures, completely neglecting possible underlying nonlinear interactions. This study evaluate the linear and nonlinear coupling between electroencephalographic (EEG) signal and variations in carbon dioxide (CO2 ) signal related to different breathing task. During a free breathing and a voluntary breath hold tasks, the coupling between EEG power in nine different brain regions in delta (1-3 Hz) and alpha (8-13 Hz) bands and end-tidal CO2 (PET CO2 ) was evaluated...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
David M Edmunds, Lone Gothard, Komel Khabra, Anna Kirby, Poonam Madhale, Helen McNair, David Roberts, K K Tang, Richard Symonds-Tayler, Fatemeh Tahavori, Kevin Wells, Ellen Donovan
Voluntary inspiration breath hold (VIBH) for left breast cancer patients has been shown to be a safe and effective method of reducing radiation dose to the heart. Currently, VIBH protocol compliance is monitored visually. In this work, we establish whether it is possible to gate the delivery of radiation from an Elekta linac using the Microsoft Kinect version 2 (Kinect v2) depth sensor to measure a patient breathing signal. This would allow contactless monitoring during VMAT treatment, as an alternative to equipment-assisted methods such as active breathing control (ABC)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Maria Kerti, Zsuzsanna Balogh, Krisztina Kelemen, Janos T Varga
Rationale: The relationship of functional parameters such as lung mechanics, chest kinematics, metabolism and peripheral and respiratory muscle function with the level of exercise tolerance remains a controversial subject. While it has been previously shown that pulmonary rehabilitation is capable of improving exercise tolerance in patients afflicted by COPD, as expressed by values of 6-minute walking test (6MWT), the degree of contribution to this change by each of the aforementioned parameters remains unclear...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Dennis M Hedderich, Kilian Weiss, Judith E Spiro, Daniel Giese, Gabriele M Beck, David Maintz, Thorsten Persigehl
PURPOSE:  Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging of the liver is typically acquired using breath-hold techniques to reduce motion artifacts and to allow for optimal diagnostic image quality. Insufficient breath-holds during MR data collection can cause severe reduction of image quality up to the point of being non-diagnostic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subjective and objective clinical image quality of a novel free-breathing radial k-space sampling MR technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Consent for this study was given by the local IRB committee...
March 13, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Wataru Jomoto, Masao Tanooka, Hiroshi Doi, Keisuke Kikuchi, Chiemi Mitsuie, Yusuke Yamada, Toru Suzuki, Toshiko Yamano, Reiichi Ishikura, Noriko Kotoura, Shingo Yamamoto
We sought to develop a surgical navigation system using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and a three-dimensional (3D) printer for robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Six patients with pathologically proven localized prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled in this study. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), consisting of T2-weighted sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions (SPACE) and true fast imaging with steady-state precession (true FISP), reconstructed by volume rendering, was followed by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRA performed with a volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) during intravenous bolus injection of gadobutrol...
January 2, 2018: Curēus
Fabian Aus dem Siepen, Christian Baumgärtner, Matthias Müller-Henessen, Florian André, Daniel Messroghli, Marco Ochs, Johannes Riffel, Evangelos Giannitsis, Hugo A Katus, Matthias G Friedrich, Sebastian J Buss
Background: Myocardial T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) derived from cardiovascular MRIs are more and more widely accepted as important markers for diagnosis, risk prediction and monitoring of cardiac disease. Yet data regarding long-term stability of myocardial T1 mapping are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of native and postcontrast T1 mapping values in healthy volunteers. Methods: 18 strictly selected healthy volunteers (52±10 years, 12 men) were studied on a Philips Achieva 1...
2018: Open Heart
Kimihiro Kajita, Satoshi Goshima, Yoshifumi Noda, Hiroshi Kawada, Nobuyuki Kawai, Tomoyuki Okuaki, Masatoshi Honda, Masayuki Matsuo
PURPOSE: To compare four free-breathing scan techniques for gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatobiliary phase imaging with conventional breath-hold scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatobiliary phase imaging with six image acquisition sets performed in 50 patients. Image acquisition sets included fat-suppressed 3D T1 -weighted turbo field echo with free-breathing pseudo-golden-angle radial stack-of-stars (FBRS) acquisition, FBRS with track (FBRST ), FBRS with gate and track (FBRSG&T ), thin-slice FBRS with gate and track (thin-slice FBRSG&T ), free-breathing Cartesian acquisition (CartesianFB ), and breath-hold Cartesian acquisition (CartesianBH )...
March 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Noora Al-Hammadi, Palmira Caparrotti, Carole Naim, Jillian Hayes, Katherine Rebecca Benson, Ana Vasic, Hissa Al-Abdulla, Rabih Hammoud, Saju Divakar, Primoz Petric
Background: During radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer, parts of the heart are irradiated, which may lead to late toxicity. We report on the experience of single institution with cardiac-sparing radiotherapy using voluntary deep inspiration breath hold (V-DIBH) and compare its dosimetric outcome with free breathing (FB) technique. Patients and methods: Left-sided breast cancer patients, treated at our department with postoperative radiotherapy of breast/chest wall +/- regional lymph nodes between May 2015 and January 2017, were considered for inclusion...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Yuuji Inoue, Masami Yoneyama, Masanobu Nakamura, Atsushi Takemura
The two-dimensional Cartesian turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence is widely used in routine clinical studies, but it is sensitive to respiratory motion. We investigated the k-space orders in Cartesian TSE that can effectively reduce motion artifacts. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between k-space order and degree of motion artifacts using a moving phantom. We compared the degree of motion artifacts between linear and asymmetric k-space orders. The actual spacing of ghost artifacts in the asymmetric order was doubled compared with that in the linear order in the free-breathing situation...
March 7, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
Steffen Vogelgesang, Marcus Niebert, Anne M Bischoff, Swen Hülsmann, Till Manzke
Mutations in the transcription factor methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) cause the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). Besides many other neurological problems, RTT patients show irregular breathing with recurrent apneas or breath-holdings. MeCP2-deficient mice, which recapitulate this breathing phenotype, show a dysregulated, persistent expression of G-protein-coupled serotonin receptor 5-ht5b ( Htr5b ) in the brainstem. To investigate whether the persistence of 5-ht5b expression is contributing to the respiratory phenotype, we crossbred MeCP2-deficient mice with 5-ht5b -deficient mice to generate double knockout mice ( Mecp2-/y ; Htr5b -/- )...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Anthony R Bain, Ivan Drvis, Zeljko Dujic, David B MacLeod, Philip N Ainslie
NEW FINDINGS: What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. ABSTRACT: Breath hold related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently within the last ∼30 years has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport...
March 7, 2018: Experimental Physiology
T G Ilkevitch, N I Medvedkova
The article presents analysis of application of time budget by contingent of female students-artists of different courses. The purpose of study is to investigate life-style and health indices of female students-artists. The study tasks included to determine time spending for various kinds of activity of female students, to analyze certain health indices of female artists and to substantiate activities related to health promotion of this contingent. The applied methods included analysis of publications, analysis of temporarily disability certificates, questionnaire survey, health indices testing...
July 2017: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
Whoon Jong Kil, Tabitha Pham, Sabbir Hossain, Juan Casaigne, Kellie Jones, Mohammad Khalil
Deep inspiration breathing hold (DIBH) compared to free-breathing (FB) during radiotherapy (RT) has significantly decreased radiation dose to heart and has been one of the techniques adopted for patients with breast cancer. However, patients who are unable to make suitable deep inspiration breath may not be eligible for DIBH, yet still need to spare the heart and lung during breast cancer RT (left-sided RT in particular). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a positive airway pressure ventilator, which keeps the airways continuously open and subsequently inflates the thorax resembling thoracic changes from DIBH...
March 2, 2018: Radiation Oncology Journal
Hesameddin Modir, Esmail Moshiri, Bijan Yazdi, Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi, Amirreza Modir
Adverse events following surgical operations are common complications due to removal of tracheal tube in contrast to the tracheal intubation. Awareness about the new methods and strategies for tracheal tube extubation is necessary for a safe and successful extubation. Therefore, we aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of laryngeal mask airway (LMA), streamlined liner of the pharyngeal airway (SLIPA) and I-gel in extubation time of tracheal tube. A one-single randomized clinical trial was conducted in 105 eligible patients in three groups including LMA, SLIPA and I-gel...
October 2017: Medical Gas Research
Jakob Weiss, Mike Notohamiprodjo, Jana Taron, Petros Martirosian, Dominik Nickel, Fabian Bamberg, Konstantin Nikolaou, Ahmed E Othman
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a prototype volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequence using compressed sensing (VIBECS) for rapid multiphase arterial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at different temporal resolution during free-breathing in comparison with a conventional breath-hold approach (VIBESTD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 40 patients with liver malignancies were prospectively included in this study and underwent contrast-enhanced liver MRI at 1...
February 28, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Tracey L Rogers
It is proposed that where sexually selected vocal communication is an honest signal, the call production rate is predicted to change throughout the breeding season. Male leopard seals call underwater for many hours each day over their three- to four-month breeding season, and it is hypothesized that a decrease in calling rate would be associated with the declining body condition of smaller males. The calling rates of leopard seals were measured ( N  = 49 recordings) and compared between seals of different size classes throughout the breeding season...
August 2017: Current Zoology
Patricia Arranz, Kelly J Benoit-Bird, Brandon L Southall, John Calambokidis, Ari S Friedlaender, Peter L Tyack
Humans remember the past and use that information to plan future actions. Lab experiments that test memory for the location of food show that animals have a similar capability to act in anticipation of future needs, but less work has been done on animals foraging in the wild. We hypothesized that planning abilities are critical and common in breath-hold divers who adjust each dive to forage on prey varying in quality, location and predictability within constraints of limited oxygen availability. We equipped Risso's dolphins with sound-and-motion recording tags to reveal where they focus their attention through their externally observable echolocation and how they fine tune search strategies in response to expected and observed prey distribution...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
A Ranger, A Dunlop, K Hutchinson, H Convery, M K Maclennan, H Chantler, N Twyman, C Rose, D McQuaid, R A Amos, C Griffin, N M deSouza, E Donovan, E Harris, C E Coles, A Kirby
AIMS: Radiotherapy target volumes in early breast cancer treatment increasingly include the internal mammary chain (IMC). In order to maximise survival benefits of IMC radiotherapy, doses to the heart and lung should be minimised. This dosimetry study compared the ability of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, arc therapy and proton beam therapy (PBT) techniques with and without breath-hold to achieve target volume constraints while minimising dose to organs at risk (OARs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 14 patients' datasets, seven IMC radiotherapy techniques were compared: wide tangent (WT) three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and PBT, each in voluntary deep inspiratory breath-hold (vDIBH) and free breathing (FB), and tomotherapy in FB only...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Laura B Ponsaing, Ulrich Lindberg, Egill Rostrup, Helle K Iversen, Henrik B W Larsson, Poul Jennum
OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for stroke. Little is known about the cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes during apnea. Hypercapnia occurs in apneas and hypopneas, and a reduced cerebral vasodilatory response to CO2 could compromise the cerebral blood flow (CBF). Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) affected the cerebrovascular response to CO2 . METHODS: A total of 11 patients with OSA were compared to 16 controls...
March 2018: Sleep Medicine
Daiki Tamada, Tetsuya Wakayama, Hiroshi Onishi, Utaroh Motosugi
PURPOSE: To develop multiparameter mapping including T1 , R2*, and proton density fat fraction with a single breath-hold to evaluate liver disease and liver function. METHODS: A 6-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence with dual flip angles was used to acquire a 12-set MRI volume data set. To shorten the scan time, undersampling and multicontrast compressed-sensing reconstruction were used. The scan time was 18 seconds. R2* and proton density fat fraction mapping were achieved by using the iterative least-squares method...
February 24, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
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