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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969210/prevention-of-parent-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-single-centre-experience-of-14-years-at-tertiary-care-hospital-in-delhi-india
#1
A G Radhika, Sonia Chawla, Sruthi Bhaskaran
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of Parent To Child Transmission (PPTCT) of HIV/AIDS is an integral component of AIDS control programme. PPTCT is an ongoing programme since last 15 years. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction in the burden of disease in newborn and infants by prevention of parents to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in a tertiary care hospital of Delhi from May 2002 to May 2015...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933754/the-positive-correlation-of-the-enhanced-immune-response-to-pcv2-subunit-vaccine-by-conjugation-of-chitosan-oligosaccharide-with-the-deacetylation-degree
#2
Guiqiang Zhang, Gong Cheng, Peiyuan Jia, Siming Jiao, Cui Feng, Tao Hu, Hongtao Liu, Yuguang Du
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), the degraded products of chitosan, have been demonstrated to have versatile biological functions. In primary studies, it has displayed significant adjuvant effects when mixed with other vaccines. In this study, chitosan oligosaccharides with different deacetylation degrees were prepared and conjugated to porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subunit vaccine to enhance its immunogenicity. The vaccine conjugates were designed by the covalent linkage of COSs to PCV2 molecules and administered to BALB/c mice three times at two-week intervals...
July 26, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920396/-inhibition-of-chitin-oligosaccharide-on-dyslipidemia-and-the-potential-molecular-mechanism-exploration
#3
Fanqi Yi, Junping Zheng, Qiongyu Li, Siming Jiao, Yuguang Du, Yun Ye, Hongtao Liu
The inhibitory effect of NACOS on dyslipidemia and potential molecular mechanisms by in vitro and in vivo experiments were investigated. For in vitro study, four experimental groups were designed by using HepG2 cells, including the control group, palmitic acid (PA) treatment alone group, NACOS treatment alone group and NACOS + PA treatment group. For in vivo study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n=5) at random including the normal control group (NCD), high fat diet (HFD) group, NACOS treatment alone group, NACOS+HFD group, which were treated for 20 weeks...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832757/structure-and-work-process-in-primary-care-and-hospitalizations-for-sensitive-conditions
#4
Waleska Regina Machado Araujo, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Thiago Augusto Hernandes Rocha, Núbia Cristina da Silva, Elaine Thumé, Elaine Tomasi, Luiz Augusto Facchini, Erika Barbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate whether the characteristics of the structure of primary health units and the work process of primary care teams are associated with the number of hospitalizations for primary care sensitive conditions. METHODS: In this ecological study, we have analyzed data of Brazilian municipalities related to sociodemographic characteristics, coverage of care programs, structure of primary health units, and work process of primary care teams...
August 17, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821038/the-inhibition-of-lps-induced-inflammation-in-raw264-7-macrophages-via-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-by-highly-n-acetylated-chitooligosaccharide
#5
Qingsong Xu, Meisi Liu, Qishun Liu, Wenxia Wang, Yuguang Du, Heng Yin
Chitooligosaccharide (COS) has been shown to regulate many biological functions, such as antimicrobial effect and antitumor activity. In the present study, highly N-acetylated chitooligosaccharide (NACOS) was prepared by N-acetylation of COS, and the anti-inflammatory activity of NACOS in macrophages were evaluated. The results indicated NACOS significantly suppressed the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression. Furthermore, the increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) were repressed by NACOS in a dose dependent manner...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732472/genexpert-hiv-1-quant-assay-a-new-tool-for-scale-up-of-viral-load-monitoring-in-the-success-of-art-programme-in-india
#6
Smita Kulkarni, Sushama Jadhav, Priyanka Khopkar, Suvarna Sane, Rajkumar Londhe, Vaishali Chimanpure, Veronica Dhilpe, Manisha Ghate, Rajendra Yelagate, Narayan Panchal, Girish Rahane, Dilip Kadam, Nitin Gaikwad, Bharat Rewari, Raman Gangakhedkar
BACKGROUND: Recent WHO guidelines identify virologic monitoring for diagnosing and confirming ART failure. In view of this, validation and scale up of point of care viral load technologies is essential in resource limited settings. METHODS: A systematic validation of the GeneXpert® HIV-1 Quant assay (a point-of-care technology) in view of scaling up HIV-1 viral load in India to monitor the success of national ART programme was carried out. Two hundred nineteen plasma specimens falling in nine viral load ranges (<40 to >5 L copies/ml) were tested by the Abbott m2000rt Real Time and GeneXpert HIV-1 Quant assays...
July 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724102/impact-of-biochar-organic-and-inorganic-carbon-on-soil-co2-and-n2o-emissions
#7
Rivka B Fidel, David A Laird, Timothy B Parkin
Biochar has been shown to influence soil CO and NO emissions following application to soil, but the presence of carbonates in biochars has largely confounded efforts to differentiate among labile and recalcitrant C pools in biochar and establish their timeframe of influence. Understanding the mechanism, magnitude, and duration of biochar C pools' influence on C and N dynamics is imperative to successful implementation of biochar for C sequestration. Here we therefore aim to assess biochar organic and inorganic C pool impacts on CO and NO emissions from soil amended with two untreated biochars, inorganic carbon (as NaCO), acid (HCl) and bicarbonate (NaHCO) extracts of the biochars, and acid and bicarbonate/acid-washed biochars during a 140-d soil incubation...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531636/somatometric-evaluation-of-children-and-early-adolescents
#8
Viktoria Naco, Artemissia-Phoebe Nifli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513762/water-fluoridation-in-brazilian-cities-at-the-first-decade-of-the-21st-century
#9
Paulo Frazão, Paulo Capel Narvai
OBJECTIVE: To assess the coverage of the fluoridation of the public water supply in Brazilian municipalities at the first decade of the 21st century, according to population size and municipal human development index (MHDI). METHODS: We have used data produced by national information agencies and the United Nations Development Programme. Population size was separated into < 10,000, 10,000-50,000, and > 50,000 inhabitants. The MHDI was classified into < 0...
May 15, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410272/management-of-severe-bleeding-in-patients-treated-with-direct-oral-anticoagulants-an-observational-registry-analysis
#10
MULTICENTER STUDY
Pierre Albaladejo, Charles-Marc Samama, Pierre Sié, Sophie Kauffmann, Vincent Mémier, Pierre Suchon, Alain Viallon, Jean Stéphane David, Yves Gruel, Lorenn Bellamy, Emmanuel de Maistre, Pauline Romegoux, Sophie Thoret, Gilles Pernod, Jean-Luc Bosson
BACKGROUND: The use of prothrombin complex concentrates and the role of plasma concentration of anticoagulants in the management of bleeding in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants are still debated. Our aim was to describe management strategies and outcomes of severe bleeding events in patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 732 patients treated with dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban hospitalized for severe bleeding, included prospectively in the registry from June 2013 to November 2015...
July 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331263/clinical-profile-of-surgical-diseases-with-emergence-of-new-problems-in-hiv-individuals
#11
Tejaswini Vallabha, Mandar Dhamangaonkar, Vikram Sindgikar, Ravindra Nidoni, Harshavardhan Biradar, Aniketan Kv, Ramakant Baloorkar
North Karnataka is one of the regions with the high prevalence of HIV+ individuals. Bijapur is a district in North Karnataka with high prevalence as per fact sheets of NACO of March 2012. Better awareness, access to health care, and antiretroviral therapy have improved survival and increase in number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Improved survival has increased their attendance to hospitals with variety of surgical problems, some known and some less known. The percentage of HIV+ individuals was 1.64 % among all admissions...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891360/why-should-viral-markers-be-mandatory-in-ocular-surgeries-a-hospital-based-retrospective-study
#12
Anita Ambastha, Rakhi Kusumesh, Gyan Bhasker
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus I, II (HIV-I,II) are serious global and public health problem. Knowledge of the seroprevalence would enable early diagnosis, treatment of patients and also help in prevention of horizontal spread of infection by application of universal infection control measures. AIM: To determine the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV I, II infection in patients undergoing ocular surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843825/drug-adherence-rate-and-loss-to-follow-up-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-attending-an-art-centre-in-a-tertiary-government-hospital-in-western-india
#13
Kedar G Mehta, Rajendra Baxi, Sangita Patel, Mahendra Parmar
INTRODUCTION: National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has expanded the reach of anti retroviral therapy (ART) to combat the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in India which has one of the largest populations of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the world. One of the major challenges related to ART is a lifelong commitment by patients to adhere diligently to daily medication dosing schedules and scheduled visits to the ART center. Hence, the current study is carried out to assess the drug adherence rate and loss to follow-up (LFU) among PLWHA attending ART centre of a tertiary care hospital in Western India...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833516/utility-of-laboratory-diagnosis-for-confirmation-of-the-syndromic-case-management-in-married-indian-women-with-vaginal-discharge
#14
Prabhav Aggarwal, Sonali Bhattar, Satyendra Kumar Sahani, Preena Bhalla
OBJECTIVE: WHO and NACO recommend treatment of STIs/RTIs on the basis syndromic case management (SCM), even without laboratory confirmation, which may lead to over-treatment. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the utility of laboratory diagnosis for confirmation of patients with vaginal discharge diagnosed on the basis of SCM. METHODOLOGY: 234 married women in reproductive age group, diagnosed as having vaginal discharge syndrome were included. Normal saline wet-mount slide preparations were made for detection of motile trichomonads...
October 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790524/seroprevalence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-among-antenatal-women-in-one-of-the-institute-of-northern-india
#15
Preetkanwal Sibia, Manjit Kaur Mohi, Amith Kumar
INTRODUCTION: As per NACO publication there are an estimated 2.08 Million HIV/AIDS cases in India as of February 2014. The estimated adult HIV prevalence in India is 0.27%, with a gender spit of 0.32% males and 0.22% females. Estimating the seroprevalence of HIV in a low risk population such as pregnant women provides essential information for an effective implementation of AIDS control programmes. In spite of an estimated adult HIV prevalence rate of 0.18% in Punjab, there are no previous studies among antenatal women to assess seroprevalence...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257320/mutation-in-aids-restriction-gene-affecting-hiv-infection-and-disease-progression-in-a-high-risk-group-from-northeastern-india
#16
Partha Roy, Sekhar Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: HIV estimates for 2009 released by National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) reveals that 2.4 million people in India were living with HIV, 39% being female, 4.4% children and 82.4% adult males between the age group of 15 and 49 years. Persons with host genetic polymorphism CCR5Δ32 mutation are known to be partially or fully resistant to HIV infection. Persons with mutation affecting both the alleles (homozygous) are resistant to HIV infection whereas single allele (heterozygous) polymorphism leads to slower progression to AIDS...
April 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228989/research-protocol-for-an-epidemiological-study-on-estimating-disease-burden-of-pediatric-hiv-in-belgaum-district-india
#17
Anju Sinha, Anita Nath, Rajeev Sethumadhavan, Shajy Isac, Reynold Washington
BACKGROUND: Pediatric HIV is poised to become a major public health problem in India with the rising trend of HIV infection in pregnant women (Department of AIDS Control, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, http://www.naco.gov.in). There is lack of information on the epidemiology of pediatric HIV infection in India. Existing surveillance systems tend to underestimate the Pediatric burden. The overall aim of the present study is to estimate the disease burden of pediatric HIV among children in Belgaum district in the state of Karnataka in Southern India...
May 26, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146362/comparative-analysis-of-syndromic-and-pcr-based-diagnostic-assay-reveals-misdiagnosis-overtreatment-for-trichomoniasis-based-on-subjective-judgment-in-symptomatic-patients
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Subash Chandra Sonkar, Kirti Wasnik, Anita Kumar, Pratima Mittal, Daman Saluja
BACKGROUND: Trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD), is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis in both men and women. Screening of trichomoniasis is problematic in resource challenged settings as currently available, inexpensive diagnostic methods are of low sensitivity and/or specificity. In India, National AIDS Control organization (NACO) recommended syndromic case management (SCM) for treatment. The objective of the present study was to compare the utility of the NACO-NACP III Algorithms for STI/RTI treatment used by clinicians with PCR based diagnosis...
May 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26147208/multilevel-analysis-of-the-predictors-of-hiv-prevalence-among-pregnant-women-enrolled-in-annual-hiv-sentinel-surveillance-in-four-states-in-southern-india
#19
Usha Thamattoor, Tinku Thomas, Pradeep Banandur, S Rajaram, Thierry Duchesne, Belkacem Abdous, Reynold Washington, B M Ramesh, Stephen Moses, Michel Alary
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. METHODS: Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25892414/prediction-of-drug-resistance-using-genotypic-and-docking-analysis-among-anti-retroviral-therapy-na%C3%A3-ve-and-first-line-treatment-failures-in-salem-tamil-nadu-india
#20
Thirunavukkarasu Dharmalingam, V Udhaya, T Umaarasu, V Elangovan, S V Rajesh, Gnanendra Shanmugam
The emergence of drug resistance among HIV-positive patients undergoing Anti- Retroviral Therapy (ART) with poor adherence to the HAART is a major concern in India. As the HIV accumulates the key mutations, the drug resistance occurs, that pose challenges to the ART regimens currently being used. Thus, the present study was carried out among the ART- naïve patients attending ART Centre at Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. The mutations that concern the drug resistance were discriminated by determining the viral load before and after 6 months...
2015: Current HIV Research
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