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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913821/theobromine-upregulates-osteogenesis-by-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vitro-and-accelerates-bone-development-in-rats
#1
Bret H Clough, Joni Ylostalo, Elizabeth Browder, Eoin P McNeill, Thomas J Bartosh, H Ralph Rawls, Tetsuo Nakamoto, Carl A Gregory
Theobromine (THB) is one of the major xanthine-like alkaloids found in cacao plant and a variety of other foodstuffs such as tea leaves, guarana and cola nuts. Historically, THB and its derivatives have been utilized to treat cardiac and circulatory disorders, drug-induced nephrotoxicity, proteinuria and as an immune-modulator. Our previous work demonstrated that THB has the capacity to improve the formation of hydroxyl-apatite during tooth development, suggesting that it may also enhance skeletal development...
December 2, 2016: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913559/physical-activity-as-intervention-for-age-related-loss-of-muscle-mass-and-function-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial-the-lisa-study
#2
Christian Skou Eriksen, Ellen Garde, Nina Linde Reislev, Cathrine Lawaetz Wimmelmann, Theresa Bieler, Andreas Kraag Ziegler, Anne Theil Gylling, Kasper Juel Dideriksen, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Michael Kjaer
INTRODUCTION: Physical and cognitive function decline with age, accelerating during the 6th decade. Loss of muscle power (force×velocity product) is a dominant physical determinant for loss of functional ability, especially if the lower extremities are affected. Muscle strength training is known to maintain or even improve muscle power as well as physical function in older adults, but the optimal type of training for beneficial long-term training effects over several years is unknown...
December 2, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913210/trpv4-activation-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-resists-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-blocking-cyp2e1-mediated-redox-toxicity
#3
Ratanesh K Seth, Suvarthi Das, Diptadip Dattaroy, Varun Chandrashekaran, Firas Alhasson, Gregory Michelotti, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Anna Mae Diehl, Darwin P Bell, Wolfgang Liedtke, Saurabh Chatterjee
NAFLD is a clinically progressive disease with steatosis, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis being the stages where clinical intervention becomes necessary. Lack of early biomarkers and absence of a FDA approved drug obstructs efforts for effective treatment. NAFLD progression is strongly linked to a balance between liver injury, tissue regeneration and the functioning of endogenous defense mechanisms. The failure of the defense pathways to resist the tissue damage arising from redox stress, one of the "multiple hits" in disease progression, give rise to heightened inflammation and occasional fibrosis...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912020/biodiversity-increases-functional-and-compositional-resistance-but-decreases-resilience-in-phytoplankton-communities
#4
Jan M Baert, Frederik De Laender, Koen Sabbe, Colin R Janssen
There is now ample evidence that biodiversity stabilizes aggregated ecosystem functions, such as primary production, in changing environments. In primary producer systems, this stabilizing effect is found to be driven by higher functional resistance (i.e., reduced changes in functions by environmental changes) rather than through higher functional resilience (i.e., rapid recovery following environmental changes) in more diverse systems. The stability of aggregated ecosystem functions directly depends on changes in species composition and by consequence their functional contributions to ecosystem functions...
December 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911853/recurrence-of-cervical-cancer-and-its-resistance-to-progestin-therapy-in-a-mouse-model
#5
Fabiola F Mehta, Seunghan Baik, Sang-Hyuk Chung
Studies using K14E6/K14E7 transgenic mice expressing E6 and E7 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) have demonstrated that estrogen (E2) is required for the genesis and growth of cervical cancer. Our prior study using the same mouse model has showed that progestin drug medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) promotes regression of primary cervical cancer. In the present study, we use the same transgenic mouse model to determine whether the cancer recurs after MPA therapy. Cervical cancer recurred even if MPA treatment was continued...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911487/external-inspection-of-compliance-with-standards-for-improved-healthcare-outcomes
#6
REVIEW
Gerd Flodgren, Daniela C Gonçalves-Bradley, Marie-Pascale Pomey
BACKGROUND: Inspection systems are used in healthcare to promote quality improvements (i.e. to achieve changes in organisational structures or processes, healthcare provider behaviour and patient outcomes). These systems are based on the assumption that externally promoted adherence to evidence-based standards (through inspection/assessment) will result in higher quality of healthcare. However, the benefits of external inspection in terms of organisational-, provider- and patient-level outcomes are not clear...
December 2, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910847/efficiency-limits-for-photoelectrochemical-water-splitting
#7
Katherine T Fountaine, Hans Joachim Lewerenz, Harry A Atwater
Theoretical limiting efficiencies have a critical role in determining technological viability and expectations for device prototypes, as evidenced by the photovoltaics community's focus on detailed balance. However, due to their multicomponent nature, photoelectrochemical devices do not have an equivalent analogue to detailed balance, and reported theoretical efficiency limits vary depending on the assumptions made. Here we introduce a unified framework for photoelectrochemical device performance through which all previous limiting efficiencies can be understood and contextualized...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910803/the-prognostic-and-predictive-value-of-tmprss2-erg-gene-fusion-and-erg-protein-expression-in-prostate-cancer-biopsies
#8
Kasper Drimer Berg
BACKGROUND: The clinical course of prostate carcinoma (PCa) is very heterogeneous. Consequently, a personalised approach for risk stratification and treatment planning is important. Recently, it has become evident that PCa, also at the genomic level, is heterogeneous. An early and common alteration is the gene fusion between the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) gene and the v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG) gene resulting in expression of the oncoprotein ERG...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910039/silencing-genes-in-the-heart
#9
Henry Fechner, Roland Vetter, Jens Kurreck, Wolfgang Poller
Silencing of cardiac genes by RNA interference (RNAi) has developed into a powerful new method to treat cardiac diseases. Small interfering (si)RNAs are the inducers of RNAi, but cultured primary cardiomyocytes and heart are highly resistant to siRNA transfection. This can be overcome by delivery of small hairpin (sh)RNAs or artificial microRNA (amiRNAs) by cardiotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. Here we describe as example of the silencing of a cardiac gene, the generation and cloning of shRNA, and amiRNAs directed against the cardiac protein phospholamban...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909995/solithromycin-a-novel-fluoroketolide-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia
#10
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Erika Hartel, Heather Adam, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Michael A Zhanel, Alyssa Golden, Frank Schweizer, Bala Gorityala, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew J Walkty, Alfred S Gin, Daryl J Hoban, Joseph P Lynch, James A Karlowsky
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide developed in both oral and intravenous formulations to address increasing macrolide resistance in pathogens causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). When compared with its macrolide and ketolide predecessors, solithromycin has several structural modifications which increase its ribosomal binding and reduce its propensity to known macrolide resistance mechanisms. Solithromycin, like telithromycin, affects 50S ribosomal subunit formation and function, as well as causing frame-shift errors during translation...
December 1, 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909908/obesity-and-liver-cancer
#11
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Sabrina Schlesinger
Obesity and related metabolic disorders have become globally prevalent posing a challenge for the chronically damaged liver and predisposing the development and progression of cancer. The rising phenomenon of "obesity epidemic" may provide means for understanding why liver cancer is one of the few malignancies with rising incidence in developed countries over the last decades. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes is an increasingly recognized trigger for liver cancer in Western populations characterized by low prevalence of established risk factors for liver cancer such as viral hepatitis and hepatotoxin exposure...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909821/previous-bloodstream-infections-due-to-other-pathogens-as-predictors-of-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bacteraemia-in-colonized-patients-results-from-a-retrospective-multicentre-study
#12
D R Giacobbe, V Del Bono, P Bruzzi, S Corcione, M Giannella, A Marchese, L Magnasco, A E Maraolo, N Pagani, C Saffioti, S Ambretti, C S Cardellino, E Coppo, F G De Rosa, P Viale, C Viscoli
INTRODUCTION: the purpose of this retrospective multicenter study was to assess whether the risk of developing bloodstream infections (BSI) due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in colonized patients is influenced by the occurrence of BSI due to other pathogens. METHODS: from January 2012 to March 2014, all patients with at least one rectal swab positive for CRKP and at least 30 days of previous hospital stay were included in the study. The primary outcome measure was CRKP BSI, defined as a time-to-event endpoint...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909713/age-associated-differences-in-transporter-gene-expression-in-kidneys-of-male-rats
#13
Yong-Ji Xu, Yang Wang, Yuan-Fu Lu, Shang-Fu Xu, Qin Wu, Jie Liu
Kidney transporters are involved in the secretion and reabsorption of endogenous and exogenous molecules. Numerous factors may influence their expression and affect drug disposition, efficacy and toxicity. The present study aimed to examine the development‑ and age‑associated variations in primary renal transporters in rats, including 6 uptake transporters: Organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 and 3, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, 2 and 3 and organic anion‑transporting polypeptide (OATP) 4C1, and 6 efflux transporters: Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance‑associated protein (MRP) 2 and 4, and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein (MATE) 1 and 2‑K...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909622/the-effectiveness-of-biofeedback-therapy-in-children-with-monosymptomatic-enuresis-resistant-to-desmopressin-treatment
#14
Eyüp Burak Sancak, Alpaslan Akbaş, Ömer Kurt, Cabir Alan, Ahmet Reşit Ersay
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of biofeedback therapy on children with desmopressin- resistant primary monosymptomatic enuresis (MsE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study comprised both retrospective and prospective sections. A total of 262 medical files of patients who were diagnosed as enuresis between November 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively screened. Patients with neuropathic bladder, daytime voiding problems, anatomical pathology and enuresis-related diseases were excluded from the study...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909058/secreted-glioblastoma-nanovesicles-contain-intracellular-signaling-proteins-and-active-ras-incorporated-in-a-farnesylation-dependent-manner
#15
Natalie Luhtala, Aaron Aslanian, John R Yates, Tony Hunter
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are malignant brain tumors with a median survival of less than 18 months. Redundancy of signaling pathways represented within GBMs contributes to their therapeutic resistance. Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles released from cells and present in human biofluids that represent a possible biomarker of tumor signaling state that could aid in personalized treatment. Herein, we demonstrate that mouse GBM cell-derived extracellular nanovesicles resembling exosomes from an H-RasV12 myr-Akt mouse model for GBM are enriched for intracellular signaling cascade proteins (GO: 0007242) and Ras protein signal transduction (GO: 0007265), and contain active Ras...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908881/pre-clinical-studies-of-gilteritinib-a-next-generation-flt3-inhibitor
#16
Lauren Y Lee, Daniela Hernandez, Trivikram Rajkhowa, Samuel C Smith, Jayant Ranganathan Raman, Bao Nguyen, Donald Small, Mark Levis
Activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 comprise approximately one-third of genetic lesions in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with a poor prognosis. Internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutations in particular are associated with a high relapse rate. Although FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) appear to improve clinical outcomes for patients with FLT3-ITD AML, the development of early-generation FLT3 TKIs has been impeded by several obstacles such as low potency and selectivity, myelosuppression, and the emergence of resistance-conferring point mutations...
December 1, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908430/evaluation-of-tissue-metal-and-trace-element-content-in-a-rat-model-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-using-icp-drc-ms
#17
Eugenia R Gatiatulina, Elizaveta V Popova, Valentina S Polyakova, Anastasia A Skalnaya, Eduard F Agletdinov, Alexandr A Nikonorov, Anatoly V Skalny, Alexey A Tinkov
The primary objective of the study was to assess the level of metals and trace elements in liver, serum, and hair of rats with diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) using inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer (ICP-DRC-MS). 56 female 3-months-old Wistar rats divided into two equal groups were fed either standard (10% calories from fat) or high-fat high-carbohydrate diet (60% calories from fat in chow and 10% sucrose solution) for 6 weeks. Serum was examined for insulin resistance markers, lipid profile, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908251/effects-of-an-outpatient-service-rehabilitation-programme-in-patients-affected-by-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-an-observational-study
#18
Maurizio Bussotti, Paola Gremigni, Roberto Fe Pedretti, Patrycja Kransinska, Silvia Di Marco, Paola Corbo, Giovanni Marchese, Paolo Totaro, Marinella Sommaruga
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterised by a severe impairment of functional status and quality of life (QoL). Use of rehabilitative programmes may help to improve outcomes. The aim of this pre/post test case series was to evaluate the impact of a training program, including sessions of aerobic and resistance exercise, inspiratory muscle reinforcement, slow breathing, relaxation, and psychological support, on functional outcomes. METHODS: Fifteen patients affected by PAH, in World Health Organization (WHO) Functional Class (FC) II or III and in stable clinical condition, were included in a 4-week cardiorespiratory training programme conducted in outpatient service...
November 30, 2016: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907250/the-transcriptional-co-activator-bob1-is-associated-with-pathologic-b-cell-responses-in-autoimmune-tissue-inflammation
#19
Maria J Levels, Melissa N Van Tok, Tineke Cantaert, Juan D Cañete, Frans G M Kroese, Kristine Germar, Hergen Spits, Dominique L P Baeten, Nataliya G Yeremenko
OBJECTIVE: The molecular mechanisms steering abnormal B cell responses in autoimmune diseases remain poorly understood. In this study we aimed to identify molecular switches controlling pathological B cell responses in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Candidate molecules were identified by gene expression profiling of RA synovitis and validated by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. B cell-specific expression was confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and flow cytometry...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907076/clinical-determinants-of-hiv-1b-between-host-evolution-and-their-association-with-drug-resistance-in-pediatric-patients
#20
Israel Pagán, Patricia Rojas, José Tomás Ramos, África Holguín
Understanding the factors that modulate the evolution of virus populations is essential to design efficient control strategies. Mathematical models predict that factors affecting viral within-host evolution may also determine that at the between-host level. Although HIV-1 within-host evolution has been associated with clinical factors used to monitor AIDS progression, such as patient age, CD4 cells count, viral load, and antiretroviral experience, little is known about the role of these clinical factors in determining between-host HIV-1 evolution...
2016: PloS One
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