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Refinement technique validation

Sasha C Voss, Paola Magni, Ian Dadour, Christian Nansen
Forensic entomology is primarily concerned with the estimation of time since death and involves determination of the age of immature insects colonising decomposing remains. Accurate age determination of puparia is usually accomplished by dissection, which means destructive sampling of evidence. As part of improving abilities to correctly identify species and developmental age, it is highly desirable to have available non-destructive methods. In this study, we acquired external hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data (77 spectral bands, 389-892 nm) from the dorsal and ventral sides of individual puparia of two species of blowfly (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora dubia Macquart 1855 and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart 1842...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Yue Zhang, Huanxin Zou, Tiancheng Luo, Xianxiang Qin, Shilin Zhou, Kefeng Ji
The superpixel segmentation algorithm, as a preprocessing technique, should show good performance in fast segmentation speed, accurate boundary adherence and homogeneous regularity. A fast superpixel segmentation algorithm by iterative edge refinement (IER) works well on optical images. However, it may generate poor superpixels for Polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) images due to the influence of strong speckle noise and many small-sized or slim regions. To solve these problems, we utilized a fast revised Wishart distance instead of Euclidean distance in the local relabeling of unstable pixels, and initialized unstable pixels as all the pixels substituted for the initial grid edge pixels in the initialization step...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
Yuan Chen, Enrico Dall Ara, Erika Sales, Krishnagoud Manda, Robert Wallace, Pankaj Pankaj, Marco Viceconti
Non-destructive 3D micro-computed tomography (microCT) based finite element (microFE) models are used to estimate bone mechanical properties at tissue level. However, their validation remains challenging. Recent improvements in the quantification of displacements in bone tissue biopsies subjected to staged compression, using refined Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) techniques, now provide a full field displacement information accurate enough to be used for microFE validation. In this study, three specimens (two humans and one bovine) were tested with two different experimental set-ups, and the resulting data processed with the same DVC algorithm...
September 17, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Benedikt Wiestler, Anne Kluge, Mathias Lukas, Jens Gempt, Florian Ringel, Jürgen Schlegel, Bernhard Meyer, Claus Zimmer, Stefan Förster, Thomas Pyka, Christine Preibisch
Non-invasive, imaging-based examination of glioma biology has received increasing attention in the past couple of years. To this end, the development and refinement of novel MRI techniques, reflecting underlying oncogenic processes such as hypoxia or angiogenesis, has greatly benefitted this research area. We have recently established a novel BOLD (blood oxygenation level dependent) based MRI method for the measurement of relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) in glioma patients. In a set of 37 patients with newly diagnosed glioma, we assessed the performance of a machine learning model based on multiple MRI modalities including rOEF and perfusion imaging to predict WHO grade...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Agnes S Chan, Sophia L Sze, Mei-Chun Cheung, Yvonne M Y Han
OBJECTIVE: To review the development, application, and value of neuropsychology, and the standard education and training pathway for neuropsychologists or clinical neuropsychologists in Hong Kong. METHOD: The information provided here was gathered via a literature review of the status of neuropsychology and the validity of commonly adopted neuropsychological tests in Hong Kong. Additional details were acquired via the internet about local tertiary education curricula and the related requirements, the availability of professional associations for licensure or board certification, and relevant statistics/surveys conducted by the government...
November 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Krishna S Vyas, Sibi Rajendran, Shane D Morrison, Afaaf Shakir, Samir Mardini, Valerie Lemaine, Maurice Y Nahabedian, Stephen B Baker, Brian D Rinker, Henry C Vasconez
BACKGROUND: Management of postoperative pain often requires multimodal approaches. Suboptimal dosages of current therapies can leave patients experiencing periods of insufficient analgesia, often requiring rescue therapy. With absence of a validated and standardized approach to pain management, further refinement of treatment protocols and targeted therapeutics is needed. Liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel) is a longer acting form of traditional bupivacaine that delivers the drug by means of a multivesicular liposomal system...
October 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Attila G Császár, Tibor Furtenbacher, Péter Árendás
Quantum mechanics builds large-scale graphs (networks): the vertices are the discrete energy levels the quantum system possesses, and the edges are the (quantum-mechanically allowed) transitions. Parts of the complete quantum mechanical networks can be probed experimentally via high-resolution, energy-resolved spectroscopic techniques. The complete rovibronic line list information for a given molecule can only be obtained through sophisticated quantum-chemical computations. Experiments as well as computations yield what we call spectroscopic networks (SN)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Hiba El Hage Chehade, Hannah Headon, Omar El Tokhy, Jennifer Heeney, Abdul Kasem, Kefah Mokbel
BACKGROUND: The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients presenting with clinically positive lymph nodes remains controversial. METHODS: A computer-aided search of the literature regarding SLNB in clinically node-positive breast cancer treated with NAC was carried out to identify the false negative rate (FNR), sentinel lymph node identification rate (IR), and axillary pathological complete response (pCR). RESULTS: Nineteen articles were used in the analysis yielding 3,398 patients...
August 16, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Jochen Friedemann, Ralf Heinrich, Yury Shulhevich, Matthias Raedle, Lena William-Olsson, Johannes Pill, Daniel Schock-Kusch
Transcutaneous measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (tGFR) is now frequently used in animal studies. tGFR allows consecutive measurements on the same animal, including multiple measurements on a daily basis, because no blood sampling is required. Here we derive and validate a novel kinetic model for the description of transcutaneously measured FITC-Sinistrin excretion kinetics. In contrast to standard 1- to 3-compartment models, our model covers the complete kinetic, including injection and distribution of the tracer in the plasma compartment...
September 21, 2016: Kidney International
Bin Deng, Cristina Lento, Derek J Wilson
Protein therapeutics have emerged as a major class of biopharmaceuticals over the past several decades, a trend that has motivated the advancement of bioanalytical technologies for protein therapeutic characterization. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a powerful and sensitive technique that can probe the higher order structure of proteins and has been used in the assessment and development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and biosimilar antibodies. It has also been used to quantify protein-ligand, protein-receptor and other protein-protein interactions involved in signaling pathways...
October 12, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Daniel R Lueders, Jacob L Sellon, Jay Smith, Jonathan T Finnoff
BACKGROUND: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a common cause of exertional leg pain. It is commonly treated with a surgical fasciotomy, which has a surgical complication rate of up to 16% and takes approximately 6-12 weeks to return to preprocedure activity levels. Therefore, the development of a less invasive, effective outpatient intervention to treat CECS is desirable. OBJECTIVE: To describe and validate an ultrasound-guided (USG) fasciotomy technique for the anterior and lateral compartments of the lower limb in an unembalmed cadaveric model...
September 14, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Michelle Chiu, Jordan Tarshis, Andreas Antoniou, T Laine Bosma, Jessica E Burjorjee, Neil Cowie, Simone Crooks, Kate Doyle, David Dubois, Tobias Everett, Rachel Fisher, Megan Hayter, Genevieve McKinnon, Diana Noseworthy, Noel O'Regan, Greg Peachey, Arnaud Robitaille, Michael Sullivan, Marshall Tenenbein, Marie-Helene Tremblay
The specialty of anesthesiology will soon adopt the Competence By Design (CBD) approach to residency education developed by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC). A foundational component of CBD is frequent and contextualized assessment of trainees. In 2013, the RCPSC Anesthesiology Specialty Committee assembled a group of simulation educators, representing each of the 17 Canadian anesthesiology residency programs, to form the Canadian National Anesthesiology Simulation Curriculum (CanNASC) Task Force...
September 16, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Astrid Eijkelenboom, Eveline Kamping, Annemiek Kastner-van Raaij, Sandra Hendriks-Cornelissen, Kornelia Neveling, Roland Kuiper, Alexander Hoischen, Marcel Nelen, Marjolijn Ligtenberg, Bastiaan Tops
Sequencing of tumor DNA to detect genetic aberrations is getting increasingly important, not only to refine cancer diagnoses but also to predict response to targeted treatments. Next-generation sequencing is widely adopted in diagnostics for the analyses of DNA extracted from routinely processed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, fine-needle aspirates, or cytologic smears. PCR-based enrichment strategies are usually required to obtain sufficient read depth for reliable detection of genetic aberrations...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Cherif Akladios, Mihaela Ignat, Didier Mutter, Marc Aprahamian
BACKGROUND: The 3Rs guideline is the gold standard for ethics in animal experimentation. Two of those rules, namely refinement and reduction, require further improvement. The objective of this study was to define pathways to better compliance with these prerequisites. Two methods which move us in this direction are: (1) using small animal imaging techniques for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) follow-up and (2) reduction of the number of control animals included in a study of PDAC progression under treatment...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Vincenzo Marotta, Concetta Sciammarella, Annamaria Al Colao, Antongiulio Faggiano
Although cancer outcome results from the interplay between genetics and environment, researchers are making a great effort for applying molecular biology in the prognostication of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Nevertheless, role of molecular characterization in the prognostic setting of DTC is still nebulous. Among the most common and well-characterized genetic alterations related to DTC, including mutations of BRAF and RAS and RET rearrangements, BRAFV600E is the only showing unequivocal association with clinical outcome...
August 30, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Lisa M Freeman, Cindy Rodenberg, A Narayanan, Jane Olding, Margaret A Gooding, Patricia E Koochaki
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to define factors that owners consider relevant to the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of cats, to develop an instrument based on this information, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the final instrument (the Cat HEalth and Wellbeing [CHEW] Questionnaire). METHODS: Psychometric research techniques and guidance from the US Food and Drug Administration on outcome measures were used to develop a valid and reliable instrument...
September 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Carlo Tremolada, Valeria Colombo, Carlo Ventura
In the past few years, interest in adipose tissue as an ideal source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has increased. These cells are multipotent and may differentiate in vitro into several cellular lineages, such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and myoblasts. In addition, they secrete many bioactive molecules and thus are considered "mini-drugstores." MSCs are being used increasingly for many clinical applications, such as orthopedic, plastic, and reconstructive surgery. Adipose-derived MSCs are routinely obtained enzymatically from fat lipoaspirate as SVF and/or may undergo prolonged ex vivo expansion, with significant senescence and a decrease in multipotency, leading to unsatisfactory clinical results...
2016: Current Stem Cell Reports
Fatima Boukari, Sokratis Makrogiannis
BACKGROUND: Cell segmentation is a critical step for quantification and monitoring of cell cycle progression, cell migration, and growth control to investigate cellular immune response, embryonic development, tumorigenesis, and drug effects on live cells in time-lapse microscopy images. METHODS: In this study, we propose a joint spatio-temporal diffusion and region-based level-set optimization approach for moving cell segmentation. Moving regions are initially detected in each set of three consecutive sequence images by numerically solving a system of coupled spatio-temporal partial differential equations...
2016: BMC Medical Genomics
JoAnn L Keller, Carla M Caro, Mary P Dimick, Keri Landrieu, Lynnlee Fullenwider, J Martin Walsh
STUDY DESIGN: Quantitative and descriptive study. INTRODUCTION: In 2014, the Hand Therapy Certification Commission (HTCC), in consultation with Professional Examination Service, performed a practice analysis study of hand therapy, the fifth in a series of similar studies performed by HTCC over a 30-year period. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to gather data on current hand therapy practice to ensure the content of the Certified Hand Therapist (CHT) examination and credentialing program requirements match current practice...
July 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
Nikhil Bhagwat, Jon Pipitone, Julie L Winterburn, Ting Guo, Emma G Duerden, Aristotle N Voineskos, Martin Lepage, Steven P Miller, Jens C Pruessner, M Mallar Chakravarty
Recent advances in multi-atlas based algorithms address many of the previous limitations in model-based and probabilistic segmentation methods. However, at the label fusion stage, a majority of algorithms focus primarily on optimizing weight-maps associated with the atlas library based on a theoretical objective function that approximates the segmentation error. In contrast, we propose a novel method-Autocorrecting Walks over Localized Markov Random Fields (AWoL-MRF)-that aims at mimicking the sequential process of manual segmentation, which is the gold-standard for virtually all the segmentation methods...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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