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Regenerative Tissue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932383/comparison-of-the-glycosphingolipids-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#1
Karin Säljö, Angela Barone, Dzeneta Vizlin-Hodzic, Bengt R Johansson, Michael E Breimer, Keiko Funa, Susann Teneberg
High expectations are held for human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) since they are established from autologous tissues thus overcoming the risk of allogeneic immune rejection when used in regenerative medicine. However, little is known regarding the cell-surface carbohydrate antigen profile of hiPSC compared with human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Here, glycosphingolipids were isolated from an adipocyte-derived hiPSC line, and hiPSC and hESC glycosphingolipids were compared by concurrent characterization by binding assays with carbohydrate-recognizing ligands and mass spectrometry...
December 8, 2016: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931516/expansion-of-hair-follicle-stem-cells-sticking-to-isolated-sebaceous-glands-to-generate-in-vivo-epidermal-structures
#2
Huishan Zhang, Huashan Zhao, Jingqiao Qiao, Shoubing Zhang, Shuang Liu, Na Li, Xiaohua Lei, Lina Ning, Yujing Cao, Enkui Duan
Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are considered one of the useful donor cell types for skin regenerative medicine owing to their robust proliferative capacity and multipotency. However, methods for easily and effectively obtaining HFSCs from a limited skin biopsy are still lacking. Here we report a novel approach for obtaining a subpopulation of HFSCs from a small skin sample from the rat tail, which uses the sebaceous glands (SGs) to capture the adjacent HFSCs. By means of organ culture, keratinocytes were expanded from the detached SGs, which also included adherent HFSCs from the hair follicle that could be passaged at the single-cell level...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930948/selective-recruitment-of-non-classical-monocytes-promotes-skeletal-muscle-repair
#3
Cheryl L San Emeterio, Claire E Olingy, Yihsuan Chu, Edward A Botchwey
Regeneration of traumatic defects in skeletal muscle requires the synchronized behavior of multiple cells that participate in repair. The inflammatory cascade that is rapidly initiated after injury serves as a powerful node at which to guide the progression of healing and influence tissue repair. Here, we examine the role that myeloid cells play in the healing of traumatic skeletal muscle injury, and leverage their pro-regenerative functions using local delivery of the immunomodulatory small molecule FTY720...
November 16, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928505/collagen-a-network-for-regenerative-medicine
#4
REVIEW
K M Pawelec, S M Best, R E Cameron
The basic building block of the extra-cellular matrix in native tissue is collagen. As a structural protein, collagen has an inherent biocompatibility making it an ideal material for regenerative medicine. Cellular response, mediated by integrins, is dictated by the structure and chemistry of the collagen fibers. Fiber formation, via fibrillogenesis, can be controlled in vitro by several factors: pH, ionic strength, and collagen structure. After formation, fibers are stabilized via cross-linking. The final bioactivity of collagen scaffolds is a result of both processes...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928463/renal-progenitors-roles-in-kidney-disease-and-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
Brooke E Chambers, Rebecca A Wingert
Kidney disease is a devastating condition that affects millions of people worldwide, and its prevalence is predicted to significantly increase. The kidney is a complex organ encompassing many diverse cell types organized in a elaborate tissue architecture, making regeneration a challenging feat. In recent years, there has been a surge in the field of stem cell research to develop regenerative therapies for various organ systems. Here, we review some recent progressions in characterizing the role of renal progenitors in development, regeneration, and kidney disease in mammals...
November 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925477/relevance-of-meniscal-cell-regional-phenotype-to-tissue-engineering
#6
Shawn P Grogan, Chantal Pauli, Martin K Lotz, Darryl D D'Lima
PURPOSE: Meniscus contains heterogeneous populations of cells that have not been fully characterized. Cell phenotype is often lost during culture; however, culture expansion is typically required for tissue engineering. We examined and compared cell surface molecule expression levels on human meniscus cells from the vascular and avascular regions and articular chondrocytes while documenting changes during culture-induced dedifferentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of 16 different surface molecules were examined by flow cytometry after monolayer culture for 24 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks...
December 7, 2016: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925305/extracellular-matrix-in-epitheliochorial-endotheliochorial-and-haemochorial-placentation-and-its-potential-application-for-regenerative-medicine
#7
REVIEW
Ara da Anunciação, A M Mess, D Orechio, B A Aguiar, P O Favaron, M A Miglino
A placenta is defined as structural approximation of maternal and foetal tissues to perform physiological exchange. Associated processes of differentiation and the establishment of its cells take place within the extracellular matrix (ECM) that provides a rich environment of collagens, fibronectins, cytokines and other components. Placental ECM is promising for tissue regeneration purposes, because it has immune tolerance capacities that may cause only minimal rejections of transplants with immunological differences between donor and recipient...
December 7, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924577/analyzing-perk-activation-during-planarian-regeneration
#8
Susanna Fraguas, Yoshihiko Umesono, Kiyokazu Agata, Francesc Cebrià
Planarians are an ideal model in which to study stem cell-based regeneration. After amputation, planarian pluripotent stem cells surrounding the wound proliferate to produce the regenerative blastema, in which they differentiate into the missing tissues and structures. Recent independent studies in planarians have shown that Smed-egfr-3, a gene encoding a homologue of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors, and DjerkA, which encodes an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), may control cell differentiation and blastema growth...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924424/rgta-%C3%A2-or-regenerating-agents-mimic-heparan-sulfate-in-regenerative-medicine-from-concept-to-curing-patients
#9
REVIEW
Denis Barritault, Marie Gilbert-Sirieix, Kim Lee Rice, Fernando Siñeriz, Dulce Papy-Garcia, Christophe Baudouin, Pascal Desgranges, Gilbert Zakine, Jean-Louis Saffar, Johan van Neck
The importance of extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity in maintaining normal tissue function is highlighted by numerous pathologies and situations of acute and chronic injury associated with dysregulation or destruction of ECM components. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a key component of the ECM, where it fulfils important functions associated with tissue homeostasis. Its degradation following tissue injury disrupts this delicate equilibrium and may impair the wound healing process. ReGeneraTing Agents (RGTA(®)s) are polysaccharides specifically designed to replace degraded HS in injured tissues...
December 7, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924340/exosome-like-silica-nanoparticles-a-novel-ultrasound-contrast-agent-for-stem-cell-imaging
#10
Fang Chen, Ming Ma, Junxin Wang, Fang Wang, Shi-Xiong Chern, Eric Ruike Zhao, Anamik Jhunjhunwala, Sean Darmadi, Hangrong Chen, Jesse V Jokerst
Ultrasound is critical in many areas of medicine including obstetrics, oncology, and cardiology with emerging applications in regenerative medicine. However, one critical limitation of ultrasound is the low contrast of target tissue over background. Here, we describe a novel cup-shaped silica nanoparticle that is reminiscent of exosomes and that has significant ultrasound impedance mismatch for labelling stem cells for regenerative medicine imaging. These exosome-like silica nanoparticles (ELS) were created through emulsion templating and the silica precursors bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) and bis(3-trimethoxysilyl-propyl)amine (TSPA)...
December 7, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923324/uncovering-the-in-vivo-source-of-adult-neural-crest-stem-cells
#11
Jorge B Aquino
Some late embryonic and adult postmigratory neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) from diverse tissues were shown to grow as multipotent neurospheres. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) contained in these spheres, were found to give rise not only to neuroectodermal derivatives but also to some of the progeny of the other embryonic germ layers. In this review, evidences regarding the in vivo properties of NCDCs contributing to NCSCs are discussed. Even though in many cases the final prove for the phenotype identity of in vivo cells generating NCSCs is lacking, some evidences suggest that such postmigratory NCDCs would differ from neural crest cells (NCCs)...
December 6, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922848/lung-regeneration-steps-toward-clinical-implementation-and-use
#12
Elizabeth A Calle, Katherine L Leiby, MichaSam B Raredon, Laura E Niklason
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Whole lung tissue engineering is a relatively new area of investigation. In a short time, however, the field has advanced quickly beyond proof of concept studies in rodents and now stands on the cusp of wide-spread scale up to large animal studies. Therefore, this technology is ever closer to being directly clinically relevant. RECENT FINDINGS: The main themes in the literature include refinement of the fundamental components of whole lung engineering and increasing effort to direct induced pluripotent stem cells and lung progenitor cells toward use in lung regeneration...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922334/ionizing-radiation-impairs-endogenous-regeneration-of-infarcted-heart-an-in-vivo-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-and-99m-tc-tetrofosmin-spect-ct-study-in-mice
#13
Lan Luo, Kodai Nishi, Yoshishige Urata, Chen Yan, Al Shaimaa Hasan, Shinji Goto, Takashi Kudo, Zhao-Lan Li, Tao-Sheng Li
Epidemiological studies have suggested that ionizing radiation increases cardiovascular disease risk, but the relevant mechanism is poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that adult mice exposed to whole-body irradiation with 3 Gy gamma rays significantly decreases the number and quality of cardiac stem cells. To further determine if radiation impairs myocardial regenerative potency, a myocardial infarction model was established in adult C57BL/6 mice by ligating the left anterior descending artery approximately 6 h after sham- or whole-body gamma irradiation (0 or 3 Gy)...
December 6, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921041/signaling-crosstalk-between-tubular-epithelial-cells-and-interstitial-fibroblasts-after-kidney-injury
#14
REVIEW
Roderick J Tan, Dong Zhou, Youhua Liu
BACKGROUND: A wide variety of kidney diseases ultimately lead to tubulointerstitial damage. The initial site of injury is usually the renal tubules, with activation of fibroblasts occurring later. Self-limited disease is characterized by transient cellular activation with timed deactivation and ultimately a return to normal functioning, whereas sustained responses characterize chronic disease and the development of irreversible fibrosis. The underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of this cascade of events remain an area of active research...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921031/amniotic-epithelial-cells-a-new-tool-to-combat-aging-and-age-related-diseases
#15
Clara Di Germanio, Michel Bernier, Rafael de Cabo, Barbara Barboni
The number of elderly people is growing at an unprecedented rate and this increase of the aging population is expected to have a direct impact on the incidence of age-related diseases and healthcare-associated costs. Thus, it is imperative that new tools are developed to fight and slow age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is a promising strategy for the maintenance of health and function late in life; however, stem cell-based therapies face several challenges including rejection and tumor transformation...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920882/paroxetine-can-enhance-neurogenesis-during-neurogenic-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#16
Maliheh Jahromi, Shahnaz Razavi, Nushin Amirpour, Zahra Khosravizadeh
BACKGROUND: Some antidepressant drugs can promote neuronal cell proliferation in vitro as well as hippocampal neurogenesis in human and animal models. Furthermore, adipose tissue is an available source of adult stem cells with the ability to differentiate in to multiple lineages. Therefore, human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (hAD-SCs) may be a suitable source for regenerative medical applications. Since there is no evidence for the effect of Paroxetine as the most commonly prescribed antidepressant drug for neurogenic potential of hADSCs, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Paroxetine on proliferation and neural differentiation of hADSCs...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919783/the-potential-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-tool-to-study-skeletal-dysplasias-and-cartilage-related-pathologic-conditions
#17
REVIEW
Huan Liu, Lei Yang, Fang Fang Yu, Sen Wang, Cuiyan Wu, Chengjuan Qu, Xiong Guo, Mikko J Lammi
The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology has opened up new horizons for development of new research tools especially for skeletal dysplasias, which often lack human disease models. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering could be the next areas to benefit from refinement of iPSC methods to repair focal cartilage defects, while applications for osteoarthritis (OA) and drug screening have evolved rather slowly. Although the advances in iPSC research of skeletal dysplasias and repair of focal cartilage lesions are not directly relevant to OA, they can be considered to pave the way to future prospects and solutions to OA research, too...
December 2, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919339/the-role-of-gene-mutations-and-gene-products-in-intestinal-tissue-reactions-from-ionising-radiation
#18
Jolyon H Hendry, Kensuke Otsuka
The response of the intestine to (low linear-energy-transfer) ionising radiation is reviewed regarding the cellular basis to the reactions, the regenerative processes which restore the tissue, and external agents which aid its recovery. In the steady-state, it is generally considered that the crypt cell lineages in both small and large intestine are maintained by a small number of stem cells, but there are differences for example in the composition of their niche residence and in the numbers of transit cell generations...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919336/tissue-reactions-to-ionizing-radiation-oral-mucosa
#19
Sylvia Gruber, Wolfgang Dörr
Radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatment strategies for solid malignancies, including head-and-neck tumors (HNT). Oral mucositis is the most frequent, often dose-limiting early adverse event of radio(chemo)therapy for HNT. The oral mucosal response is - like that of typical turnover tissues - based on radiation-induced impairment of epithelial proliferation and cell production, in face of ongoing physiological cell differentiation and cell loss, consequently resulting in hypoplasia and eventually mucosal ulceration...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918898/roles-of-l-type-calcium-channels-cav1-2-and-the-distal-c-terminus-dct-in-differentiation-and-mineralization-of-rat-dental-apical-papilla-stem-cells-rscaps
#20
Qianqian Gao, Jianping Ge, Yanqin Ju, Changsheng Li, Jian Gao, Meisheng Wu, Shouliang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Voltage-gated inward Ca(2+) currents (ICa) are triggered by cell depolarization and commonly produce transient increases in the cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration. The CaV1.2 distal C-terminus is susceptible to proteolytic cleavage, which yields a truncated CaV1.2 subunit and a cleaved C-terminal fragment (CCt or DCT). Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) has a capacity for differentiation into the odontoblastic-like cells in vitro and dentin forming in vivo, which makes SCAPs advantages in tissue engineering and regenerative endodontic...
November 4, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
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