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Anita Ambastha, Rakhi Kusumesh, Gyan Bhasker
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus I, II (HIV-I,II) are serious global and public health problem. Knowledge of the seroprevalence would enable early diagnosis, treatment of patients and also help in prevention of horizontal spread of infection by application of universal infection control measures. AIM: To determine the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV I, II infection in patients undergoing ocular surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Kedar G Mehta, Rajendra Baxi, Sangita Patel, Mahendra Parmar
INTRODUCTION: National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has expanded the reach of anti retroviral therapy (ART) to combat the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in India which has one of the largest populations of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the world. One of the major challenges related to ART is a lifelong commitment by patients to adhere diligently to daily medication dosing schedules and scheduled visits to the ART center. Hence, the current study is carried out to assess the drug adherence rate and loss to follow-up (LFU) among PLWHA attending ART centre of a tertiary care hospital in Western India...
April 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Prabhav Aggarwal, Sonali Bhattar, Satyendra Kumar Sahani, Preena Bhalla
OBJECTIVE: WHO and NACO recommend treatment of STIs/RTIs on the basis syndromic case management (SCM), even without laboratory confirmation, which may lead to over-treatment. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the utility of laboratory diagnosis for confirmation of patients with vaginal discharge diagnosed on the basis of SCM. METHODOLOGY: 234 married women in reproductive age group, diagnosed as having vaginal discharge syndrome were included. Normal saline wet-mount slide preparations were made for detection of motile trichomonads...
October 2016: International Journal of Health Sciences
Preetkanwal Sibia, Manjit Kaur Mohi, Amith Kumar
INTRODUCTION: As per NACO publication there are an estimated 2.08 Million HIV/AIDS cases in India as of February 2014. The estimated adult HIV prevalence in India is 0.27%, with a gender spit of 0.32% males and 0.22% females. Estimating the seroprevalence of HIV in a low risk population such as pregnant women provides essential information for an effective implementation of AIDS control programmes. In spite of an estimated adult HIV prevalence rate of 0.18% in Punjab, there are no previous studies among antenatal women to assess seroprevalence...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Partha Roy, Sekhar Chakrabarti
BACKGROUND: HIV estimates for 2009 released by National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) reveals that 2.4 million people in India were living with HIV, 39% being female, 4.4% children and 82.4% adult males between the age group of 15 and 49 years. Persons with host genetic polymorphism CCR5Δ32 mutation are known to be partially or fully resistant to HIV infection. Persons with mutation affecting both the alleles (homozygous) are resistant to HIV infection whereas single allele (heterozygous) polymorphism leads to slower progression to AIDS...
April 2016: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Anju Sinha, Anita Nath, Rajeev Sethumadhavan, Shajy Isac, Reynold Washington
BACKGROUND: Pediatric HIV is poised to become a major public health problem in India with the rising trend of HIV infection in pregnant women (Department of AIDS Control, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, There is lack of information on the epidemiology of pediatric HIV infection in India. Existing surveillance systems tend to underestimate the Pediatric burden. The overall aim of the present study is to estimate the disease burden of pediatric HIV among children in Belgaum district in the state of Karnataka in Southern India...
2016: BMC Public Health
Subash Chandra Sonkar, Kirti Wasnik, Anita Kumar, Pratima Mittal, Daman Saluja
BACKGROUND: Trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD), is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis in both men and women. Screening of trichomoniasis is problematic in resource challenged settings as currently available, inexpensive diagnostic methods are of low sensitivity and/or specificity. In India, National AIDS Control organization (NACO) recommended syndromic case management (SCM) for treatment. The objective of the present study was to compare the utility of the NACO-NACP III Algorithms for STI/RTI treatment used by clinicians with PCR based diagnosis...
May 5, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Usha Thamattoor, Tinku Thomas, Pradeep Banandur, S Rajaram, Thierry Duchesne, Belkacem Abdous, Reynold Washington, B M Ramesh, Stephen Moses, Michel Alary
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. METHODS: Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007...
2015: PloS One
Thirunavukkarasu Dharmalingam, V Udhaya, T Umaarasu, V Elangovan, S V Rajesh, Gnanendra Shanmugam
The emergence of drug resistance among HIV-positive patients undergoing Anti- Retroviral Therapy (ART) with poor adherence to the HAART is a major concern in India. As the HIV accumulates the key mutations, the drug resistance occurs, that pose challenges to the ART regimens currently being used. Thus, the present study was carried out among the ART- naïve patients attending ART Centre at Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India. The mutations that concern the drug resistance were discriminated by determining the viral load before and after 6 months...
2015: Current HIV Research
Kaibalya Ranjan Dash, Lalit Kumar Meher, P K Hui, S K Behera, S N Nayak
Zidovudine (AZT), a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor was the first breakthrough in AIDS therapy in 1990.This study was conducted with an aim to determine prevalence of AZT induced anaemia in HIV infected patients initiated on AZT containing anti retroviral therapy(ART) regimen and also to find out any risk factor for causing AZT induced anaemia. Study was carried out in ART centre, M.K.C.G, MCH, Berhampur between Jan 2009 and Dec 2011. HIV infected patients registered at ART centre were treated according to National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) guidelines...
June 2015: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Cui Hao, Lixia Gao, Yiran Zhang, Wei Wang, Guangli Yu, Huashi Guan, Lijuan Zhang, Chunxia Li
Chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs), depolymerized products of chitosan composed of β-(1→4) D-glucosamine units, have broad range of biological activities such as antitumour, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. In this study, peracetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (PACOs) and N-acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (NACOs) were prepared from the COSs by chemcal modification. The structures of these monomers were identified using NMR and ESI-MS spectra. Their antagonist effects against glutamate-induced PC12 cell death were investigated...
March 2015: Marine Drugs
Kazuo Azuma, Tomohiro Osaki, Saburo Minami, Yoshiharu Okamoto
Previous reports indicate that N-acetyl-d-glucosamine oligomers (chitin oligosaccharide; NACOS) and d-glucosamine oligomers (chitosan oligosaccharide; COS) have various biological activities, especially against cancer and inflammation. In this review, we have summarized the findings of previous investigations that have focused on anticancer or anti-inflammatory properties of NACOS and COS. Moreover, we have introduced recent evaluation of NACOS and COS as functional foods against cancer and inflammatory disease...
2015: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Shivaram Chandrashekar, Ambuja Kantharaj
Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act...
September 2014: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
Jaya Chakravarty, Narendra K Tiwary, Shashi Ranjan Prasad, Saurabh Shukla, Anurag Tiwari, Rabindra Nath Mishra, Shyam Sundar
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) of India has been providing free ARV (antiretroviral) drugs since 2004. b0 y 2012, 486,173 patients had received treatment through the antiretroviral therapy (ART) centres. The objective of this observational study was to assess the factors determining survival of patients on ART under routine programme conditions in an ART centre in north India five years after its inception. METHODS: Treatment naive HIV positive patients who were enrolled in the ART centre between May 2009 and May 2010 and started on ART as per the Revised NACO guidelines 2009, were included in the study and outcome was assessed after two years of follow up...
October 2014: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Sachie Masuda, Kazuo Azuma, Seiji Kurozumi, Masatoshi Kiyose, Tomohiro Osaki, Takeshi Tsuka, Norihiko Itoh, Tomohiro Imagawa, Saburo Minami, Kimihiko Sato, Yoshiharu Okamoto
The current study evaluated the anti-tumor activities of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine oligomer (NACOS) and glucosamine oligomer (COS) after their oral administration in a tumor (colon 26)-bearing mouse model. Compared to the control group, NACOS and COS groups showed significantly suppressed tumor growth, and apparent, marked apoptosis in tumor tissues. Furthermore, serum interleukin-12p70 and interferon-γ levels significantly increased in the NACOS and COS groups compared to the corresponding levels in the control group...
October 13, 2014: Carbohydrate Polymers
Philippe Mahouna Adjagba, Baher Hanna, Joaquim Miró, Adrian Dancea, Nancy Poirier, Suzanne Vobecky, Julie Déry, Chantale Lapierre, Nagib Dahdah
Balloon angioplasty (BAP) used to manage native coarctation of the aorta (CoAo) in infants remains controversial. This study aimed to compare short- and midterm results of BAP between native CoAo (NaCo) and postsurgical recoarctations (ReCo) in infants younger than 1 year. This retrospective study compared the clinical, echocardiographic, hemodynamic, and angiographic data for infants who underwent BAP between July 2003 and September 2012. The 12 NaCo and 13 ReCo patients in this study underwent BAP at 4.61 ± 3...
October 2014: Pediatric Cardiology
Bindya Jain, Suneeta Krishnan, Sowmya Ramesh, Shrutika Sabarwal, Vijay Garg, Neeraj Dhingra
BACKGROUND: For the past two decades, there has been an enduring HIV epidemic among injecting drug users (IDUs) in India, and the Indian national AIDS control program (NACP) led by the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has kept IDUs at the forefront along with other key populations, in its efforts to prevent HIV. Given this, the objective of this study is to examine the association between IDUs' degree of exposure to peer-led education sessions (under NACP) and their needle sharing practices in Haryana, India...
2014: Harm Reduction Journal
Ramachandra Kamath, Vikram Sharma, Sanjay Pattanshetty, Mohandas B Hegde, Varalakshmi Chandrasekaran
BACKGROUND: HIV-TB (tuberculosis) coinfection has emerged as a major public health threat. Given the multifactorial enabling environment in a resource-constrained setting like India, the consequences are of epidemic proportions. AIMS: This study was aimed at identifying the clinical and epidemiological determinants underlying HIV-TB coinfection. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective review of patient records was done from the antiretroviral therapy center (ART) center at a district hospital in southern India between May and August 2012...
October 2013: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Archana J Lokhande, Amita Sutaria, Bela J Shah, Asha N Shah
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the change in the incidence and pattern of nevirapine (NVP)-induced adverse cutaneous reactions (ADR) after commencement of revised National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) guidelines for initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) since Nov 2011. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on patients who developed cutaneous reactions after starting NVP based regimen. According to the revised NACO ART initiation guidelines Nov 2011, ART should be started if CD4 count is < 350 cells/mm(3) in stages 1, and 2 and irrespective of CD4 count in stages 3, and 4...
July 2013: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Jigar D Kapadia, Chetna K Desai, Manish N Solanki, Asha N Shah, R K Dikshit
OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of anti-tuberculosis drugs in HIV-positive patients at a tertiary care teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As a part of an ongoing study of opportunistic infections (OIs) in HIV-positive patients, drug treatment in patients suffering from tuberculosis was assessed to determine its efficacy and safety. Based on prevalence data for last three years, a purposive sampling of study population was carried out in this observational, prospective, single centre study...
September 2013: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
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