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Regenerative Tissue

Eric M Hill, Christian P Petersen
Most animals undergo homeostatic tissue maintenance, yet those capable of robust regeneration in adulthood use mechanisms significantly overlapping with homeostasis. Here we show in planarians that modulations to body-wide patterning systems shift the target site for eye regeneration while still enabling homeostasis of eyes outside this region. The uncoupling of homeostasis and regeneration, which can occur during normal positional rescaling after axis truncation, is not due to altered injury signaling or stem cell activity, nor specific to eye tissue...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Rodrigo López-Leal, Paula Diaz, Felipe A Court
Sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglion efficiently regenerate after peripheral nerve injuries. These neurons are widely used as a model system to study degenerative mechanisms of the soma and axons, as well as regenerative axonal growth in the peripheral nervous system. This chapter describes techniques associated to the study of axonal degeneration and regeneration using explant cultures of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in vitro in the presence or absence of Schwann cells. Schwann cells are extremely important due to their involvement in tissue clearance during axonal degeneration as well as their known pro-regenerative effect during regeneration in the peripheral nervous system...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Doaa Abdelmageed El Faham, Mohamed Amr Hussein Elnoury, Mona Ibraheim Morsy, Marwa Abdelmoneim El Shaer, Ghada Mohammed Nour Eldin, Osama Mahmoud Azmy
Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used in photobiomodulation to promote healing, regenerate, and restore tissue function. Women with persistent thin endometrium were assumed to encounter diminished activity in the regenerative and functional capacity of their endometrium. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of LLLT in 635 nm wavelength to enhance the proliferation and gene expression of in vitro cultured endometrial cells. Single (SE) versus multiple exposures (ME) to LLLT were examined in the study groups and compared to controls...
March 15, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Harriet C Fitzgerald, Jemma Evans, Nicholas Johnson, Giuseppe Infusini, Andrew Webb, Luk J R Rombauts, Beverley J Vollenhoven, Lois A Salamonsen, Tracey A Edgell
The regenerative, proliferative phase of a woman's menstrual cycle is a critical period which lays the foundation for the subsequent, receptive secretory phase. Although endometrial glands and their secretions are essential for embryo implantation and survival, the proliferative phase, when these glands form, has been rarely examined. We hypothesized that alterations in the secreted proteome of the endometrium of idiopathic infertile women would reflect a disturbance in proliferative phase endometrial regeneration...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Kutay Deniz Atabay, Samuel A LoCascio, Thom de Hoog, Peter W Reddien
During animal regeneration cells must organize into discrete and functional systems. We show that self-organization, along with patterning cues, govern progenitor behavior in planarian regeneration. Surgical paradigms allowed manipulation of planarian eye regeneration in predictable locations and numbers, generating alternative stable neuroanatomical states for wild-type animals with multiple functional ectopic eyes. We utilized animals with multiple ectopic eyes and eye transplantation to demonstrate that broad progenitor specification, combined with self-organization, allows anatomy maintenance during regeneration...
March 15, 2018: Science
Oriane Blanquie, Frank Bradke
Recent years have seen cytoskeleton dynamics emerging as a key player in axon regeneration. The cytoskeleton, in particular microtubules and actin, ensures the growth of neuronal processes and maintains the singular, highly polarized shape of neurons. Following injury, adult central axons are tipped by a dystrophic structure, the retraction bulb, which prevents their regeneration. Abnormal cytoskeleton dynamics are responsible for the formation of this growth-incompetent structure but pharmacologically modulating cytoskeleton dynamics of injured axons can transform this structure into a growth-competent growth cone...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Jonas Lorenz, Mike Barbeck, Charles James Kirkpatrick, Robert Sader, Henriette Lerner, Shahram Ghanaati
PURPOSE: In this prospective study, the regenerative potential and pathways of a new injectable bone substitute (IBS) material composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hyaluronan were investigated for its application in alveolar bone regeneration within extraction sockets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bone substitute material was implanted in 44 extraction sockets after removal of teeth not worth preserving in the maxillary and mandibular arches of 21 patients...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Bingbo Zhang, Wei Yan, Yanjing Zhu, Weitao Yang, Wenjun Le, Bingdi Chen, Rongrong Zhu, Liming Cheng
Patients are increasingly being diagnosed with neuropathic diseases, but are rarely cured because of the loss of neurons in damaged tissues. This situation creates an urgent clinical need to develop alternative treatment strategies for effective repair and regeneration of injured or diseased tissues. Neural stem cells (NSCs), highly pluripotent cells with the ability of self-renewal and potential for multidirectional differentiation, provide a promising solution to meet this demand. However, some serious challenges remaining to be addressed are the regulation of implanted NSCs, tracking their fate, monitoring their interaction with and responsiveness to the tissue environment, and evaluating their treatment efficacy...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Yan Li, Dewen Ye, Mingxi Li, Ming Ma, Ning Gu
The paper provides a brief overview of the use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in the areas of bone regenerative medicine. Reconstruction of bone defects caused by trauma, non-union, and bone tumour excision still faces many challenges despite the intense investigations and advancement in bone tissue engineering and bone regeneration over the past decades. IONPs have promising prospects in this field due to their controlled responsive characteristics in specific external magnetic fields and have been of great interest during the last few years...
March 14, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Maria E Piroli, Ehsan Jabbarzadeh
Human stem cells hold significant potential for the treatment of various diseases. However, their use as a therapy is hampered because of limited understanding of the mechanisms by which they respond to environmental stimuli. Efforts to understand extracellular biophysical cues have demonstrated the critical roles of geometrical and mechanical signals in determining the fate of stem cells. The goal of this study was to explore the interplay between cell polarity and matrix stiffness in stem cell lineage specification...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Kathryn E Drzewiecki, Juilee N Malavade, Ijaz Ahmed, Christopher J Lowe, David I Shreiber
As a biomaterial, collagen has been used throughout tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Collagen is native to the body, is highly biocompatible, and naturally promotes cell adhesion and regeneration. However, collagen fibers and the inherent weak mechanical properties of collagen hydrogels interfere with further development of collagen as a bio-ink. Herein, we demonstrate the use of a modified type-I collagen, collagen methacrylamide (CMA), as a fibril-forming bio-ink for free-form fabrication of scaffolds...
December 2017: Technology
James C Courtenay, Ram I Sharma, Janet L Scott
Tissue engineering is a rapidly advancing field in regenerative medicine, with much research directed towards the production of new biomaterial scaffolds with tailored properties to generate functional tissue for specific applications. Recently, principles of sustainability, eco-efficiency and green chemistry have begun to guide the development of a new generation of materials, such as cellulose, as an alternative to conventional polymers based on conversion of fossil carbon (e.g., oil) and finding technologies to reduce the use of animal and human derived biomolecules (e...
March 14, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Leonardo Trombelli, Anna Simonelli, Luigi Minenna, Giulio Rasperini, Roberto Farina
BACKGROUND: In the attempt to limit the post-surgery increase in buccal gingival recession (bREC), effect of a connective tissue graft (CTG) when combined with a buccal single flap approach (SFA) in the regenerative treatment of intraosseous defects is evaluated. METHODS: Data related to 30 patients with an intraosseous defect treated with a buccal SFA with (SFA+CTG group; n = 15) or without (SFA group; n = 15) placement of a CTG and regenerative treatment were retrospectively derived at three clinical centers...
April 2017: Journal of Periodontology
Gary Hin-Fai Yam, Ericia Pei-Wen Teo, Melina Setiawan, Matthew J Lovatt, Nur Zahirah Binte M Yusoff, Matthias Fuest, Bee-Tin Goh, Jodhbir S Mehta
Corneal opacities are a leading cause of global blindness. They are conventionally treated by the transplantation of donor corneal tissue, which is, restricted by a worldwide donor material shortage and allograft rejection. Autologous adult stem cells with a potential to differentiate into corneal stromal keratocytes (CSKs) could offer a suitable choice of cells for regenerative cell therapy. Postnatal periodontal ligament (PDL) contains a population of adult stem cells, which has a similar embryological origin as CSK, that is cranial neural crest...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Aleksandra Klimczak, Urszula Kozlowska, Maciej Kurpisz
Muscular dystrophies represent a group of diseases which may develop in several forms, and severity of the disease is usually associated with gene mutations. In skeletal muscle regeneration and in muscular dystrophies, both innate and adaptive immune responses are involved. The regenerative potential of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) of bone marrow origin was confirmed by the ability to differentiate into diverse tissues and by their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties by secretion of a variety of growth factors and anti-inflammatory cytokines...
March 13, 2018: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Seyed Mohammad Hossein Kashfi, Sheema Almozyan, Nicholas Jinks, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Abdolrahman S Nateri
Organoids have extensive applications in many fields ranging from modelling human development and disease, personalised medicine, drug screening, etc. Moreover, in the last few years, several studies have evaluated the capacity of organoids as transplantation sources for therapeutic approaches and regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, depending on the origin of the cells and anatomical complications, an organoid transplant may make tissue regeneration difficult. However, some essential aspects of organoids including the morphological alterations and the growth pattern of the matched tumour and their healthy derived organoids have received less attention...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Melissa Lo Monaco, Greet Merckx, Jessica Ratajczak, Pascal Gervois, Petra Hilkens, Peter Clegg, Annelies Bronckaers, Jean-Michel Vandeweerd, Ivo Lambrichts
Due to the restricted intrinsic capacity of resident chondrocytes to regenerate the lost cartilage postinjury, stem cell-based therapies have been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach for cartilage repair. Moreover, stem cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been used successfully in preclinical and clinical settings. Despite these promising reports, the exact mechanisms underlying stem cell-mediated cartilage repair remain uncertain. Stem cells can contribute to cartilage repair via chondrogenic differentiation, via immunomodulation, or by the production of paracrine factors and extracellular vesicles...
2018: Stem Cells International
Nevin Witman, Makoto Sahara
Major cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction (MI) continue to dominate morbidity rates in the developed world. Although multiple device therapies and various pharmacological agents have been shown to improve patient care and reduce mortality rates, clinicians and researchers alike still lack a true panacea to regenerate damaged cardiac tissue. Over the previous two to three decades, cardiovascular stem cell therapies have held great promise. Several stem cell-based approaches have now been shown to improve ventricular function and are documented in preclinical animal models as well as phase I and phase II clinical trials...
2018: Stem Cells International
Olena Pogozhykh, Volodymyr Prokopyuk, Constança Figueiredo, Denys Pogozhykh
Placental structures, capable to persist in a genetically foreign organism, are a natural model of allogeneic engraftment carrying a number of distinctive properties. In this review, the main features of the placenta and its derivatives such as structure, cellular composition, immunological and endocrine aspects, and the ability to invasion and deportation are discussed. These features are considered from a perspective that determines the placental material as a unique source for regenerative cell therapies and a lesson for immunological tolerance...
2018: Stem Cells International
Heiko Lemcke, Natalia Voronina, Gustav Steinhoff, Robert David
During the past decades, stem cell-based therapy has acquired a promising role in regenerative medicine. The application of novel cell therapeutics for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases could potentially achieve the ambitious aim of effective cardiac regeneration. Despite the highly positive results from preclinical studies, data from phase I/II clinical trials are inconsistent and the improvement of cardiac remodeling and heart performance was found to be quite limited. The major issues which cardiac stem cell therapy is facing include inefficient cell delivery to the site of injury, accompanied by low cell retention and weak effectiveness of remaining stem cells in tissue regeneration...
2018: Stem Cells International
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