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diabetic ketoacidosis and LADA

Dimitrios Patoulias, Alexandros Manafis, Christos Mitas, Konstantinos Avranas, Georgios Lales, Ioanna Zografou, Christos Sambanis, Asterios Karagiannis
BACKGROUND: SGLT-2 inhibitors are a novel class of antidiabetic drugs, recently approved for the treatment of patients with T2DM. Their cardioprotective and renoprotective action, along with their beneficial effects on metabolic parameters, make them an attractive therapeutic option. Since 2015, when the US FDA issued warning regarding the increased risk of euDKA in the setting of SGLT-2 inhibitors administration, a vivid discussion upon the direct connection between this novel class and the major metabolic complication of diabetes mellitus is still ongoing...
February 6, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
S Hussain, S Keat, S V Gelding
We describe the case of an African woman who was diagnosed with ketosis-prone diabetes with diabetes-associated autoantibodies, after being admitted for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) precipitated by her first presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). She had a seven-year history of recurrent gestational diabetes (GDM) not requiring insulin therapy, with return to normoglycaemia after each pregnancy. This might have suggested that she had now developed type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the diagnosis of SLE prompted testing for an autoimmune aetiology for the diabetes, and she was found to have a very high titre of GAD antibodies...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
A A Alzenaidi, J Dendy, L Rejjal
INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy has been approved for treatment of melanoma. Autoimmune endocrinopathies have been reported in trials involving immunotherapy but autoimmune diabetes has not been definitively linked to them. Here we describe a case of autoimmune diabetes presenting with DKA after receiving combined immunotherapy with anti-CTLA4 and anti-PD1 monoclonal antibodies. CASE: A 47year old gentleman with metastatic melanoma presented to our institution with confusion, abdominal pain and decreased oral intake...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
Kelly R Burke, Christine A Schumacher, Spencer E Harpe
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Currently only minimal information is available regarding risk factors for the development of sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i)-related diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We aim to identify individual patient characteristics associated with cases of SGLT2i-related DKA to better describe potential risk factors. DESIGN: Systematic review of primary literature. PATIENTS: Thirty-four case reports of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus who developed DKA while receiving an SGLT2i...
February 2017: Pharmacotherapy
Yehuda Handelsman, Robert R Henry, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Sam Dagogo-Jack, Ralph A DeFronzo, Daniel Einhorn, Ele Ferrannini, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Derek LeRoith, Guillermo E Umpierrez, Matthew R Weir
AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ACE = American College of Endocrinology DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis EMA = European Medicines Agency FDA = U.S. Food and Drug Administration SGLT-2 = sodium glucosecotransporter 2 T1D = type 1 diabetes T2D = type 2 diabetes.
June 2016: Endocrine Practice
Giovanni Mario Pes, Alessandro Palmerio Delitala, Alessandra Errigo, Giuseppe Delitala, Maria Pina Dore
Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) which accounts for more than 10 % of all cases of diabetes is characterized by onset after age 30, absence of ketoacidosis, insulin independence for at least 6 months, and presence of circulating islet-cell antibodies. Its marked heterogeneity in clinical features and immunological markers suggests the existence of multiple mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis. The principal component (PC) analysis is a statistical approach used for finding patterns in data of high dimension...
June 2016: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Omar Nadhem, Essam Nakhla, Roger D Smalligan
A 54-year-old white female with hypothyroidism presented with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. She was found to have diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and admitted to our hospital for treatment. Laboratory workup revealed positive antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and subsequently she was diagnosed with latent onset autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA). She was successfully treated with insulin with clinical and laboratory improvement. Diagnosis of LADA has been based on three criteria as given by The Immunology of Diabetes Society: (1) adult age of onset (>30 years of age); (2) presence of at least one circulating autoantibody (GADA/ICA/IAA/IA-2); and (3) initial insulin independence for the first six months...
2015: Case Reports in Medicine
E Laugesen, J A Østergaard, R D G Leslie
Patients with adult-onset autoimmune diabetes have less Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)-associated genetic risk and fewer diabetes-associated autoantibodies compared with patients with childhood-onset Type 1 diabetes. Metabolic changes at diagnosis reflect a broad clinical phenotype ranging from diabetic ketoacidosis to mild non-insulin-requiring diabetes, also known as latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA). This latter phenotype is the most prevalent form of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes and probably the most prevalent form of autoimmune diabetes in general...
July 2015: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Elena Pipi, Marietta Marketou, Alexandra Tsirogianni
Ever since its first appearance among the multiple forms of diabetes, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), has been the focus of endless discussions concerning mainly its existence as a special type of diabetes. In this mini-review, through browsing important peer-reviewed publications, (original articles and reviews), we will attempt to refresh our knowledge regarding LADA hoping to enhance our understanding of this controversial diabetes entity. A unique combination of immunological, clinical and metabolic characteristics has been identified in this group of patients, namely persistent islet cell antibodies, high frequency of thyroid and gastric autoimmunity, DR3 and DR4 human leukocyte antigen haplotypes, progressive loss of beta cells, adult disease onset, normal weight, defective glycaemic control, and without tendency to ketoacidosis...
August 15, 2014: World Journal of Diabetes
Jana Urbanová, Blanka Rypáčková, Petr Kučera, Michal Anděl, Petr Heneberg
It was recently suggested that routine islet cell autoantibody testing should be performed to discriminate maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) from type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This is the first report ever to describe the familial manifestation of T1DM autoimmunity in nonobese HNF1A-MODY subjects and the presence of islet antigen-2 (IA-2) antibodies in MODY subjects. Three nonobese subjects in an age range of 14-35 years were diagnosed with HNF1A-MODY (p. Arg159Gln mutation). All the tested subjects had detectable (but varying) levels of islet cell autoantibodies (i...
2013: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Debbie Gooderick, Umesh Dashora, Sathis Kumar
A 64-year-old female with a background of type 2 diabetes became acutely unwell after being transferred from insulin to liraglutide, which is one of the new glucagon like peptide 1 analogues. On assessment in accident and emergency, she was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and pancreatits. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies were positive at 45 (0-1 U/ml) and C-peptide was low <94 pmol/l in keeping with the diagnosis of latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA). This type of diabetes is characterised by slow autoimmune destruction of β cells of pancreas and can often be mistaken for type 2 diabetes...
2011: BMJ Case Reports
S Ray, D Sarkar, S Ganguly, A Maiti
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) is an autoimmune form of type 1 diabetes mellitus presenting in adulthood. It is often confused with other types of diabetes and therefore the management is frequently inadequate. Acute hyperglycemic crisis in the form of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are unusual findings. We report a clinical case of a 66-year-old female who presented for the first time with DKA and was subsequently diagnosed as a case of LADA. Presumptive diagnosis of LADA was confirmed with the presence of autoantibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (Anti-GAD65 antibody)...
February 2012: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Kristina Djekic, Aram Mouzeyan, Eli Ipp
CONTEXT: Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is a form of autoimmune diabetes that has been classified as part of type 1 diabetes or as a distinct clinical entity. Its precise place as a disease category is therefore controversial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to further examine this issue by comparing the phenotypes of LADA and type 1 diabetes in a predominately minority population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 126 subjects who were anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody-positive in two separate studies--63 subjects in an outpatient study (study 1), and 63 inpatients after resolution of ketoacidosis (study 2)...
March 2012: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
R D G Leslie, H Kolb, N C Schloot, R Buzzetti, D Mauricio, A De Leiva, K Yderstraede, C Sarti, C Thivolet, D Hadden, S Hunter, G Schernthaner, W Scherbaum, R Williams, P Pozzilli
Diseases gain identity from clinical phenotype as well as genetic and environmental aetiology. The definition of type 1 diabetes is clinically exclusive, comprising patients who are considered insulin dependent at diagnosis, whilst the definition of type 2 diabetes is inclusive, only excluding those who are initially insulin dependent. Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) are each exclusive forms of diabetes which are, at least initially, clinically distinct from type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes, and each have a different natural history from these major types of diabetes...
October 2008: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Maria Regina Calsolari, Pedro W Souza do Rosário, Janice Sepúlveda Reis, Saulo Cavalcanti da Silva, Saulo Purisch
The prevalence of latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA) varies according to the population studied, criteria used and antibodies analyzed. In a series of 256 patients > 25 years, we found that 26 (10.2%) were anti-GAD antibody (GADA) positive and 16 of them (6.3%) progressed without initial insulin requirement. Although controversy exists, the following diagnostic criteria for LADA are suggested: age between 25 and 65 years; absence of ketoacidosis or symptomatic hyperglycemia at diagnosis or immediately thereafter, without insulin requirement for 6-12 months; and presence of autoantibodies (especially GADA)...
March 2008: Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia
Eiji Kawasaki, Katsumi Eguchi
In the Japanese population, the incidence of type 1 diabetes is as low as approximately 2 cases/year/100,000 children, which is much lower compared to that in countries with populations predominantly of Caucasian origin. However, the prevalences of anti-islet autoantibodies in patients with Japanese type 1 diabetes are 60-70% for GAD autoantibodies, 45-50% for insulin autoantibodies (IAA), and 60-65% for IA-2 autoantibodies at disease onset, which are similar to those reported in Caucasian patients. With combinatorial analysis of these autoantibodies, 90% of patients express at least one of these autoantibodies and are classified as type 1A diabetics...
December 2004: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Zehra Aycan, Merih Berberoglu, Pelin Adiyaman, Ayça Törel Ergür, Arzu Ensari, Olcay Evliyaoglu, Zeynep Siklar, Gönül Ocal
Latent autoimmune diabetes mellitus in adults (LADA) is characterized by clinical presentation as type 2 diabetes mellitus after 25 years of age, initial control achieved with oral hypoglycemic agents for at least 6 months, presence of autoantibodies and some immunogenetic features of type 1 diabetes mellitus. An 8.3 year-old girl was referred to our pediatric endocrinology department because of incidental glucosuria. She did not complain of polyuria, polydipsia, or weight loss. Her body mass index (BMI) was at the 80th percentile...
November 2004: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
J B Hoekstra, E J de Koning
In three patients with an unusual presentation of diabetes mellitus, the classification of their diabetes was troublesome. An adolescent male with slightly elevated blood-glucose levels turned out to have excellent glycaemic control on sulphonylurea derivatives only. When he was 40 years of age, his diabetes was finally diagnosed as 'maturity onset diabetes of the young' (MODY). A non-obese 41-year-old man was initially diagnosed with type-2 diabetes. Therapy with oral hypoglycaemic agents was unsuccessful and he was subsequently classified as having 'latent autoimmune diabetes of adults' (LADA) based on the presence of antibodies against glutaminic acid decarboxylase...
April 17, 2004: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
A C Thai, W Y Ng, K Y Loke, W R Lee, K F Lui, J S Cheah
An autoimmune basis for the pathogenesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is supported by the frequent presence of autoantibodies - islet cell antibodies (ICAs) and GAD antibodies (GADab). However, in Chinese patients with clinical IDDM, a low prevalence of ICAs was observed. In non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patients, it has been suggested that the presence of GADab may identify a subset of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). We determined the frequency of GADab in a large group of 134 IDDM and 168 NIDDM Chinese patients, and assessed the relation with ICAs status...
December 1997: Diabetologia
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