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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684687/arsenic-trioxide-inhibits-proliferation-and-induced-apoptosis-of-leukemia-stem-cells-with-drug-resistance
#1
Chunxia Liu, Hulai Wei, Xiaojian Yao, Bei Liu, Yaming Xi, Li Zhao
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients show high relapse rates and some develop conventional chemotherapy resistance. Leukemia Stem Cells (LSCs) are the main player for AML relapses and drug resistance. K562/ADM cell, a leukemia resistant cell subtype, was used as leukemia multidrug resistant model to explore drug resistance of leukemia cells. We found that CD34+ CD38- , CD34+ CD38- CD123+ , cell surface markers of LSCs were significantly high expressed in K562/ADM cell, not in K562 cell with less drug resistance; compared with LSCs from K562, multidrug resistance protein P-gp and BCRP expression were significantly higher in K562/ADM cell...
March 2, 2018: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684630/ligand-accessibility-to-the-hiv-1-env-co-receptor-binding-site-can-occur-prior-to-cd4-engagement-and-is-independent-of-viral-tier-category
#2
Saikat Boliar, Shilpa Patil, Brihaspati N Shukla, Ali Ghobbeh, Suprit Deshpande, Weizao Chen, Javier Guenaga, Dimiter S Dimitrov, Richard T Wyatt, Bimal K Chakrabarti
HIV-1 virus entry into target cells requires the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to first bind the primary receptor, CD4 and subsequently the co-receptor. Antibody access to the co-receptor binding site (CoRbs) in the pre-receptor-engaged state, prior to cell attachment, remains poorly understood. Here, we have demonstrated that for tier-1 Envs, the CoRbs is directly accessible to full-length CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies even before primary receptor engagement, indicating that on these Envs the CoRbs site is either preformed or can conformationally sample post-CD4-bound state...
April 20, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684521/the-hypoxic-peri-arteriolar-glioma-stem-cell-niche-an-integrated-concept-of-five-types-of-niches-in-human-glioblastoma
#3
REVIEW
Diana A Aderetti, Vashendriya V V Hira, Remco J Molenaar, Cornelis J F van Noorden
Glioblastoma is the most lethal primary brain tumor and poor survival of glioblastoma patients is attributed to the presence of glioma stem cells (GSCs). These therapy-resistant, quiescent and pluripotent cells reside in GSC niches, which are specific microenvironments that protect GSCs against radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We previously showed the existence of hypoxic peri-arteriolar GSC niches in glioblastoma tumor samples. However, other studies have described peri-vascular niches, peri-hypoxic niches, peri-immune niches and extracellular matrix niches of GSCs...
April 20, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684022/open-label-comparative-trial-of-mono-versus-dual-antibiotic-therapy-for-typhoid-fever-in-adults
#4
Niv Zmora, Sudeep Shrestha, Ami Neuberger, Yael Paran, Rajendra Tamrakar, Ashish Shrestha, Surendra K Madhup, T R S Bedi, Rajendra Koju, Eli Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Emerging resistance to antibiotics renders therapy of Typhoid Fever (TF) increasingly challenging. The current single-drug regimens exhibit prolonged fever clearance time (FCT), imposing a great burden on both patients and health systems, and potentially contributing to the development of antibiotic resistance and the chronic carriage of the pathogens. The aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of combining third-generation cephalosporin therapy with azithromycin on the outcomes of TF in patients living in an endemic region...
April 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683891/il-21-increases-the-reactivity-of-allogeneic-human-v%C3%AE-9v%C3%AE-2-t-cells-against-primary-glioblastoma-tumors
#5
Noémie Joalland, Cynthia Chauvin, Lisa Oliver, François M Vallette, Claire Pecqueur, Ulrich Jarry, Emmanuel Scotet
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains the most frequent and deadliest primary brain tumor in adults despite aggressive treatments, because of the persistence of infiltrative and resistant tumor cells. Nonalloreactive human Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes, the major peripheral γδ T-cell subset in adults, represent attractive effectors for designing immunotherapeutic strategies to track and eliminate brain tumor cells, with limited side effects. We analyzed the effects of ex vivo sensitizations of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells by IL-21, a modulating cytokine, on their cytolytic reactivity...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683855/a-week-48-randomized-phase-3-trial-of-darunavir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-alafenamide-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-1-patients
#6
Joseph J Eron, Chloe Orkin, Joel Gallant, Jean-Michel Molina, Eugenia Negredo, Andrea Antinori, Anthony Mills, Jacques Reynes, Erika Van Landuyt, Erkki Lathouwers, Veerle Hufkens, John Jezorwski, Simon Vanveggel, Magda Opsomer
OBJECTIVES: To investigate efficacy and safety of a single-tablet regimen of darunavir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) 800/150/200/10 mg vs. darunavir/cobicistat plus emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxyl fumarate (TDF) (control) in antiretroviral-treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected adults. DESIGN: Phase-3, randomized, active-controlled, double-blind, international, multicenter, noninferiority study (NCT02431247). METHODS: Seven hundred and twenty-five participants were randomized (1 : 1) to D/C/F/TAF (362) or control (363)...
April 19, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683458/isolation-of-human-endothelial-cells-from-normal-colon-and-colorectal-carcinoma-an-improved-protocol
#7
Elisabeth Naschberger, Daniela Regensburger, Clara Tenkerian, Melanie Langheinrich, Felix B Engel, Carol Geppert, Arndt Hartmann, Robert Grützmann, Vera S Schellerer, Michael Stürzl
Primary cells isolated from human carcinomas are valuable tools to identify pathogenic mechanisms contributing to disease development and progression. In particular, endothelial cells (EC) constituting the inner surface of vessels, directly participate in oxygen delivery, nutrient supply, and removal of waste products to and from tumors, and are thereby prominently involved in the constitution of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor endothelial cells (TECs) can be used as cellular biosensors of the intratumoral microenvironment established by communication between tumor and stromal cells...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682668/fatigue-fracture-of-nearly-elastic-hydrogels
#8
Enrui Zhang, Ruobing Bai, Xavier P Morelle, Zhigang Suo
Polyacrylamide hydrogels are highly stretchable and nearly elastic. Their stress-stretch curves exhibit small hysteresis, and change negligibly after many loading cycles. Polyacrylamide is used extensively in applications, and is the primary network for many types of tough hydrogels. Recent experiments have shown that polyacrylamide hydrogels are susceptible to fatigue fracture, but available data are limited. Here we study fatigue fracture of polyacrylamide hydrogels of various water contents. We form polymer networks in all samples under the same conditions, and then obtain hydrogels of 96, 87, 78, and 69 wt% of water by solvent exchange...
April 23, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682514/cutaneous-metastases-of-breast-cancer-during-adjuvant-chemotherapy-correlates-with-increasing-cd44-cd24-and-aldh-1-expression-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Jung Sun Lee, Woo Gyeong Kim
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) within a tumor are scarce and self-sustaining and they have the abilities for self-renewal and the potential of giving rise to diverse types of cells that compose the tumor. These cells are suggested to be associated with therapeutic failure, and therefore they remain as an important issue in this regard. We report the cases of two breast cancer patients diagnosed with rapid cutaneous metastases during adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy after curative mastectomy. For elucidating a relationship between CSCs and resistance to chemotherapy, we evaluated primary tumor and metastatic cutaneous lesions by CSC markers in immunohistochemical stains (CD44+ /CD24- and ALDH-1)...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682194/a-novel-dual-pan-pim-flt3-inhibitor-sel24-exhibits-broad-therapeutic-potential-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#10
Wojciech Czardybon, Renata Windak, Aniela Gołas, Michał Gałęzowski, Aleksandra Sabiniarz, Izabela Dolata, Magdalena Salwińska, Paweł Guzik, Magdalena Zawadzka, Ewelina Gabor-Worwa, Bożena Winnik, Małgorzata Żurawska, Ewa Kolasińska, Ewelina Wincza, Marta Bugaj, Monika Danielewicz, Eliza Majewska, Milena Mazan, Grzegorz Dubin, Monika Noyszewska-Kania, Ewa Jabłońska, Maciej Szydłowski, Tomasz Sewastianik, Bartosz Puła, Anna Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Monika Prochorec-Sobieszek, Elżbieta Mądro, Ewa Lech-Marańda, Krzysztof Warzocha, Jerome Tamburini, Przemysław Juszczyński, Krzysztof Brzózka
Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) is one of the most common genetic lesions in acute myeloid leukemia patients (AML). Although FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors initially exhibit clinical activity, resistance to treatment inevitably occurs within months. PIM kinases are thought to be major drivers of the resistance phenotype and their inhibition in relapsed samples restores cell sensitivity to FLT3 inhibitors. Thus, simultaneous PIM and FLT3 inhibition represents a promising strategy in AML therapy...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681933/retrospective-assessment-of-antibiotics-prescribing-at-public-primary-healthcare-facilities-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#11
Fikru Worku, Dagmawit Tewahido
Background. Antibiotic overprescribing is the major driving force for the emergence of antibiotics resistance. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotics prescribing at primary healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. The study was conducted in six public health centers found in Addis Ababa City. Data was collected retrospectively from a total of 900 prescriptions and selected medical charts of patients in the health centers in 2016. Data was entered and analyzed using EPI Info 7 and SPSS 20, respectively...
2018: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681513/antimicrobial-consumption-and-resistance-in-adult-hospital-inpatients-in-53-countries-results-of-an-internet-based-global-point-prevalence-survey
#12
Ann Versporten, Peter Zarb, Isabelle Caniaux, Marie-Françoise Gros, Nico Drapier, Mark Miller, Vincent Jarlier, Dilip Nathwani, Herman Goossens
BACKGROUND: The Global Point Prevalence Survey (Global-PPS) established an international network of hospitals to measure antimicrobial prescribing and resistance worldwide. We aimed to assess antimicrobial prescribing and resistance in hospital inpatients. METHODS: We used a standardised surveillance method to collect detailed data about antimicrobial prescribing and resistance from hospitals worldwide, which were grouped by UN region. The internet-based survey included all inpatients (adults, children, and neonates) receiving an antimicrobial who were on the ward at 0800 h on one specific day between January and September, 2015...
April 19, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680618/ultrasonic-cavitation-erosion-corrosion-behavior-of-friction-stir-processed-stainless-steel
#13
Karthikeyan Selvam, Priya Mandal, Harpreet Singh Grewal, Harpreet Singh Arora
Cavitation erosion remains the primary cause of material degradation in fluid machinery components operating at high speed. Micro-jets/shock waves caused by implosion of bubbles on material surface results in significant material loss and premature failure of the components. The presence of corrosive medium further exuberates this effect, causing rapid degradation. Here, we demonstrate a novel pathway to control cavitation erosion-corrosion by tailoring the surface properties using submerged friction stir processing (FSP), a severe plastic deformation process...
June 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680416/electrocardiographic-variables-in-children-with-syndromic-craniosynostosis-and-primary-snoring-to-mild-obstructive-sleep-apnea-significance-of-identifying-respiratory-arrhythmia-during-sleep
#14
Ellaha Kakar, Linda J A Corel, Robert C Tasker, Robbin de Goederen, Eppo B Wolvius, Irene M J Mathijssen, Koen F M Joosten
BACKGROUND: In the spectrum of children with symptomatic sleep disordered breathing (SDB), some individuals - such as those with upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) - do not have abnormalities on polysomnography (PSG). In this study we have assessed whether assessment of respiratory arrhythmia (RA) and heart rate variability (HRV) analysis helps in management of children with syndromic craniosynostosis and none-to-mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: Prospective cohort study in children aged 1-18 years old with syndromic craniosynostosis...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680355/index-of-microcirculatory-resistance-as-a-tool-to-characterize-microvascular-obstruction-and-to-predict-infarct-size-regression-in-patients-with-stemi-undergoing-primary-pci
#15
Giovanni Luigi De Maria, Mohammad Alkhalil, Mathias Wolfrum, Gregor Fahrni, Alessandra Borlotti, Lisa Gaughran, Sam Dawkins, Jeremy P Langrish, Andrew J Lucking, Robin P Choudhury, Italo Porto, Filippo Crea, Erica Dall'Armellina, Keith M Channon, Rajesh K Kharbanda, Adrian P Banning
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the value of the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) and microvascular obstruction (MVO) measured by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients treated for and recovering from ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND: IMR can identify patients with microvascular dysfunction acutely after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI), and a threshold of >40 has been shown to be associated with an adverse clinical outcome...
April 14, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680297/early-results-of-percutaneous-arteriovenous-fistula-creation-with-the-ellipsys-vascular-access-system
#16
Alexandros Mallios, William C Jennings, Benoit Boura, Alessandro Costanzo, Pierre Bourquelot, Myriam Combes
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed our initial experience creating a percutaneous arteriovenous fistula (pAVF) using a thermal resistance anastomosis device with proximal radial artery inflow. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent a pAVF creation procedure between May 2017 and October 2017. Primary end points of the study were technical success, patency by Doppler ultrasound examination or angiography, flow levels achieved, time to first use, and pAVF-related complications...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679690/reduced-body-weight-or-increased-muscle-quality-which-is-more-important-for-improving-physical-function-following-exercise-and-weight-loss-in-overweight-and-obese-older-women
#17
Chad R Straight, Alison C Berg, Rachelle A Reed, Mary Ann Johnson, Ellen M Evans
The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d)...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679679/activation-of-cyclic-gmp-dependent-protein-kinase-blocks-alcohol-mediated-cell-death-and-calcium-disruption-in-cerebellar-granule-neurons
#18
Dimitrios E Kouzoukas, Ramesh C Bhalla, Nicholas J Pantazis
Alcohol during brain development leads to the widespread neuronal death observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In comparison, the mature brain is less vulnerable to alcohol. Studies into maturation-acquired alcohol resistance uncovered a protective mechanism that reduces alcohol-induced neuronal death through nitric oxide-cGMP-cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (NO-cGMP-cGK) signaling. However, the downstream processes underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Alcohol can disrupt levels of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) in vulnerable neuronal populations to trigger cell death in both in vivo and in vitro models of FASD...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679625/nutrition-therapy-within-and-beyond-gestational-diabetes
#19
REVIEW
Teri L Hernandez, Archana Mande, Linda A Barbour
With the global rising prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM), an adaptable, economical approach to nutrition therapy that effectively controls maternal glycemia while promoting normal fetal growth will have far-reaching implications. The conventional focus has been to rigidly limit all types of carbohydrate. While controlling glucose, this approach fosters maternal anxiety and is a primary barrier to adherence. Many mothers substitute fat for carbohydrate, which may unintentionally enhance lipolysis, promote elevated free fatty acids (FFA), and worsen maternal insulin resistance (IR)...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679250/the-marine-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-andersoni-induces-cell-death-in-lung-and-colorectal-tumor-cell-lines
#20
Clementina Sansone, Genoveffa Nuzzo, Christian Galasso, Raffaella Casotti, Angelo Fontana, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora
Dinoflagellates are one of the most important components in marine phytoplankton, second only to diatoms as primary producers. Dinoflagellates have also been reported to produce bioactive secondary metabolites such as polyethers and macrolides with potential applications as pharmaceuticals. Here, we tested the effect of the organic extract and its related enriched extracts from solid-phase extraction (SPE) of a strain of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium andersoni. We found that the SPE extracts induced high cytotoxicity towards two cancer cell lines (A549 lung cancer and HT29 colorectal cancer) without affecting normal cell viability...
April 20, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
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