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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222931/the-challenge-of-herbicide-resistance-around-the-world-a-current-summary
#1
REVIEW
Mark A Peterson, Alberto Collavo, Ramiro Ovejero, Vinod Shivrain, Michael J Walsh
Herbicide resistant weeds have been observed since the early years of synthetic herbicide development in the 1950's and 1960's. Since that time there has been a consistent increase in the number of herbicide resistance cases and the impact of herbicide resistant (HR) weeds. While the nature of crop production varies widely around the world, herbicides have become a primary tool for weed control in most areas. Dependence on herbicides continues to increase as global populations migrate away from rural areas into cities and the agricultural labor force declines...
December 9, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222891/effects-of-preoperative-oral-carbohydrate-therapy-on-perioperative-glucose-metabolism-during-oral-maxillofacial-surgery-randomised-clinical-trial
#2
Kanako Esaki, Masanori Tsukamoto, Eiji Sakamoto, Takeshi Yokoyama
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preoperative oral carbohydrate therapy has been suggested to attenuate postoperative insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a carbohydrate-rich beverage given preoperatively on intraoperative glucose metabolism. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This study was a randomised, open-label, placebo-controlled trial. Patients undergoing oral-maxillofacial surgery were divided into two groups. In the glucose group, patients took glucose (50 g/278 mL, p...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222693/neuroblastoma-pathogenesis-deregulation-of-embryonic-neural-crest-development
#3
REVIEW
Julie A Tomolonis, Saurabh Agarwal, Jason M Shohet
Neuroblastoma (NB) is an aggressive pediatric cancer that originates from neural crest tissues of the sympathetic nervous system. NB is highly heterogeneous both from a clinical and a molecular perspective. Clinically, this cancer represents a wide range of phenotypes ranging from spontaneous regression of 4S disease to unremitting treatment-refractory progression and death of high-risk metastatic disease. At a cellular level, the heterogeneous behavior of NB likely arises from an arrest and deregulation of normal neural crest development...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222550/tissue-transglutaminase-elevates-intraocular-pressure-in-mice
#4
Urmimala Raychaudhuri, J Cameron Millar, Abbot F Clark
Purpose: Tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) is elevated in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) tissues. We investigated whether increased expression of TGM2 increases extracellular matrix crosslinking in the TM, thereby increasing aqueous humor outflow resistance and elevating intraocular pressure (IOP) in mouse eyes. Methods: GTM3, primary human GTM 125-05, and cultured mouse TM cells were transduced with adenovirus serotype 5 expressing human transglutaminase 2 (Ad5...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222530/seizure-rates-in-enzalutamide-treated-men-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-and-risk-of-seizure-the-upward-study
#5
Susan Slovin, William Clark, Joan Carles, Andrew Krivoshik, Jung Wook Park, Fong Wang, Daniel George
Importance: The androgen receptor inhibitor enzalutamide prolongs survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In controlled clinical studies, 0.5% (10 of 2051) of patients experienced seizure, but patients with a history of or risk factors for seizure were excluded. Men with mCRPC and seizure risk factors have an estimated seizure rate of 2.8 per 100 patient-years without enzalutamide exposure. Objective: To assess seizure incidence in patients with seizure risk factors who were receiving enzalutamide for mCRPC...
December 7, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222332/stabilization-of-the-gp120-v3-loop-through-hydrophobic-interactions-reduces-the-immunodominant-v3-directed-non-neutralizing-response-to-hiv-1-envelope-trimers
#6
Steven W de Taeye, Alba Torrents de la Peña, Andrea Vecchione, Enzo Scutigliani, Kwinten Sliepen, Judith A Burger, Patricia van der Woude, Anna Schorcht, Edith E Schermer, Marit J van Gils, Celia C LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Ian A Wilson, John P Moore, Andrew B Ward, Rogier W Sanders
To provide protective immunity against circulating primary HIV-1 strains, a vaccine most likely has to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein spike. Recombinant Env trimers such as the prototype BG505 SOSIP.664 that closely mimic the native Env spike can induce autologous neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against relatively resistant (tier-2) primary viruses. Ideally, Env immunogens should present bNAb epitopes, but limit the presentation of immunodominant non-NAb epitopes that might induce off-target and potentially interfering responses...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222305/biology-of-cns-lymphoma-and-the-potential-of-novel-agents
#7
REVIEW
James L Rubenstein
Primary and secondary CNS lymphomas are aggressive brain tumors that pose an immense challenge to define in terms of molecular pathogenesis, as well as to effectively treat. During the past 10 years improvements in survival have been achieved with the implementation of anti-CD20 immunotherapy and optimization of dose-intensive consolidation strategies. The applications of whole-exome sequencing, comparative genomic hybridization, transcriptional profiling, and examination of the tumor microenvironment, particularly in the context of clinical investigation, provide insights that create a roadmap for the development and implementation of novel targeted agents for this disease...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222170/imprecision-and-dna-break-repair-biased-towards-incompatible-end-joining-in-leukemia
#8
Franz Josef Gassner, Maria Schubert, Stefan Rebhandl, Karina Spandl, Nadja Zaborsky, Kemal Catakovic, Stephanie Blaimer, Daniel Hebenstreit, Richard Greil, Roland Geisberger
Cancer is a genetic disease caused by mutations and chromosomal abnormalities which contribute to uncontrolled cell growth. In addition, cancer cells can rapidly respond to conventional and targeted therapies by accumulating novel and often specific genetic lesions leading to acquired drug resistance and relapsing disease. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), however, diverse chromosomal aberrations often occur. In many cases, improper repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) is a major source for genomic abnormalities...
December 8, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222111/rap1b-promotes-vegf-induced-endothelial-permeability-and-is-required-for-dynamic-regulation-of-endothelial-barrier
#9
Sribalaji Lakshmikanthan, Magdalena Sobczak, Sergio Li Calzi, Lynn Shaw, Maria B Grant, Magdalena Chrzanowska-Wodnicka
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a key angiogenic and permeability factor, plays an important role in new blood vessel formation. However, abnormal VEGF-induced VEGFR2 signaling leads to hyper-permeability. We demonstrated that Rap1, best known for promoting cell adhesion and vessel stability, is a critical regulator of VEGFR2-mediated angiogenic and shear-stress EC responses. To determine Rap1's role in endothelial barrier dynamics, we examined vascular permeability in EC-specific Rap1A- and Rap1B- knockout mice, cell-cell junction remodeling and EC monolayer resistivity in Rap1-deficient ECs under basal, inflammatory or elevated VEGF conditions...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221837/a-single-center-retrospective-analysis-of-the-efficacy-of-a-new-balloon-catheter-in-autogenous-arteriovenous-fistula-dysfunction-resistant-to-conventional-balloon-angioplasty
#10
Xiaolei Sun, Yanzheng He, Yarong Ma, Huqiang He, Lei Zhang, Ivo Ricardo de Seabra Rodrigues Dias, Yong Liu
PURPOSE: To present a new alternative balloon catheter option for autogenous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) dysfunction with stiff constriction resistant to conventional balloon angioplasty. METHODS: Our first series of 51 patients with autogenous AVF dysfunction who were simultaneously treated with VascutrakTM balloon catheter, following failed conventional balloon therapy (failure was defined as residual stenosis of >30%), were retrospectively observed and analyzed...
December 5, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220517/determining-the-effectiveness-of-three-gene-pyramids-against-aphis-glycines-hemiptera-aphididae-biotypes
#11
A J Varenhorst, S R Pritchard, M E O'Neal, E W Hodgson, A K Singh
Since the discovery of Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United States, the primary management tactic has been foliar insecticides. Alternative management options such as host plant resistance to A. glycines have been developed and their effectiveness proved. However, the use of host plant resistance was complicated by the discovery of multiple, virulent biotypes of A. glycines in the United States that are capable of overcoming single Rag genes, Rag1 and Rag2, as well as a two-gene pyramid of Rag1+Rag2...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219895/effect-of-8-week-of-hospital-based-resistance-training-program-on-tcd4-cell-count-and-anthropometric-characteristic-of-hiv-patients-in-tehran-iran-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Morteza Ghayomzadeh, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi, Sajjad Rezaei, Conrad P Earnest, Sima Akbarnejad, Leila Taj, Minoo Mohraz, James Wilfred Navalta, Peyman Ghasemi, Fabrício Azevedo Voltarelli
We examined the effects of an 8 w circuit resistance training (RES) program using elastic bands and body weight on TCD4+ cell counts and anthropometry in HIV patients. Patients (N=21) receiving antiretroviral therapy were randomly assigned to resistance training (RES; n=14) or control group (CON; n=7) groups. RES (3/w) consisted of training with elastic bands and bodyweight training focusing on major muscle groups. CON received standard care. Statistical analyses were performed using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, length of infection and respective baseline measures...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219758/the-use-of-alternatives-to-clopidogrel-in-flow-diversion-treatment-with-the-pipeline-embolization-device
#13
Elias Atallah, Hassan Saad, Kimon Bekelis, Nohra Chalouhi, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, David Hasan, Jorge Eller, David Stidd, Robert H Rosenwasser, Pascal Jabbour
OBJECTIVE Thromboembolic complications continue to be encountered with Pipeline embolization devices (PEDs) despite routine clopidogrel/aspirin antiplatelet therapy. This study examined the safety and efficacy of prasugrel in the management of clopidogrel-resistant patients treated for cerebral aneurysms. METHODS Four hundred thirty-seven consecutive patients were identified between January 2011 and May 2016. Patients allergic, or having less than 30% platelet inhibition, to a daily 75-mg dose of clopidogrel received 10 mg of prasugrel daily (n = 20) or 90 mg of ticagrelor twice daily (n = 2)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218705/randomized-controlled-study-comparing-the-efficacy-of-rapid-and-slow-withdrawal-of-antiepileptic-drugs-during-long-term-video-eeg-monitoring
#14
Shambhu Kumar, Bhargavi Ramanujam, P S Chandra, Deepa Dash, Santosh Mehta, Sharma Anubha, Renjith Appukutan, Manit Kumar Rana, Manjari Tripathi
OBJECTIVE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are routinely withdrawn during long-term video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring (LTM), to record sufficient number of seizures. The efficacy of rapid and slow AED taper has never been compared in a randomized control trial (RCT), which was the objective of this study. METHODS: In this open-label RCT, patients aged 2-80 years with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) were randomly assigned (1:1) to rapid and slow AED taper groups...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218622/inhibiting-cdk-in-cancer-therapy-current-evidence-and-future-directions
#15
REVIEW
Smruthi Vijayaraghavan, Stacy Moulder, Khandan Keyomarsi, Rachel M Layman
Cell cycle dysregulation is a hallmark of all cancers, resulting in uncontrolled proliferation. Cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), a family of proteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, are frequently overexpressed or mutated in cancer. Hence, CDK-inhibiting drugs have been developed and evaluated as cancer therapeutics. Clinical trials have shown CDK4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) to be relatively safe and effective, and these are now standard of care treatment for advanced hormone receptor positive breast cancer...
December 7, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218501/evaluating-safety-reporting-in-paediatric-antibiotic-trials-2000-2016-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Paola Pansa, Yingfen Hsia, Julia Bielicki, Irja Lutsar, A Sarah Walker, Mike Sharland, Laura Folgori
BACKGROUND: There are very few options to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in children. A major barrier is the duration and complexity of regulatory trials of new antibiotics. Extrapolation of safety data from adult trials could facilitate drug development for children. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review on the safety of antibiotic clinical trials (CTs) in children (0-18 years) to evaluate the overall quality of safety trials conducted in children and to determine if age-specific adverse events (AEs) could be identified for specific antibiotic classes...
December 7, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217667/critical-contribution-of-na-ca2-exchanger-to-the-ca2-mediated-vasodilation-activated-in-endothelial-cells-of-resistance-arteries
#17
Mauricio A Lillo, Pablo S Gaete, Mariela Puebla, Nicolás M Ardiles, Inés Poblete, Alvaro Becerra, Felipe Simon, Xavier F Figueroa
Na+-Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) contributes to control the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), but the functional activation of NCX reverse mode (NCXrm) in endothelial cells is controversial. We evaluated the participation of NCXrm-mediated Ca2+ uptake in the endothelium-dependent vasodilation of rat isolated mesenteric arterial beds. In phenylephrine-contracted mesenteries, the acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasodilation was abolished by treatment with the NCXrm blockers SEA0400, KB-R7943, or SN-6. Consistent with that, the ACh-induced hyperpolarization observed in primary cultures of mesenteric endothelial cells and in smooth muscle of isolated mesenteric resistance arteries was attenuated by KB-R7943 and SEA0400, respectively...
December 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217540/cancer-stem-cell-suppressing-activity-of-chrysotoxine-a-bibenzyl-from-dendrobium-pulchellum
#18
Narumol Bhummaphan, Varisa Pongrakhananon, Boonchoo Sritularak, Pithi Chanvorachote
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been recognized as rare populations driving cancer progression, metastasis, and drug resistance in leading cancers. Attempts have been paid toward identifying compound that specifically targets these CSCs. Therefore, the investigations of the novel therapeutic strategies for CSCs targeting is required. The cytotoxic effects of Chrysotoxine on human NSCLC-derived H460 and H23 cells were tested by MTT assay. The Effect of Chrysotoxine suppresses CSC-like phenotypes was determined in CSC-rich populations and primary CSCs in 3D culture and Extreme limiting dilution assay...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217340/supera-stent-outcomes-in-above-the-knee-interventions-effects-of-compression-and-elongation-sake-compel-sub-study
#19
Hemal Bhatt, Richard Kovach, Sean Janzer, Jon C George
INTRODUCTION: The interwoven nitinol design of the Supera stent has been shown to have superior radial strength and fracture resistance resulting in higher patency rates at 6 and 12months. A detailed sub-analysis of SUPERB trial showed differences in patency based on stent conformation post deployment. We evaluated the patency of the stent within the SAKE study cohort based on stent deployment conformation. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 63 patients (77 limbs) with Rutherford class 2-5 symptoms who received Supera stents in the femoro-popliteal artery from March 2010 through May 2011 as part of the SAKE study...
November 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217101/a-novel-in-situ-simulation-intervention-used-to-mitigate-an-outbreak-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#20
Kathleen Gibbs, Samuel DeMaria, Scarlett McKinsey, Andrea Fede, Anne Harrington, Deborah Hutchison, Carol Torchen, Adam Levine, Andrew Goldberg
OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful implementation of an in situ simulation program to diagnose and correct latent safety threats in a level 4 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to mitigate a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak. STUDY DESIGN: An investigational report describes a simulation intervention that occurred during a 4-month MRSA outbreak in a single-center, 46-bed, newly renovated level 4 NICU. The simulation program was developed for all NICU providers in which they were exposed to a 30-minute in situ human simulation intervention that included education, evaluation, and debriefing to resolve perceived or observed latent safety threats...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
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