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Refinement validation structure

Benjamin Greenberg, Megan Carlos
OBJECTIVES: Despite increasing interest in hyperacusis and other disorders of auditory sensitivity, there is still a lack of valid, standardized assessment tools to measure symptom severity, treatment outcomes, and diagnostic differentiation. Accordingly, this study sought to create a new scale that is reliable, valid, brief, and easy to score with the purpose of filling this gap. DESIGN: Original items were constructed through review of currently existing models of hyperacusis measurement, as well as qualitative data collected from professional audiologists and individuals reporting heightened audiological sensitivity with tinnitus...
May 8, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Richard G Hersh
Transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) is one of the empirically validated treatments for patients with borderline personality disorder. TFP has roots in psychoanalytically informed psychotherapy, although important elements of the treatment have been adapted and refined for patients with significant personality disorder pathology. TFP's assessment process is informed by the structural interview, an approach that synthesizes standard DSM-5 nosology with the psychodynamic concept of the personality organization...
June 2018: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Maria R Robu, João Ramalhinho, Stephen Thompson, Kurinchi Gurusamy, Brian Davidson, David Hawkes, Danail Stoyanov, Matthew J Clarkson
PURPOSE: Image-guidance systems have the potential to aid in laparoscopic interventions by providing sub-surface structure information and tumour localisation. The registration of a preoperative 3D image with the intraoperative laparoscopic video feed is an important component of image guidance, which should be fast, robust and cause minimal disruption to the surgical procedure. Most methods for rigid and non-rigid registration require a good initial alignment. However, in most research systems for abdominal surgery, the user has to manually rotate and translate the models, which is usually difficult to perform quickly and intuitively...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Linda D Ward, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Brian F French
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Genomic nursing education requires a genomic literacy assessment supported by evidence of reliability and validity. This study applied psychometric analyses to provide support for the Genomic Nursing Concept Inventory (GNCI). METHODS: Over nine semesters, baccalaureate nursing students (N = 1,065) completed the GNCI on the first and last days of genomics instruction. Psychometric analyses assessed scale and item performance pre- and post-instruction...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Measurement
Myriam Gagné, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Norma Pérez, Jocelyne Moisan
AIM: To systematically identify the measurement properties of patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) that evaluate adherence to inhaled maintenance medication in adults with asthma. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of six databases. Two reviewers independently included studies on the measurement properties of PROs that evaluated adherence in asthmatic participants aged ≥18 years. Based on the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN), the reviewers (1) extracted data on internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, content validity, structural validity, hypotheses testing, cross-cultural validity, criterion validity, and responsiveness; (2) assessed the methodological quality of the included studies; (3) assessed the quality of the measurement properties (positive or negative); and (4) summarised the level of evidence (limited, moderate, or strong)...
April 30, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Penelope Brown, Daniel Stahl, Elizabeth Appiah-Kusi, Rebecca Brewer, Michael Watts, Jill Peay, Nigel Blackwood
The ability of an individual to participate in courtroom proceedings is assessed by clinicians using legal 'fitness to plead' criteria. Findings of 'unfitness' are so rare that there is considerable professional unease concerning the utility of the current subjective assessment process. As a result, mentally disordered defendants may be subjected unfairly to criminal trials. The Law Commission in England and Wales has proposed legal reform, as well as the utilisation of a defined psychiatric instrument to assist in fitness to plead assessments...
2018: PloS One
Wei Zhao, Songbai Ji
Advanced neuroimaging provides new opportunities to enhance head injury models, including the incorporation of white matter (WM) structural anisotropy. However, information from high-resolution neuroimaging has to be "down-sampled" to match typically coarse brain mesh. To understand how this mesh-image resolution mismatch affects impact simulation and subsequent response sampling, we compared three competing anisotropy implementations (using either voxels, tractography, or a multiscale submodeling), two response sampling strategies (element-wise or tractography-based), and two region segmentation methods (brain mesh vs...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Xuezhong Zhou, Lei Lei, Jun Liu, Arda Halu, Yingying Zhang, Bing Li, Zhili Guo, Guangming Liu, Changkai Sun, Joseph Loscalzo, Amitabh Sharma, Zhong Wang
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) relies on clinical features and lags behind the current understanding of the molecular specificity of disease pathobiology, necessitating approaches that incorporate growing biomedical data for classifying diseases to meet the needs of precision medicine. Our analysis revealed that the heterogeneous molecular diversity of disease chapters and the blurred boundary between disease categories in ICD should be further investigated. Here, we propose a new classification of diseases (NCD) by developing an algorithm that predicts the additional categories of a disease by integrating multiple networks consisting of disease phenotypes and their molecular profiles...
April 6, 2018: EBioMedicine
Elizabeth E Tolley, Kate Morrow Guthrie, Seth Zissette, Joseph L Fava, Katherine Gill, Cheryl E Louw, Philip Kotze, Krishnaveni Reddy, Kathleen MacQueen
BACKGROUND: Low adherence in recent HIV prevention clinical trials highlights the need to better understand, measure, and support product use within clinical trials. Conventional self-reported adherence instruments within HIV prevention trials, often relying on single-item questions, have proven ineffective. While objective adherence measures are desirable, none currently exist that apply to both active and placebo arms. Scales are composed of multiple items in the form of questions or statements that, when combined, measure a more complex construct that may not be directly observable...
2018: PloS One
Karl F F Fischer, Lasse R Jørgensen, Hazel Reardon, Jiawei Zhang, Bo B Iversen
The mineral inspired material RuAs2 shows promise as a thermoelectric material with its high stability and attractive band structure. In order to validate these expectations phase-pure polycrystalline ruthenium arsenide was synthesized and densified using Spark Plasma Sintering. RuAs2 is an n-type semiconductor with an indirect band gap 0.69 eV as estimated from temperature dependent resistivity data, while the band gap calculated with DFT is 0.64 eV. The thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are both high with room temperature values of 16 W m-1 K-1 and 170 mΩ cm respectively, leading to modest thermoelectric properties for the intrinsic system...
April 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Timo Aho, Mircea Guina, Farid Elsehrawy, Federica Cappelluti, Marianna Raappana, Antti Tukiainen, A B M Khairul Alam, Ismo Vartiainen, Markku Kuittinen, Tapio Niemi
We report on the fabrication of diffraction gratings for application as back contact reflectors. The gratings are designed for thin-film solar cells incorporating absorbers with bandgap slightly lower than GaAs, i.e. InAs quantum dot or GaInNAs solar cells. Light trapping in the solar cells enables the increase of the absorption leading to higher short circuit current densities and higher efficiencies. We study metal/polymer back reflectors with half-sphere, blazed, and pyramid gratings, which were fabricated either by photolithography or by nanoimprint lithography...
March 19, 2018: Optics Express
Piotr Neumann, Achim Dickmanns, Ralf Ficner
Recent advances in instrumentation and image-processing software have resulted in a resolution revolution in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and a surge in the popularity of this technique. However, despite technical progress and hundreds of structures determined so far, development of standards assessing the agreement between the cryo-EM map and the respective model has fallen behind. Here we establish a validation procedure evaluating this agreement and applied it to a set of 565 cryo-EM structures. Analysis of the results revealed that three-quarters of the validated structures exhibit moderate or low agreement between the map and the corresponding model, mostly due to limited structural features possessed by these maps...
March 19, 2018: Structure
Julian Eaton, Oye Gureje, Mary De Silva, Taiwo Lateef Sheikh, Ekpe Esien Ekpe, Mohammed Abdulaziz, Asiya Muhammad, Yusuf Akande, Uchechi Onukogu, Theo Onyuku, Jibril Abdulmalik, Woye Fadahunsi, Emeka Nwefoh, Alex Cohen
Background: The treatment gap for mental illness in Nigeria, as in other sub-Saharan countries, is estimated to be around 85%. There is need to prioritise mental health care in low and middle income countries by providing a strong body of evidence for effective services, particularly with a view to increasing international and government confidence in investment in scaling up appropriate services. This paper lays out the processes by which a programme to integrate evidence-based mental health care into primary care services in Nigeria was designed, including a research framework to provide evidence from a robust evaluation...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Gideoni Fuste, María Ángeles Gil, Clara López-Solà, Silvia Rosado, Albert Bonillo, Guillem Pailhez, Antoni Bulbena, Víctor Pérez, Miguel A Fullana
The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a well-established measure of panic symptoms but few data exist on this instrument in non north-American samples. Our main goal was to assess the psychometric properties (internal consistency, test re-test reliability, inter-rater reliability, convergent and divergent validity) and the factor structure of the Spanish version. Ninety-four patients with a main diagnosis of panic disorder were assessed with the Spanish version of PDSS, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) the PDSS self-rating form and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI)...
March 25, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Benjamin Brodey, Susan E Purcell, Karen Rhea, Philip Maier, Michael First, Lisa Zweede, Manuela Sinisterra, M Brad Nunn, Marie-Paule Austin, Inger S Brodey
BACKGROUND: The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) is considered the gold standard assessment for accurate, reliable psychiatric diagnoses; however, because of its length, complexity, and training required, the SCID is rarely used outside of research. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to describe the development and initial validation of a Web-based, self-report screening instrument (the Screening Assessment for Guiding Evaluation-Self-Report, SAGE-SR) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the SCID-5-Clinician Version (CV) intended to make accurate, broad-based behavioral health diagnostic screening more accessible within clinical care...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Zeng Jie Ye, Mu Zi Liang, Hao Wei Zhang, Peng Fei Li, Xue Ren Ouyang, Yuan Liang Yu, Mei Ling Liu, Hong Zhong Qiu
OBJECTIVE: Classic theory test has been used to develop and validate the 25-item Resilience Scale Specific to Cancer (RS-SC) in Chinese patients with cancer. This study was designed to provide additional information about the discriminative value of the individual items tested with an item response theory analysis. METHODS: A two-parameter graded response model was performed to examine whether any of the items of the RS-SC exhibited problems with the ordering and steps of thresholds, as well as the ability of items to discriminate patients with different resilience levels using item characteristic curves...
March 22, 2018: Quality of Life Research
Silvia Salerno, Aída Nelly García-Argáez, Elisabetta Barresi, Sabrina Taliani, Francesca Simorini, Concettina La Motta, Giorgio Amendola, Stefano Tomassi, Sandro Cosconati, Ettore Novellino, Federico Da Settimo, Anna Maria Marini, Lisa Dalla Via
Inhibition of angiogenesis via blocking vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathway emerged as an established approach in anticancer therapy. So far, many monoclonal antibodies and ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitors have been clinically validated and approved. In this study, structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the 2-phenylamino-substituted benzothiopyrano[4,3-d]pyrimidine class of kinase inhibitors were further refined by the synthesis and biological evaluation of new compounds 1-21 featuring different substitution patterns on the pendant phenyl moiety, combined with H, OCH3 , or Cl at 8-position...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Aruna Narula, Rajan Kumar Pandey, Nazia Khatoon, Amit Mishra, Vijay Kumar Prajapati
Chikungunya infection has been a cause of countless deaths worldwide. Due to lack of permanent treatment and prevention of this disease, the mortality rate remains very high. Therefore, we followed an immunoinformatics approach for the development of multi-epitope subunit vaccine which is able to elucidate humoral, cell-mediated and innate immune responses inside the host body. Both structural and non-structural proteins of chikungunya virus were utilized for prediction of B-cell and T-cell binding epitopes along with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) inducing epitopes...
March 10, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Jane S Richardson, Christopher J Williams, Bradley J Hintze, Vincent B Chen, Michael G Prisant, Lizbeth L Videau, David C Richardson
Traditionally, validation was considered to be a final gatekeeping function, but refinement is smoother and results are better if model validation actively guides corrections throughout structure solution. This shifts emphasis from global to local measures: primarily geometry, conformations and sterics. A fit into the wrong local minimum conformation usually produces outliers in multiple measures. Moving to the right local minimum should be prioritized, rather than small shifts across arbitrary borderlines...
February 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Jonathan D Leipoldt, Nanna S Kayed, Annemiek T Harder, Hans Grietens, Tormod Rimehaug
Background: Previous studies have shown that social climate in therapeutic residential youth care (TRC) is important to the welfare of residents, staff, and assessing treatment outcomes. The most influential theory on social climate in residential settings is the theory of Moos. The measurement of the concepts and aspects of this theory using the Community Oriented Programs Environment Scale (COPES) has repeatedly been criticized regarding usability, validity, and reliability, especially for TRC...
2018: Child & Youth Care Forum
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