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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471109/extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-bacteremias-in-a-multidisciplinary-intensive-care-unit-during-a-6-year-period-risk-factors-for-fulminant-sepsis
#1
M Katsiari, A Mavroidi, E D Platsouka, C Nikolaou
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine potential host-, pathogen-, infection- and treatment-related risk factors that might predict a fulminant, fatal course of bacteremia caused extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDR Aba). METHODS: Eighty-seven patients with monomicrobial growth of XDR Aba in blood cultures within a 6-year period were studied. Patients were divided into three groups, according to ICU outcome. Group A (n=40) consisted of patients who survived, Group B (n=10) included patients with fulminant sepsis that died early (<48h), whereas Group C (n=37) included patients that died later (> 48h) after the onset of bacteremia...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471038/co-delivery-nanoparticle-to-overcome-metastasis-promoted-by-insufficient-chemotherapy
#2
Qing Zhou, Yihui Li, Yanhong Zhu, Chan Yu, Haibo Jia, Binghao Bao, Hang Hu, Chen Xiao, Jianqi Zhang, Xiaofan Zeng, Ying Wan, Huibi Xu, Zifu Li, Xiangliang Yang
Heterogeneous distribution of drug inside tumor is ubiquitous, causing regional insufficient chemotherapy, which might be the hotbed for drug resistance, tumor cell repopulation and metastasis. Herein, we verify, for the first time, that heterogeneous drug distribution induced insufficient chemotherapy would accelerate the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), consequently resulting in the promotion of tumor metastasis. To eliminate the insufficient chemotherapy promoted metastasis, we conceived a co-delivery strategy by hydroxyethyl starch-polylactide (HES-PLA) nanoparticle, in which DOX and TGF-β receptor inhibitor, LY2157299 (LY), were administered together...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470999/mast-cells-regulate-cd4-t-cell-differentiation-in-absence-of-antigen-presentation
#3
Hector Rodriguez Cetina Biefer, Timm Heinbokel, Hirofumi Uehara, Virginia Camacho, Koichiro Minami, Yeqi Nian, Suresh Koduru, Rachid El Fatimy, Ionita Ghiran, Alexander J Trachtenberg, Miguel A de la Fuente, Haruhito Azuma, Omid Akbari, Stefan G Tullius, Anju Vasudevan, Abdallah Elkhal
BACKGROUND: Given their unique capacity for antigen uptake, processing, and presentation, antigen presenting cells (APCs) are critical for initiating and regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. We have previously shown the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ ) in T cell differentiation independently of the cytokine milieu, while the precise mechanisms remained unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to further dissect the mechanism of actions of NAD+ , and to determine the impact of APCs on NAD+ -mediated T cell activation...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470836/role-of-vancomycin-minimum-inhibitory-concentrations-by-modified-population-analysis-profile-method-and-clinical-outcomes-in-high-inoculum-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#4
Trang D Trinh, Evan J Zasowski, Kimberly C Claeys, Anthony M Casapao, Matthew Compton, Abdalhamid Lagnf, Shravya D Kidambi, Donald P Levine, Michael J Rybak
INTRODUCTION: Vancomycin remains the standard of care for invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Treatment failures from heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate subpopulations (hVISA) are challenging to detect. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) identified by modified population analysis profile (PAP) is an alternative testing method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of PAP MIC on vancomycin failures in two high inoculum infections: MRSA infective endocarditis and pneumonia...
February 22, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470731/sacral-neuromodulation-versus-personalized-conservative-treatment-in-patients-with-idiopathic-slow-transit-constipation-study-protocol-of-the-no-2-trial-a-multicenter-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#5
S C M Heemskerk, A H Rotteveel, M A Benninga, C I M Baeten, A A M Masclee, J Melenhorst, S M J van Kuijk, C D Dirksen, S O Breukink
PURPOSE: The evidence regarding the (cost-)effectiveness of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) in patients with therapy-resistant idiopathic slow-transit constipation is of suboptimal quality. The Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports has granted conditional reimbursement for SNM treatment. The objective is to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and budget impact of SNM compared to personalized conservative treatment (PCT) in patients with idiopathic slow-transit constipation refractory to conservative treatment...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470705/the-effects-of-high-dose-calcitriol-and-individualized-exercise-on-bone-metabolism-in-breast-cancer-survivors-on-hormonal-therapy-a-phase-ii-feasibility-trial
#6
Luke J Peppone, Marilyn Ling, Alissa J Huston, Mary E Reid, Michelle C Janelsins, J Edward Puzas, Charles Kamen, Auro Del Giglio, Matthew Asare, Anita R Peoples, Karen M Mustian
INTRODUCTION: Cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) is a long-term side effect of breast cancer therapy. Both calcitriol and weight-bearing exercise improve bone metabolism for osteoporotic patients, but are unproven in a breast cancer population. We used a novel high-dose calcitriol regimen with an individualized exercise intervention to improve bone metabolism in breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We accrued 41 subjects to this open label, 2 × 2 factorial, randomized feasibility trial...
February 22, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470493/effective-polyploidy-causes-phenotypic-delay-and-influences-bacterial-evolvability
#7
Lei Sun, Helen K Alexander, Balazs Bogos, Daniel J Kiviet, Martin Ackermann, Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Whether mutations in bacteria exhibit a noticeable delay before expressing their corresponding mutant phenotype was discussed intensively in the 1940s to 1950s, but the discussion eventually waned for lack of supportive evidence and perceived incompatibility with observed mutant distributions in fluctuation tests. Phenotypic delay in bacteria is widely assumed to be negligible, despite the lack of direct evidence. Here, we revisited the question using recombineering to introduce antibiotic resistance mutations into E...
February 22, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470416/carbon-fibre-reinforced-sic-composite-c-sisic-as-an-alternative-material-for-endoprosthesis-fabrication-mechanical-and-in-vitro-biological-properties
#8
Aline Reichert, Michael Seidenstuecker, Rainer Gadow, Hermann O Mayr, Norbert P Suedkamp, Sergio H Latorre, Partick Weichand, Anke Bernstein
Particle-induced periprosthetic osteolysis and subsequent aseptic implant loosening are a major cause of compromising the long-term results of total joint replacements. To date, no implant has been able to mirror radically the tribological factors (friction/lubrication/wear) of in vivo tribological pairings. Carbon-Fibre Reinforced SiC-Composites (C/SiSiC), a material primarily developed for brake technology, has the opportunity to fulfil this requirement. Until now, the material itself has not been used in medicine...
February 22, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469958/long-term-experience-with-intranasal-bevacizumab-therapy
#9
Johan Steineger, Terje Osnes, Ketil Heimdal, Sinan Dheyauldeen
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Long-term follow-up of intranasal bevacizumab therapy in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, noncomparative study. METHODS: Patients treated for HHT-associated epistaxis by intranasal submucosal bevacizumab injections between June 2011 and August 2013 were included and followed prospectively. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by the epistaxis severity score (ESS); the epistaxis intensity, frequency, and the need of blood transfusion (IFT) score; and hemoglobin levels...
February 22, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469011/the-effects-of-resistance-training-of-swallowing-muscles-on-dysphagia-in-older-people-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Masato Matsushima, Ryo Momosaki, Shuhei Yoshida, Rieko Mutai, Toshifumi Yodoshi, Shinichi Murayama, Tetsuro Hayashi, Ryoko Horiguchi, Hiroko Ichikawa
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of resistance training of swallowing muscles in community-dwelling older individuals with dysphagia. METHODS: A cluster randomized controlled trial was performed in day-service and day-care facilities. The participants were older (≥65 y) community-dwelling individuals with dysphagia. The intervention group performed a tongue resistance exercise and a head flexion exercise against manual resistance. Both groups received a brochure on dysphagia rehabilitation...
November 27, 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468988/cox-2-in-radiotherapy-a-potential-target-for-radioprotection-and-radiosensitization
#11
Mohsen Cheki, Rasoul Yahyapour, Bagher Farhood, Abolhassan Rezaeyan, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Peyman Amini, Saeed Rezapoor, Masoud Najafi
BACKGROUND: Each year, millions of people die from cancer. Radiotherapy is one of the main treatment strategies for cancer patients. Despite the beneficial roles of treatment with radiation, several side effects may threaten normal tissues of patients in the years after treatment. Moreover, high incidences of second primary cancers may reduce therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy. The search for appropriate targets of radiosensitization of tumor cells as well as radioprotection of normal tissues is one of the most interesting aims in radiobiology...
February 18, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468190/optogenetic-activation-of-non-nociceptive-a%C3%AE-fibers-induces-neuropathic-pain-like-sensory-and-emotional-behaviors-after-nerve-injury-in-rats
#12
Ryoichi Tashima, Keisuke Koga, Misuzu Sekine, Kensho Kanehisa, Yuta Kohro, Keiko Tominaga, Katsuyuki Matsushita, Hidetoshi Tozaki-Saitoh, Yugo Fukazawa, Kazuhide Inoue, Hiromu Yawo, Hidemasa Furue, Makoto Tsuda
Neuropathic pain is caused by peripheral nerve injury (PNI). One hallmark symptom is allodynia (pain caused by normally innocuous stimuli), but its mechanistic underpinning remains elusive. Notably, whether selective stimulation of non-nociceptive primary afferent Aβ fibers indeed evokes neuropathic pain-like sensory and emotional behaviors after PNI is unknown, because of the lack of tools to manipulate Aβ fiber function in awake, freely moving animals. In this study, we used a transgenic rat line that enables stimulation of non-nociceptive Aβ fibers by a light-activated channel (channelrhodopsin-2; ChR2)...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467936/dynamic-changes-in-cd44v-positive-cells-after-preoperative-anti-her2-therapy-and-its-correlation-with-pathologic-complete-response-in-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#13
Teruo Yamauchi, Jose Rodrigo Espinosa Fernandez, Chiyo K Imamura, Hideko Yamauchi, Hiromitsu Jinno, Maiko Takahashi, Yuko Kitagawa, Seigo Nakamura, Bora Lim, Savitri Krishnamurthy, James M Reuben, Diane Liu, Debasish Tripathy, Helen Chen, Naoko Takebe, Hideyuki Saya, Naoto T Ueno
Chemotherapy has been reported to increase the proportion of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype changes. Anti-HER2 therapy may provide a strategy for eliminating CSC and EMT, which contribute to therapeutic resistance. No study has determined the changes in the quantity or characteristics of CSCs or circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with EMT phenotype during preoperative anti-HER2 therapy, and whether these changes correlate to response to dual anti-HER2 therapy...
January 23, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466983/multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-adherence-in-migrants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Laura B Nellums, Kieran Rustage, Sally Hargreaves, Jon S Friedland
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a growing concern in meeting global targets for TB control. In high-income low-TB-incidence countries, a disproportionate number of MDR-TB cases occur in migrant (foreign-born) populations, with concerns about low adherence rates in these patients compared to the host non-migrant population. Tackling MDR-TB in this context may, therefore, require unique approaches. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data on MDR-TB treatment adherence in migrant patients to inform evidence-based strategies to improve care pathways and health outcomes in this group...
February 22, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466963/pediatric-severe-asthma-a-case-series-report-and-perspectives-on-anti-ige-treatment
#15
Virginia Mirra, Silvia Montella, Francesca Santamaria
BACKGROUND: The primary goal of asthma management is to achieve disease control for reducing the risk of future exacerbations and progressive loss of lung function. Asthma not responding to treatment may result in significant morbidity. In many children with uncontrolled symptoms, the diagnosis of asthma may be wrong or adherence to treatment may be poor. It is then crucial to distinguish these cases from the truly "severe therapy-resistant" asthmatics by a proper filtering process...
February 21, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466880/telmisartan-reverses-antiretroviral-induced-adipocyte-toxicity-and-insulin-resistance-in-vitro
#16
Sudeep P Pushpakom, Antonysunil Adaikalakoteswari, Andrew Owen, David J Back, Gyanendra Tripathi, Sudhesh Kumar, Philip McTernan, Munir Pirmohamed
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients leads to insulin resistance which is central to the pathogenesis of various metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease seen in this patient group. We have investigated the dose-response relationship of telmisartan, an antihypertensive, on adipocytes in vitro in order to determine whether it may have metabolic beneficial effects. METHODS: Using in vitro chronic toxicity models (3T3-F442A murine and primary human adipocytes), we evaluated the effects of different concentrations of telmisartan on adipocyte differentiation and adipogenic gene expression using lipid accumulation assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively...
February 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466292/targeting-leukemia-stem-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-niche
#17
REVIEW
Sarah K Tasian, Martin Bornhäuser, Sergio Rutella
Abst ract: The bone marrow (BM) niche encompasses multiple cells of mesenchymal and hematopoietic origin and represents a unique microenvironment that is poised to maintain hematopoietic stem cells. In addition to its role as a primary lymphoid organ through the support of lymphoid development, the BM hosts various mature lymphoid cell types, including naïve T cells, memory T cells and plasma cells, as well as mature myeloid elements such as monocyte/macrophages and neutrophils, all of which are crucially important to control leukemia initiation and progression...
February 21, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466253/an-outpatient-dose-intense-intravenous-cisplatin-and-oral-etoposide-regimen-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-platinum-resistant-ovarian-cancer
#18
Robert D Morgan, Andrew R Clamp, Jurjees Hasan, Claire Mitchell, Geoff Saunders, Nerissa Mescallado, Richard Welch, Gordon C Jayson
OBJECTIVES: Advanced-stage, platinum-resistant, ovarian cancer can be treated with dose-intense chemotherapy; one such regimen includes intravenous cisplatin and oral etoposide. To minimize the toxicity associated with weekly cisplatin, pretreatment and posttreatment hydration is required, often necessitating inpatient, overnight admission. We report a shorter, within-day regimen for delivering weekly cisplatin. METHODS: This was a retrospective study to assess the use of standard (inpatient; treatment time of 12 hours) versus modified (outpatient; treatment time of 4 hours) regimens...
March 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466201/-antiaggregants-in-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases-and-prevention-of-atherothrombosis-in-patients-with-stable-ischemic-heart-disease-aspects-of-efficacy-and-safety
#19
N B Perepech, I E Mikhaylova
This review is devoted to the use of antiaggregants. We consider here pathogenesis of intraarterial thrombosis, mechanism of action of antiaggregants, and recommendations on the use of drugs of this class for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and prevention of atherothrombotic complications of stable ischemic heart disease. Information on mechanisms of development and causes of resistance to antiaggregants is also presented. Finally we discuss the problem of safety of therapy with antiaggregants, methods of lowering the risk of bleeding, and prevention of aspirin induced gastropathy...
February 2018: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466174/-pharmacological-properties-of-loop-diuretics-and-their-clinical-effects
#20
G Sakalauskienė, G Civinskienė, A Antuševas, P Civinskas
Edematous states caused by an excessesive extracellular fluid retention are major components of cardiovascular and renal disorders including chronic kidney disease, nephrotic syndrome, and heart failure. The use of diuretic drugs from various groups including loop duiretics are important means of pharmacological correction of these clinical conditions. Moreover, diuretics used to lower bood pressure as a part of antihypertensive treatment, reduce cardiovascular events. The response of patients to the dose of a diuretic is reflected by a sigmoid dose-response curve which can be affected by changes of sodium content in the body...
January 2018: Kardiologiia
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