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Regenerative Tissue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805136/the-ovine-model-for-meniscus-tissue-engineering-considerations-of-anatomy-function-implantation-and-evaluation
#1
Andrzej Brzezinski, Salim A Ghodbane, Jay M Patel, Barbara A Perry, Charles J Gatt, Michael G Dunn
Meniscus injuries represent one of the most-common intra-articular knee injuries. The current treatment options include meniscectomy and allograft transplantation, both with poor long-term outcomes. Therefore, there is a need for regenerative techniques to restore meniscal function. In order to pre-clinically test scaffolds for meniscus replacement, large-animal models need to be established and standardized. This review establishes the anatomical and compositional similarities between the human and sheep menisci and provides guidance for implantation and evaluation of such devices...
August 12, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804933/chemical-functionalization-of-polysaccharides-towards-biocompatible-hydrogels-for-biomedical-applications
#2
Andreas Kirschning, Gerald Dräger, Nick Dibbert
Hydrogels have emerged as a highly interdisciplinary topic as they play a significant role for a vast number of applications. They have been studied extensively as materials for contact lenses, wound dressing and as filler material in soft-tissue augmentation, in which classical polymer backbones such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) are typically employed. More recently, polysaccharides have received attention, particularly in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, as ideal candidate materials for artificial extracellular matrices (ECM)...
August 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803986/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-regulates-myoblast-proliferation-and-differentiation
#3
Hongbo Gao, Sigurd Hartnett, Yifan Li
Skeletal muscles are dynamic tissues that possess regenerative abilities, which require multiple processes and regulatory factors. Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), which is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues, was upregulated in skeletal muscles in disease conditions but its functional role in skeletal muscles is unknown. Using mouse myoblast cells C2C12 as an in vitro model, this study reported that UCHL1 elicits different regulation in myoblast cell proliferation and differentiation. We first observed that UCHL1 protein level was continuously declined during cell differentiation...
August 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802101/flexible-biodegradable-citrate-based-polymeric-step-index-optical-fiber
#4
Dingying Shan, Chenji Zhang, Surge Kalaba, Nikhil Mehta, Gloria B Kim, Zhiwen Liu, Jian Yang
Implanting fiber optical waveguides into tissue or organs for light delivery and collection is among the most effective ways to overcome the issue of tissue turbidity, a long-standing obstacle for biomedical optical technologies. Here, we report a citrate-based material platform with engineerable opto-mechano-biological properties and demonstrate a new type of biodegradable, biocompatible, and low-loss step-index optical fiber for organ-scale light delivery and collection. By leveraging the rich designability and processibility of citrate-based biodegradable polymers, two exemplary biodegradable elastomers with a fine refractive index difference and yet matched mechanical properties and biodegradation profiles were developed...
August 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801830/cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-human-amelogenin-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-plants-by-means-of-a-transient-expression-system
#5
Mattia Pegoraro, Slavica Matić, Barbara Pergolizzi, Luca Iannarelli, Andrea M Rossi, Marco Morra, Emanuela Noris
Enamel is the covering tissue of teeth, made of regularly arranged hydroxyapatite crystals deposited on an organic matrix composed of 90% amelogenin that is completely degraded at the end of the enamel formation process. Amelogenin has a biomineralizing activity, forming nanoparticles or nanoribbons that guide hydroxyapatite deposit, and regenerative functions in bone and vascular tissue and in wound healing. Biotechnological products containing amelogenin seem to facilitate these processes. Here, we describe the production of human amelogenin in plants by transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana with constructs carrying synthetic genes with optimized human or plant codons...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801269/elastin-plga-hybrid-electrospun-nanofiber-scaffolds-for-salivary-epithelial-cell-self-organization-and-polarization
#6
Zahraa I Foraida, Tim Kamaldinov, Deirdre A Nelson, Melinda Larsen, James Castracane
Development of electrospun nanofibers that mimic the structural, mechanical and biochemical properties of natural extracellular matrices (ECMs) is a promising approach for tissue regeneration. Electrospun fibers of synthetic polymers partially mimic the topography of the ECM, however, their high stiffness, poor hydrophilicity and lack of in vivo-like biochemical cues is not optimal for epithelial cell self-organization and function. In search of a biomimetic scaffold for salivary gland tissue regeneration, we investigated the potential of elastin, an ECM protein, to generate elastin hybrid nanofibers that have favorable physical and biochemical properties for regeneration of the salivary glands...
August 8, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800464/accelerated-biomineralization-of-graphene-oxide-incorporated-cellulose-acetate-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-mesenchymal-stem-cell-osteogenesis
#7
Xiaoyun Liu, He Shen, Saijie Song, Wei Chen, Zhijun Zhang
For bone tissue engineering, it requires that the scaffolds have excellent biocompatibility, proper mechanical and osteoinductive properties. Electrospun nanofibers with extracellular matrices mimicking structure have proven to be good scaffolds for bone tissue repairing. Hybrid nanofibers in particular, endow the nanofibers with specific and multiple functionalities, and therefore have attracted increasing interests in the recent years. In this study, we fabricated graphene oxide (GO)-incorporated cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous scaffolds by electrospinning technique for enhancement of biomineralization and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)...
July 29, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799844/tissue-engineering-the-vascular-tree
#8
Mahama A Traore, Steven C George
A major hurdle in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine remains the design and construction of larger (> 1 cm(3)) in vitro tissues for biological studies and transplantation. While there has been success in creating three-dimensional (3D) capillary networks, relatively large arteries (diameter >3-5 mm), and more recently small arteries (diameter 500 μm-1 mm), there has been no success in the creation of a living dynamic blood vessel network comprising of arterioles (diameter 40-300 μm), capillaries, and venules...
August 11, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798911/tissue-engineering-approaches-in-the-design-of-healthy-and-pathological-in-vitro-tissue-models
#9
REVIEW
Silvia Caddeo, Monica Boffito, Susanna Sartori
In the tissue engineering (TE) paradigm, engineering and life sciences tools are combined to develop bioartificial substitutes for organs and tissues, which can in turn be applied in regenerative medicine, pharmaceutical, diagnostic, and basic research to elucidate fundamental aspects of cell functions in vivo or to identify mechanisms involved in aging processes and disease onset and progression. The complex three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment in which cells are organized in vivo allows the interaction between different cell types and between cells and the extracellular matrix, the composition of which varies as a function of the tissue, the degree of maturation, and health conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798872/fiber-reinforced-scaffolds-in-soft-tissue-engineering
#10
REVIEW
Baoqing Pei, Wei Wang, Yubo Fan, Xiumei Wang, Fumio Watari, Xiaoming Li
Soft tissue engineering has been developed as a new strategy for repairing damaged or diseased soft tissues and organs to overcome the limitations of current therapies. Since most of soft tissues in the human body are usually supported by collagen fibers to form a three-dimensional microstructure, fiber-reinforced scaffolds have the advantage to mimic the structure, mechanical and biological environment of natural soft tissues, which benefits for their regeneration and remodeling. This article reviews and discusses the latest research advances on design and manufacture of novel fiber-reinforced scaffolds for soft tissue repair and how fiber addition affects their structural characteristics, mechanical strength and biological activities in vitro and in vivo...
August 2017: Regenerative Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796952/implanted-dental-pulp-cells-fail-to-induce-regeneration-in-partial-pulpotomies
#11
F Mangione, M EzEldeen, C Bardet, J Lesieur, M Bonneau, F Decup, B Salmon, R Jacobs, C Chaussain, S Opsahl-Vital
Cell-based partial pulp regeneration is one of the promising approaches to obtain newly formed functional dentin-pulp complex. It relies on the preservation of the healthy tissue while regenerating the damaged pulp. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this regenerative process could be achieved by implanting porcine dental pulp cells (pDPCs) in pulp defects in the minipig. By split-mouth model, self-assembling injectable nanopeptide hydrogel, with and without pDPCs, was implanted after cameral pulpotomy in premolars and molars...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796249/rho-inhibition-by-lovastatin-affects-apoptosis-and-dsb-repair-of-primary-human-lung-cells-in-vitro-and-lung-tissue-in-vivo-following-fractionated-irradiation
#12
Verena Ziegler, Christian Henninger, Ioannis Simiantonakis, Marcel Buchholzer, Mohammad Reza Ahmadian, Wilfried Budach, Gerhard Fritz
Thoracic radiotherapy causes damage of normal lung tissue, which limits the cumulative radiation dose and, hence, confines the anticancer efficacy of radiotherapy and impacts the quality of life of tumor patients. Ras-homologous (Rho) small GTPases regulate multiple stress responses and cell death. Therefore, we investigated whether pharmacological targeting of Rho signaling by the HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitor lovastatin influences ionizing radiation (IR)-induced toxicity in primary human lung fibroblasts, lung epithelial and lung microvascular endothelial cells in vitro and subchronic mouse lung tissue damage following hypo-fractionated irradiation (4x4 Gy)...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793833/synergistic-therapeutic-effect-of-three-dimensional-stem-cell-clusters-and-angiopoietin-1-on-promoting-vascular-regeneration-in-ischemic-region
#13
Jungmi Kang, Jeong-Kee Yoon, Seung Ja Oh, Byung-Soo Kim, Sang-Heon Kim
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an ischemic disease characterized by reduced blood flow to the legs, feet, and hands. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source to treat PAD in regenerative medicine. However, in clinical applications, the use of adult stem cells has several limitations, such as low cell viability and low therapeutic efficiency. In the present study, we described an innovative method of culturing three-dimensional stem cell clusters (AngioclusterTM, AC), demonstrated the potential for ACs to differentiate into vascular cells, and assessed the synergistic effects of ACs and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) on angiogenesis in ischemic animal models...
August 10, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793186/an-engineered-optogenetic-switch-for-spatiotemporal-control-of-gene-expression-cell-differentiation-and-tissue-morphogenesis
#14
Lauren Polstein, Mark Juhas, Gabi Hanna, Nenad Bursac, Charles A Gersbach
The precise spatial and temporal control of gene expression, cell differentiation, and tissue morphogenesis has widespread application in regenerative medicine and the study of tissue development. In this work, we applied optogenetics to control cell differentiation and new tissue formation. Specifically, we engineered an optogenetic "on" switch that provides permanent transgene expression following a transient dose of blue light illumination. To demonstrate its utility in controlling cell differentiation and reprogramming, we incorporated an engineered form of the master myogenic factor MyoD into this system in multipotent cells...
August 9, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792664/collagen-coated-nano-electrospun-pcl-seeded-with-human-endometrial-stem-cells-for-skin-tissue-engineering-applications
#15
Shiva Sharif, Jafar Ai, Mahmoud Azami, Javad Verdi, Mohammad Ali Atlasi, Sadegh Shirian, Ali Samadikuchaksaraei
Human endometrial stem cells (hEnSCs) are known as an attractive source of stem cells for regenerative medicine. hEnSCs are easily isolated and are capable of repairing uterine through their strong ability of creating new capillaries. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen scaffold was fabricated and characterized in order to be applied as a new approach for skin reconstruction. Furthermore, the behavior of hEnSCs on this scaffold was investigated. First, a PCL 3D scaffold was constructed using electrospinning technique...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792626/advanced-three-dimensional-culture-of-equine-intestinal-epithelial-stem-cells
#16
A Stieler Stewart, J M Freund, L M Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Intestinal epithelial stem cells are critical to epithelial repair following gastrointestinal injury. The culture of intestinal stem cells has quickly become a cornerstone of a vast number of new research endeavours that range from determining tissue viability to testing drug efficacy for humans. This study aims to describe the methods of equine stem cell culture and highlights the future benefits of these techniques for the advancement of equine medicine. OBJECTIVES: To describe the isolation and culture of small intestinal stem cells into three-dimensional (3D) enteroids in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities...
August 9, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792464/histological-and-immunohistochemical-analyses-of-repair-of-the-disc-in-the-rabbit-temporomandibular-joint-using-a-collagen-template
#17
Kuo-Hwa Wang, Wing P Chan, Li-Hsuan Chiu, Yu-Hui Tsai, Chia-Lang Fang, Charn-Bing Yang, Kuan-Chou Chen, Hung-Li Tsai, Wen-Fu Lai
A previous study demonstrated that the reconstituted type I collagen matrix extracted from rabbit tendons enabled the TMJ disc to regenerate in the rabbit. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanisms of regeneration in the TMJ disc. In 36 New Zealand rabbits that underwent a partial discectomy, discs were replaced with reconstituted collagen templates for 3 months. A histological analysis showed that moderate to severe degeneration appeared in partially discectomized joints without implantation...
August 9, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790931/microtissues-enhance-smooth-muscle-differentiation-and-cell-viability-of-hadscs-for-three-dimensional-bioprinting
#18
Jin Yipeng, Xu Yongde, Wu Yuanyi, Sun Jilei, Guo Jiaxiang, Gao Jiangping, Yang Yong
Smooth muscle differentiated human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) provide a crucial stem cell source for urinary tissue engineering, but the induction of hADSCs for smooth muscle differentiation still has several issues to overcome, including a relatively long induction time and equipment dependence, which limits access to abundant stem cells within a short period of time for further application. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting holds great promise in regenerative medicine due to its controllable construction of a designed 3D structure...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783255/an-injectable-hybrid-hydrogel-with-oriented-short-fibers-induces-unidirectional-growth-of-functional-nerve-cells
#19
Abdolrahman Omidinia-Anarkoli, Sarah Boesveld, Urandelger Tuvshindorj, Jonas C Rose, Tamás Haraszti, Laura De Laporte
To regenerate soft aligned tissues in living organisms, low invasive biomaterials are required to create 3D microenvironments with a structural complexity to mimic the tissue's native architecture. Here, a tunable injectable hydrogel is reported, which allows precise engineering of the construct's anisotropy in situ. This material is defined as an Anisogel, representing a new type of tissue regenerative therapy. The Anisogel comprises a soft hydrogel, surrounding magneto-responsive, cell adhesive, short fibers, which orient in situ in the direction of a low external magnetic field, before complete gelation of the matrix...
August 7, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783152/genome-wide-dna-methylation-landscape-defines-specialization-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-tissues
#20
Michael Delacher, Charles D Imbusch, Dieter Weichenhan, Achim Breiling, Agnes Hotz-Wagenblatt, Ulrike Träger, Ann-Cathrin Hofer, Danny Kägebein, Qi Wang, Felix Frauhammer, Jan-Philipp Mallm, Katharina Bauer, Carl Herrmann, Philipp A Lang, Benedikt Brors, Christoph Plass, Markus Feuerer
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) perform two distinct functions: they maintain self-tolerance, and they support organ homeostasis by differentiating into specialized tissue Treg cells. We found that epigenetic modifications defined the molecular characteristics of tissue Treg cells. Tagmentation-based whole-genome bisulfite sequencing revealed more than 11,000 regions that were methylated differentially in pairwise comparisons of tissue Treg cell populations and lymphoid T cells. Similarities in the epigenetic landscape led to the identification of a common tissue Treg cell population that was present in many organs and was characterized by gain and loss of DNA methylation that included many gene sites associated with the TH2 subset of helper T cells, such as the gene encoding cytokine IL-33 receptor ST2, as well as the production of tissue-regenerative factors...
August 7, 2017: Nature Immunology
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