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antibiotics teratogenicity

A Ouanounou, D A Haas
Pregnancy is accompanied by various physiological and physical changes, including those found in the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal and haematological systems. These alterations in the pregnant patient may potentially affect drug pharmacokinetics. Also, pharmacotherapy presents a unique matter due to the potential teratogenic effects of certain drugs. Although medications prescribed by dentists are generally safe during pregnancy, some modifications may be needed. In this article we will discuss the changes in the physiology during pregnancy and its impact on drug therapy...
April 22, 2016: British Dental Journal
Jeffrey A Keelan, Matthew S Payne, Matthew W Kemp, Demelza J Ireland, John P Newnham
Intrauterine infection-inflammation is a major cause of early preterm birth and subsequent neonatal mortality and acute or long-term morbidity. Antibiotics can be administered in pregnancy to prevent preterm birth either prophylactically to women at high risk for preterm delivery, or to women with diagnosed intrauterine infection, prelabor rupture of membranes, or in suspected preterm labor. The therapeutic goals of each of these scenarios are different, with different pharmacological considerations, although effective antimicrobial therapy is an essential requirement...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Alexa Dinant, Ramiz A Boulos
BACKGROUND: Acne is a prominent skin condition affecting >80% of teenagers and young adults and ~650 million people globally. Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is currently the standard of care for treatment. However, it has a well-established teratogenic activity, a reason for the development of novel and low-risk treatment options for acne. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of Zolav(®), (a p-carboethoxy-tristyrylbenzene derivative) [corrected] a novel antibiotic as a treatment for acne vulgaris...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Anna L Chien, Ji Qi, Barbara Rainer, Dana L Sachs, Yolanda R Helfrich
Acne vulgaris is a common disease of the pilosebaceous unit and affects adolescents and adults. Because high-quality guidelines regarding treatment of acne in pregnancy are scarce, management of this condition can be challenging. We describe the safety profile of common therapies and outline approaches based on available evidence. Topical azelaic acid or benzoyl peroxide can be recommended as baseline therapy. A combination of topical erythromycin or clindamycin with benzoyl peroxide is recommended for inflammatory acne...
March 2016: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
(no author information available yet)
When bacterial pneumonia contracted in hospital (nosocomial pneumonia) is thought to be due to a methicillin-resistant strain of S. aureus, the most commonly used antibiotics are vancomycin and teicoplanin (glycopeptides) or linezolid (an oxazolidinone). Telavancin, a glycopeptide derived from vancomycin, is active in vitro against methicillin-resistant S. aureus. It has been authorised in the European Union for second-line treatment of patients with nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus...
November 2015: Prescrire International
Kenneth P Klinker, Samuel J Borgert
PURPOSE: The purpose of this comparative review is to provide clinical information on the semisynthetic lipoglycopeptides (telavancin, oritavancin, and dalbavancin) for the management of gram-positive infections. METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted using the following terms: telavancin, dalbavancin, and oritavancin. Clinical trials evaluating pharmacokinetic properties, pharmacodynamic properties, clinical efficacy, and safety profiles were included in the review...
December 1, 2015: Clinical Therapeutics
Svetla Gadzhanova, Elizabeth Roughead
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine current utilisation of prescribed medicines amongst Australian women of child-bearing age, with a particular focus on the extent of use of medicines in Category D and X risk groups, which are moderate and high risk teratogens, respectively. The use of those medicines may pose risk of birth defects in pregnant women. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken involving all women of child-bearing age (15 to 44 years) who were dispensed medicines in 2013 using the 10% random sample of dispensing data from the Australian Government Department of Human Services...
2015: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
K Isa, K Oka, N Beauchamp, M Sato, K Wada, K Ohtani, S Nakanishi, E McCartney, M Tanaka, T Shimizu, S Kamiya, C Kruger, M Takahashi
Probiotics are live microorganisms ingested for the purpose of conferring a health benefit on the host. Development of new probiotics includes the need for safety evaluations that should consider factors such as pathogenicity, infectivity, virulence factors, toxicity, and metabolic activity. Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588(®) (CBM 588(®)), an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, has been developed as a probiotic for use by humans and food animals. Safety studies of this probiotic strain have been conducted and include assessment of antimicrobial sensitivity, documentation of the lack of Clostridium toxin genes, and evaluation of CBM 588(®) on reproductive and developmental toxicity in a rodent model...
August 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
Md Torequl Islam, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira Barros de Alencar, Katia da Conceição Machado, Keylla da Conceição Machado, Ana Amélia de Carvalho Melo-Cavalcante, Damiao Pergentino de Sousa, Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas
This study aims to review phytol (PYT), through published articles, periodicals, magazines and patents, which were retrieved from the PM, SD, WS, SP; DII, WIPO, CIPO, USPTO and INPI databases. Among the 149 articles and 62 patents, 27.52% articles and 87.09% patients were found on the searched topic, PYT and its sources and synthesis and metabolism; then followed by 15.44% and 14.77% articles on PYT in cytotoxicity/cancer/mutagenicity/teratogenicity and PYT in neurological diseases, respectively. In the pharma-medico viewpoint, PYT and its derivatives have been evident to have antimicrobial, cytotoxic, antitumorous, antimutagenic, anti-teratogenic, antibiotic-chemotherapeutic, antidiabetic, lipid lowering, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant, antinociceptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant, immunoadjuvancy, hair growth facilitator, hair fall defense and antidandruff activities...
October 5, 2015: Chemico-biological Interactions
Odile Sheehy, Fabiano Santos, Ema Ferreira, Anick Berard
OBJECTIVE: To review the available evidence concerning the relationship between the exposure to metronidazole during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery and birth defects. METHODS: Studies investigating the association between gestational use of oral metronidazole on human subjects and the risk of preterm birth or/and birth defects were systematically retrieved from MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. We selected studies published in English or French between 1964 and 2012...
2015: Current Drug Safety
Monika K Goyal, Adam L Hersh, Gia Badolato, Xianqun Luan, Maria Trent, Theoklis Zaoutis, James M Chamberlain
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to estimate the frequency of pregnancy testing in emergency department (ED) visits by reproductive-aged women administered or prescribed teratogenic medications (Food and Drug Administration categories D or X) and to determine factors associated with nonreceipt of a pregnancy test. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using 2005 through 2009 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data of ED visits by females ages 14 to 40 years...
February 2015: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Enav Yefet, Raed Salim, Bibiana Chazan, Hiba Akel, Shabtai Romano, Zohar Nachum
Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are highly efficient antibiotics. However, concerns regarding possible harmful effects have limited their use during pregnancy. Nevertheless, accumulating clinical data suggest that they may be safe during pregnancy. This review aimed to explore the mechanisms of action of the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, which set the stage for concerns regarding possible teratogenic and mutagenic effects; to clarify the clinical dilemmas that brought forth the necessity in reevaluating the use of those medications during pregnancy; and to review the accumulated data regarding their safety during pregnancy in animal models and humans...
November 2014: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Harriet F Lamont, Henrietta J Blogg, Ronald F Lamont
INTRODUCTION: The extent of antibiotic use in pregnancy remains unknown but may occur in > 40% of pregnant women for various indications, at different gestational ages from different sources. AREAS COVERED: Antibiotic resistance, alterations to the neonatal immune system causing allergy, asthma and atopic disease in later life and teratogenicity. EXPERT OPINION: Although teratogenesis is not a major concern, it is important, and ignorance and complacency cast a long shadow...
December 2014: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Valeria D'Ovidio, Donatella Meo, Maria Gozer, Marco E Bazuro, Piero Vernia
Inflammatory bowel disease characteristically affects young adults in their reproductive ages. Thus the medication used for the treatment of active disease should not compromise fertility and, also, should not have teratogenic effect on baby. A lot of data are available about effects of steroids, antibiotics, and mesalazine but no data are available about safety and efficacy of granulocyte-monocyte-apheresis (GMA) during pregnancy. In this case report, the 37 year-old pregnant woman with chronically active and steroid dependent ulcerative colitis (UC), at risk of abortion, refused more aggressive pharmacological therapeutic options and gave the informed consent to GMA...
February 2015: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Yuelian Sun, Chun Sen Wu, Jørn Olsen
PURPOSE: Studies on the safety of drugs used during pregnancy are necessary and important but prone to bias. Using cases as their own controls can reduce bias. We used a case-crossover design and a case-time-control design to estimate the risk of congenital malformation (CM) for children born to mothers who redeemed a trimethoprim prescription shortly before pregnancy. METHODS: The study was based on all live born singletons (N = 685 600) in Denmark whose mothers had available information on prescriptions in the Danish National Prescription Registry between 1996 and 2008...
October 2014: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Mats F Nilsson, William S Webster
The Swedish Medical Product Agency (MPA) has listed erythromycin as a suggested human teratogen, causing cardiovascular malformations. It is further suggested that this may be a class effect of macrolide antibiotics. The proposed teratogenic mechanism is blockade of the human ether-á-go-go-related (hERG)/IKr current in the embryonic heart causing bradycardia and arrhythmia resulting in altered cardiac blood flow and/or embryonic hypoxia. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of three macrolide antibiotics on the function of the rat embryonic heart...
April 2014: Birth Defects Research. Part B, Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology
D Mc Laughlin, P Hajduk, P Murphy, P Puri
Animal models are of great importance for medical research. They have enabled analysis of the aetiology and pathogenesis of complex congenital malformations and have also led to major advances in the surgical and therapeutic management of these conditions. Animal models allow us to comprehend the morphological and molecular basis of disease and consequently to discover novel approaches for both surgical and medical therapy. The anthracycline antibiotic adriamycin was incidentally found to have teratogenic effects on rats, producing a range of defects remarkably similar to the VACTERL association of congenital anomalies in humans, providing a reproducible animal model of this condition...
February 2013: Molecular Syndromology
Wageh Sobhy Darwish, Elsaid A Eldaly, Mohamed Tharwat El-Abbasy, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Shouta Nakayama, Mayumi Ishizuka
Antibiotics are substances either produced naturally by living organisms or synthetically in the laboratory, and they are able to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Antibiotics are also used as feed additives for the purpose of livestock health maintenance. Antibiotic residues in feedstuffs are currently a problem of some magnitude in different parts of the world, particularly due to associated public health concerns that include hypersensitivity reactions, antibiotic resistance, toxicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity...
February 2013: Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research
S Savion, G Oserov, H Orenstein, A Torchinsky, A Fein, V Toder
The involvement of NF-κB in the regulation of teratogen-induced apoptosis has not been established yet. Therefore, we tried to assess the involvement of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in the embryonic response to the anti-cancer drug Doxorubicin (DOX). Thus, exposure of p65 knockout (p65(-/-)) or wild type (WT) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to DOX resulted in a decrease in cell survival, culture density and cell proliferation, which was found to be more prominent in p65(-/-) MEFs. Those phenomena were accompanied by a DOX-induced increase in the proportion of apoptotic cells, which was demonstrated only in p65(-/-) cells and a G2/M arrest, which was found to be more prominent in WT cells...
March 2013: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Shivani V Tripathi, Cheryl J Gustafson, Karen E Huang, Steven R Feldman
INTRODUCTION: A variety of acne treatments exist, including topical benzoyl peroxide, topical retinoids, topical antibiotics, oral antibiotics, hormonal therapy, isotretinoin, and procedural therapies, such as light and laser therapies. Although each of these treatment modalities confer various benefits for the management of acne, it is important for healthcare providers to be aware of their potential side effects, including ones that are most common and most serious, so that these medications can be prescribed in a safe manner...
January 2013: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
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