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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231271/applying-antibody-sensitive-hypervariable-region-1-deleted-hepatitis-c-virus-to-the-study-of-escape-pathways-of-neutralizing-human-monoclonal-antibody-ar5a
#1
Rodrigo Velázquez-Moctezuma, Mansun Law, Jens Bukh, Jannick Prentoe
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of end-stage liver diseases. With 3-4 million new HCV infections yearly, a vaccine is urgently needed. A better understanding of virus escape from neutralizing antibodies and their corresponding epitopes are important for this effort. However, for viral isolates with high antibody resistance, or antibodies with moderate potency, it remains challenging to induce escape mutations in vitro. Here, as proof-of-concept, we used antibody-sensitive HVR1-deleted (ΔHVR1) viruses to generate escape mutants for a human monoclonal antibody, AR5A, targeting a rare cross-genotype conserved epitope...
February 23, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230793/dynamic-fluid-in-a-porous-transducer-based-angular-accelerometer
#2
Siyuan Cheng, Mengyin Fu, Meiling Wang, Li Ming, Huijin Fu, Tonglei Wang
This paper presents a theoretical model of the dynamics of liquid flow in an angular accelerometer comprising a porous transducer in a circular tube of liquid. Wave speed and dynamic permeability of the transducer are considered to describe the relation between angular acceleration and the differential pressure on the transducer. The permeability and streaming potential coupling coefficient of the transducer are determined in the experiments, and special prototypes are utilized to validate the theoretical model in both the frequency and time domains...
February 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230287/therapeutic-potential-of-targeting-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-treatment-of-colorectal-cancer-rational-and-progress
#3
Afsane Bahrami, Majid Khazaei, Malihe Hasanzadeh, Soodabeh ShahidSales, Mona Joudi Mashhad, Marjaneh Farazestanian, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Majid Rezayi, Mina Maftouh, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Amir Avan
PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is one of the key dysregulated pathways in different tumor types, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Activation of this pathway is shown to be related with cellular transformation, tumor progression, cell survival and drug resistance. There is growing body of data evaluating the value of PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors in CRC (e.g., BEZ235, NVP-BEZ235, OSI-027, everolimus, MK-2206, KRX-0401, BYL719 and BKM120). This report summarizes the current knowledge about PI3K/AKT pathway and its cross talk with ERK/MAPK and mTOR pathways with particular emphasis on the value of targeting this pathway as a potential therapeutic target in treatment of colorectal cancer...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228013/highly-efficient-and-safe-delivery-of-vegf-sirna-by-bio-reducible-fluorinated-peptide-dendrimers-for-cancer-therapy
#4
Xiaojun Cai, Haofang Zhu, Yanmei Zhang, Zhongwei Gu
RNA interference (RNAi) hold great promise in treating a wide range of diseases. However, it remains highly desirable to develop new delivery systems to circumvent complex extra- and intracellular barriers for successful clinical translation. Here, we report on a versatile polymeric vector, bio-reducible fluorinated peptide dendrimers (BFPD), for highly efficient and safe delivery of siRNA. In virtue of skillfully integrated all of the unique features of reversible cross-linking, fluorination and peptide dendrimers, this novel vector can surmount almost all extra- and intracellular barriers associated with local siRNA delivery through highly improved physiological stability and serum resistance, significantly increased intratumoral enrichment, cellular uptake, as well as successful facilitation of endosomal escape and cytosolic siRNA release...
February 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227245/monitoring-and-detecting-atrial-fibrillation-using-wearable-technology
#5
Shamim Nemati, Mohammad M Ghassemi, Vaidehi Ambai, Nino Isakadze, Oleksiy Levantsevych, Amit Shah, Gari D Clifford, Shamim Nemati, Mohammad M Ghassemi, Vaidehi Ambai, Nino Isakadze, Oleksiy Levantsevych, Amit Shah, Gari D Clifford, Mohammad M Ghassemi, Shamim Nemati, Nino Isakadze, Vaidehi Ambai, Oleksiy Levantsevych, Amit Shah, Gari D Clifford
Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is diagnosed by analysis of the morphological and rhythmic properties of the electrocardiogram. It was recently shown that accurate detection of AFib is possible using beat-to-beat interval variations. This raises the question of whether AFib detection can be performed using a pulsatile waveform such as the Photoplethysmogram (PPG). The recent explosion in use of recreational and professional ambulatory wrist-based pulse monitoring devices means that an accurate pulse-based AFib screening algorithm would enable large scale screening for silent or undiagnosed AFib, a significant risk factor for multiple diseases...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227149/automated-and-reconfigurable-platform-for-niosome-generation-based-on-a-microfluidic-architecture
#6
Frederic Tessier, Myriam Laprise-Pelletier, Eric Boilard, Marc-Andre Fortin, Amine Miled, Frederic Tessier, Myriam Laprise-Pelletier, Eric Boilard, Marc-Andre Fortin, Amine Miled, Marc-Andre Fortin, Eric Boilard, Amine Miled, Frederic Tessier, Myriam Laprise-Pelletier
Drug delivery at the nano-scale is becoming an important topic in nano and regenerative medicine as it can offer a very localized therapy. Therefore, niosomes are one of the most important vehicles to release drug at the nanoscale. In this paper, we present a new automated microsystem for niosome generation on-demand. Used niosome were based on a mixture of cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate with chloroform. Three compact micropumps are connected to a microfluidic substrate in order to generate 100 nm noisome vesicles...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225336/paediatric-tuberculosis-in-queensland-australia-overrepresentation-of-cross-border-and-indigenous-children
#7
E J Donnan, C Coulter, G Simpson, J Clark, C Nourse
SETTING: Queensland, Australia. BACKGROUND: Understanding paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is important, as children with TB typically reflect recent community transmission. Children pose unique diagnostic challenges and are at risk of developing severe disseminated infection. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, presentation and outcomes of children with TB disease in Queensland. DESIGN: This is a retrospective case series of children diagnosed with TB aged 0-16 years notified in 2005-2014...
March 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224028/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-integron-carriage-in-helicobacter-pylori-isolates-from-patients
#8
Mehdi Goudarzi, Mohsen Heidary, Mehdi Azad, Maryam Fazeli, Hossein Goudarzi
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and distribution of integron in H. pylori isolates collected from patients referred to private health care centers in Tehran, Iran. BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is the main reason for failure of Helicobacter pylori therapy. Integrons as genetic reservoirs play main roles in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance gene. METHODS: During a 12-month cross-sectional study period, 65 H...
December 2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224026/effect-of-helicobacter-pylori-on-metabolic-syndrome-parameters-in-diabetic-patients
#9
Jamshid Vafaeimanesh, Mohammad Bagherzadeh, Atefeh Mirzaei, Mahmoud Parham, Mohsen Norouzinia, Reza Vafaee
AIM: The aim of this study is to survey the effect of Helicobacter Pylori on metabolic syndrome parameters in diabetic patients. BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is the most common infection in developing countries. Some studies showed the association between HP infection and insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a major mechanism in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and it is said that MetS is more prevalent among HP infected subjects...
December 2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223926/frontal-functional-connectivity-of-electrocorticographic-delta-and-theta-rhythms-during-action-execution-versus-action-observation-in-humans
#10
Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Susanna Lopez, Giancarlo Di Gennaro, Pier P Quarato, Luigi Pavone, Roberta Morace, Andrea Soricelli, Giuseppe Noce, Vincenzo Esposito, Vittorio Gallese, Giovanni Mirabella
We have previously shown that in seven drug-resistant epilepsy patients, both reaching-grasping of objects and the mere observation of those actions did desynchronize subdural electrocorticographic (ECoG) alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (14-30) rhythms as a sign of cortical activation in primary somatosensory-motor, lateral premotor and ventral prefrontal areas (Babiloni et al., 2016a). Furthermore, that desynchronization was greater during action execution than during its observation. In the present exploratory study, we reanalyzed those ECoG data to evaluate the proof-of-concept that lagged linear connectivity (LLC) between primary somatosensory-motor, lateral premotor and ventral prefrontal areas would be enhanced during the action execution compared to the mere observation due to a greater flow of visual and somatomotor information...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223393/novel-bacterial-topoisomerase-inhibitors-with-potent-broad-spectrum-activity-against-drug-resistant-bacteria
#11
Cédric Charrier, Anne-Marie Salisbury, Victoria J Savage, Thomas Duffy, Emmanuel Moyo, Nathan Chaffer-Malam, Nicola Ooi, Rebecca Newman, Jonathan Cheung, Richard Metzger, David McGarry, Mark Pichowicz, Ralph Sigerson, Ian R Cooper, Gary Nelson, Hayley S Butler, Mark Craighead, Andrew J Ratcliffe, Stuart A Best, Neil R Stokes
The Novel Bacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitor class is an investigational type of antibacterial inhibitor of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV that do not have cross-resistance with the quinolones. Here, we report the evaluation of the in vitro properties of a new series of this type of small molecules. Exemplar compounds selectively and potently inhibited the catalytic activities of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV but did not block the DNA breakage-reunion step. Compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including biodefence microorganisms, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis No cross-resistance with quinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and E...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222201/linkage-and-mapping-of-quantitative-trait-loci-associated-with-angular-leaf-spot-and-powdery-mildew-resistance-in-common-beans
#12
Denis Bassi, Boris Briñez, Juliana Santa Rosa, Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc, Caléo Panhoca de Almeida, Stella Maris Nucci, Larissa Chariel Domingos da Silva, Alisson Fernando Chiorato, Rosana Pereira Vianello, Luis Eduardo Aranha Camargo, Matthew Wohlgemuth Blair, Luciana Lasry Benchimol-Reis
Angular leaf spot (ALS) and powdery mildew (PWM) are two important fungi diseases causing significant yield losses in common beans. In this study, a new genetic linkage map was constructed using single sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in a segregating population derived from the AND 277 x SEA 5 cross, with 105 recombinant inbred lines. Phenotypic evaluations were performed in the greenhouse to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance by means of the composite interval mapping analysis...
February 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221987/quantifying-bacterial-cross-contamination-rates-between-fresh-cut-produce-and-hands
#13
Dane A Jensen, Michelle D Danyluk, Linda J Harris, Donald W Schaffner
This study quantifies the cross-contamination rates between fresh-cut produce and hands using a nalidixic acid-resistant nonpathogenic Enterobacter aerogenes and cocktails of rifampin-resistant Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains. Volunteers performed the E. aerogenes experiments (n = 20), and one of the authors performed the Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 experiments multiple times (n =15 and n =10, respectively). Each participant handled 25 g of fresh-cut carrots, celery, or cantaloupe in two different scenarios...
February 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221939/load-and-prevalence-of-antimicrobial-resistant-escherichia-coli-from-fresh-goat-meat-in-arusha-tanzania
#14
Gaspary Mwanyika, Douglas R Call, Benardether Rugumisa, Catherine Luanda, Rehema Murutu, Murugan Subbiah, Joram Buza
Given the potential public health risks associated with a burgeoning goat meat industry in Tanzania, we estimated the load of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains for goat meat by using a cross-sectional study design (June to July 2015). Five large (n = 60 samples) and five small (n = 64 samples) slaughterhouses were sampled over a period of four to six visits each. Meat rinsate was prepared and plated onto MacConkey agar, and presumptive E. coli colonies were enumerated and reported as CFU per milliliter of rinsate...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221914/effects-of-inoculation-procedures-on-variability-and-repeatability-of-salmonella-thermal-resistance-in-wheat-flour
#15
Ian M Hildebrandt, Bradley P Marks, Elliot T Ryser, Rossana Villa-Rojas, Juming Tang, Francisco J Garces-Vega, Sarah E Buchholz
Limited prior research has shown that inoculation methods affect thermal resistance of Salmonella in low-moisture foods; however, these effects and their repeatability have not been systematically quantified. Consequently, method variability across studies limits utility of individual data sets and cross-study comparisons. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effects of inoculation methodologies on stability and thermal resistance of Salmonella in a low-moisture food (wheat flour), and the repeatability of those results, based on data generated by two independent laboratories...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221753/structure-activity-relationships-of-the-competence-stimulating-peptides-csps-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae-reveal-motifs-critical-for-intra-group-and-cross-group-comd-receptor-activation
#16
Yifang Yang, Bimal Koirala, Lucia A Sanchez, Naiya R Phillips, Sally R Hamry, Yftah Tal-Gan
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a highly recombinogenic human pathogen that utilizes the competence stimulating peptide (CSP)-based quorum sensing (QS) circuitry to acquire antibiotic resistance genes from the environment and initiate its attack on the human host. Modulation of QS in this bacterium, either inhibition or activation, can therefore be used to attenuate S. pneumoniae infectivity and slow down pneumococcal resistance development. In this study we set to determine the molecular mechanism that drives CSP:receptor binding and identify CSP-based QS modulators with distinct activity profiles...
February 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219344/origin-and-phylogenetic-status-of-the-local-ashanti-dwarf-pig-adp-of-ghana-based-on-genetic-analysis
#17
Richard Osei-Amponsah, Benjamin M Skinner, Dennis O Adjei, Julien Bauer, Greger Larson, Nabeel A Affara, Carole A Sargent
BACKGROUND: The Ashanti Dwarf Pig (ADP) of Ghana is an endangered pig breed with hardy and disease resistant traits. Characterisation of animal genetic resources provides relevant data for their conservation and sustainable use for food security and economic development. We investigated the origin and phylogenetic status of the local ADP of Ghana and their crosses with modern commercial breeds based on mtDNA, MC1R, Y-chromosome sequence polymorphisms, and genome-wide SNP genotyping. RESULTS: The study involved 164 local pigs sampled from the three agro-ecological zones of Ghana...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218957/cyclic-fatigue-resistance-of-a-novel-rotary-file-manufactured-using-controlled-memory-ni-ti-technology-compared-to-a-file-made-from-m-wire-file
#18
E Alshwaimi
AIM: To compare the cyclic fatigue properties of a novel file made using controlled memory NiTi technology with those of files made from M-wire. METHODOLOGY: Twelve files with similar cross-sectional geometry and tip size from each of the following groups were tested: Proflexendo made from CMT (PE; size 30 .04) (Nexden, Houston, Tx, USA), ProFile Vortex made from M-wire (PV; size 30 .04) (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK, USA), and ProTaper Universal made from regular alloy (PU; F3) (Dentsply Tulsa Dental)...
February 20, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218393/the-relative-position-of-the-human-fibula-to-the-tibia-influences-cross-sectional-properties-of-the-tibia
#19
Benjamin M Auerbach, Alice F Gooding, Colin N Shaw, Adam D Sylvester
OBJECTIVES: The fibula transmits loads within the lower limb of hominids. The few studies of variation in the cross-sectional geometric (CSG) properties of the fibula have established differences in its rigidity among groups engaged in distinct habitual loading activities. This study adds to this research by considering the relationship between CSG properties and the anatomical position of the fibula relative to the tibia among groups with differences in documented activity patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used pQCT scans taken at 50% of the length of the lower leg in 83 healthy young adult collegiate-aged individuals divided into five activity groups: runners, swimmers, cricketers, field hockey players, and non-athletes...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217509/relevance-of-the-triglyceride-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-ratio-as-an-important-lipid-fraction-in-apparently-healthy-young-and-middle-aged-indian-men
#20
Aparna Kohli, Anupa Siddhu, Ravindra M Pandey, K Srinath Reddy
CONTEXT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality in Indians. Insulin resistance and related dyslipidemia of increased triglyceride (TG), small dense low-density lipoprotein (sd-LDL) particles, and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased risk of CVD. TG/HDL-C ratio could be a potential surrogate marker for this South Asian phenotype. Data are scarce on the relevance of TG/HDL-C ratio as a useful lipid marker among Indians...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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