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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434981/protein-transport-inhibitors-downregulate-the-expression-of-lag-3-on-regulatory-t-cells
#1
Sara Anvari, Andrea Grimbergen, Carla M Davis, George Makedonas
Modern immunologic studies demand increasing complexity because of a need to improve our understanding of the relationship between a cell's phenotype and its function. Regulatory T cells have been defined by a narrow set of phenotypic markers, however their actual functional capacity has not been determined at the single-cell level. Although the lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3; CD223) is a key marker for the identification of exhausted T cells, it may be useful also in resolving Treg subpopulations by indicating distinct functional breadths...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434738/relationships-among-superantigen-toxin-gene-profiles-genotypes-and-pathogenic-characteristics-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-bovine-mastitis
#2
Dong Wang, Limei Zhang, Changfu Yong, Mingliang Shen, Tariq Ali, Muhammad Shahid, Kun Han, Xuezhang Zhou, Bo Han
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major etiological agents of bovine mastitis, harboring a wide variety of staphylococcal superantigen (SAg) toxin genes. The SAg toxin genes are reported to be closely associated with the pathogenicity of the Staph. aureus causing the bovine mastitis. This study was conducted to investigate SAg toxin gene profiles and to assess the relationships among SAg toxin genes, genotypes of Staph. aureus, and their pathogenic properties. A total of 327 quarter milk samples were collected from bovine mastitis cases for isolation and identification of pathogens...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402712/investigation-of-a-staphylococcal-food-poisoning-outbreak-from-a-chantilly-cream-dessert-in-umbria-italy
#3
Laura Ercoli, Silvia Gallina, Yacine Nia, Frédéric Auvray, Sara Primavilla, Fabrizia Guidi, Benedetta Pierucci, Catia Graziotti, Lucia Decastelli, Stefania Scuota
On August 28, 2015, a staphylococcal food poisoning outbreak occurred in Umbria, Italy, affecting 24 of the 42 customers who had dinner at a local restaurant. About 3 h after ingesting a variety of foods, the customers manifested gastrointestinal symptoms. Within 24 h of notification from the hospital emergency department, Sanitary Inspectors of the local Public Health Unit performed an epidemiological investigation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among the customers. Food and environmental samples were collected...
April 12, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400004/effect-of-food-related-stress-conditions-and-loss-of-agr-and-sigb-on-seb-promoter-activity-in-s-%C3%A2-aureus
#4
Henna-Maria Sihto, Roger Stephan, Christoph Engl, John Chen, Sophia Johler
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) causes staphylococcal food poisoning and is produced in up to ten times higher quantities than other major enterotoxins. While Staphylococcus aureus growth is often repressed by competing flora, the organism exhibits a decisive growth advantage under some stress conditions. So far, data on the influence of food-related stressors and regulatory mutations on seb expression is limited and largely based on laboratory strains, which were later reported to harbor mutations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of stress and regulatory mutations on seb promoter activity...
August 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399856/factors-associated-with-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage-and-molecular-characteristics-among-the-general-population-at-a-medical-college-campus-in-guangzhou-south-china
#5
B J Chen, X Y Xie, L J Ni, X L Dai, Y Lu, X Q Wu, H Y Li, Y D Yao, S Y Huang
BACKGROUND: The nasal cavity is the main colonization site of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in human body. Nasal carriage may be a strong risk factor for some serious infection. There was still limited information about the nasal carriage for S. aureus in south China. METHODS: Sought to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of S. aureus nasal carriage, 295 volunteers residing on a medicine campus were investigated and sampled the nasal cavity swab...
April 11, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380794/doppler-free-three-photon-coherence-in-doppler-broadened-diamond-type-atomic-system
#6
Yoon-Seok Lee, Han Seb Moon
We investigated the relationship between three-photon electromagnetically induced absorption (TPEIA) and four-wave mixing (FWM) in the 5S<sub>1/2</sub>-5P<sub>3/2</sub>-5D<sub>5/2</sub> transition of <sup>87</sup>Rb atoms. When the driving field was additionally coupled to the ground and intermediate states of a lower V-type configuration in a typical ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system, Doppler-free TPEIA and FWM spectra were simultaneously observed and then analyzed from the perspective of multi-photon atomic coherence...
March 6, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359755/a-novel-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-subunit-vaccine-candidate-elicits-protective-immune-response-in-a-mouse-model
#7
Jun Young Choi, Sungho Shin, Na Young Kim, Woo Sung Son, Tae Jin Kang, Dong Hyun Song, Chi Ho Yu, Gyeung Haeng Hur, Seong Tae Jeong, Young Kee Shin
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), produced by the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, is responsible for food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome, and is considered a potential bioterrorism agent. Unfortunately, still now no approved vaccines are available against SEB. In this study, we constructed a series of nontoxic SEB mutants (mSEBs) and examined whether these mSEBs provide protective immunity against SEB challenge. These mSEB vaccine candidates did not demonstrate superantigen activity in mouse splenocyte cultures...
March 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355497/molecular-characterization-of-dihydroneopterin-aldolase-and-aminodeoxychorismate-synthase-in-common-bean-genes-coding-for-enzymes-in-the-folate-synthesis-pathway
#8
Weilong Xie, Gregory Perry, Christopher Joe Martin, Youn-Seb Shim, Alireza Navabi, Karl Peter Pauls
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are excellent sources of dietary folates, but different varieties contain different amounts of these compounds. Dihydroneopterin aldolase (DHNA) and aminodeoxychorismate synthase (ADCS) genes in the folate synthesis pathway, were characterized by PCR amplification, BAC clone sequencing, and whole genome sequencing. All DHNA and ADCS genes in the Mesoamerican cultivar OAC Rex were isolated and compared with those genes in the genome of Andean genotype G19833. Both genotypes have two functional DHNA genes and one pseudo gene...
March 29, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352539/antimicrobial-activities-of-secondary-metabolites-and-phylogenetic-study-of-sponge-endosymbiotic-bacteria-bacillus-sp-at-agatti-island-lakshadweep-archipelago
#9
Gopi Mohan, Ajith Kumar Thipparamalai Thangappanpillai, Balagurunathan Ramasamy
Twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of Demospongiae and Calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to Agatti reef. A total of 113 Sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. Five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (SEB) namely SEB32, SEB33, SEB36, SEB43 and SEB51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas salmonicida, Flavobacterium sp...
September 2016: Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320831/interference-of-the-t-cell-and-antigen-presenting-cell-costimulatory-pathway-using-ctla4-ig-abatacept-prevents-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-pathology
#10
Sarah J C Whitfield, Chris Taylor, Jane E Risdall, Gareth D Griffiths, James T A Jones, E Diane Williamson, Sjoerd Rijpkema, Luisa Saraiva, Sandrine Vessillier, A Christopher Green, Alun J Carter
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a bacterial superantigen that binds the receptors in the APC/T cell synapse and causes increased proliferation of T cells and a cytokine storm syndrome in vivo. Exposure to the toxin can be lethal and cause significant pathology in humans. The lack of effective therapies for SEB exposure remains an area of concern, particularly in scenarios of acute mass casualties. We hypothesized that blockade of the T cell costimulatory signal by the CTLA4-Ig synthetic protein (abatacept) could prevent SEB-dependent pathology...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319763/quantitative-analysis-of-adsorption-and-desorption-behavior-of-individual-cellulase-components-during-the-hydrolysis-of-lignocellulosic-biomass-with-the-addition-of-lysozyme
#11
Yoshiko Toyosawa, Makoto Ikeo, Daisuke Taneda, Shohei Okino
The effect of non-catalytic protein addition on the adsorption/desorption behavior of individual cellulase components on/from substrates during the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose and steam exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB) were investigated. The addition of non-catalytic protein enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of SEB, but did not enhance the hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose. During the hydrolysis of SEB, adsorption of beta-glucosidase (BGL) was prevented in the presence of non-catalytic protein...
March 16, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246054/an-inhibitor-peptide-of-toll-like-receptor-2-shows-therapeutic-potential-for-allergic-conjunctivitis
#12
Cheng Xu, Xiaoqin He, Weihui Liu, Yan Chen, Chunling Zhou, Zilei Duan, Qiumin Lu, Xiuwen Yan, Zhiye Zhang, Ruiqiang Zheng
Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) is an inflammatory disease of the conjunctiva, which is characterized by antigen challenge and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation. Here, a designed small peptide ZY12 was found to contain therapeutic potential in staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-induced AC model. ZY12 treatment showed the remission of clinical signs, plasma total IgE levels, number of mast cells and the proportion of degranulated mast cell in AC mice. Levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) in the lymph nodes or spleen were significantly decreased while those of Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) were increased in ZY12 treated group, suggesting a protective role of ZY12 in AC by mediating the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines...
February 25, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235987/staphylococcus-enterotoxin-profile-of-china-isolates-and-the-superantigenicity-of-some-novel-enterotoxins
#13
Menglu Shen, Yi Li, Linlin Zhang, Songbao Dai, Jiashun Wang, Yongqing Li, Lei Zhang, Jinhai Huang
The genus of staphylococcus widely distributes in environments and contributes to a variety of animal and human diseases. The enterotoxins (SEs) secreted by this type of pathogen have been the leading cause of bacterial toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning, and thus present a substantial concern to public health. In this study, we analyzed the superantigen profile of 122 staphylococcus strains isolated from diverse sources. When screened for the presence and prevalence of 17 known se or se-like (sel) genes, except selj, all other genes were detected in these isolates...
February 24, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216598/clinical-signs-staphylococcus-and-atopic-eczema-related-seromarkers
#14
Kam Lun Hon, Kathy Yin Ching Tsang, Jeng Sum C Kung, Ting Fan Leung, Christopher W K Lam, Chun Kwok Wong
Childhood eczema or atopic dermatitis (AD) is a distressing disease associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance, impaired quality of life and Staphylococcus aureus isolation. The pathophysiology of AD is complex and various seromarkers of immunity are involved. We investigated if anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin IgE (anti-SE), selected seromarkers of T regulatory (Treg), T helper (Th) and antigen-presenting cells (APC) are associated with clinical signs of disease severity and quality of life. Disease severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index, and quality of life with the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) in AD patients ≤18 years old...
February 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211964/relationship-between-pathological-gambling-alexithymia-and-gambling-type
#15
Céline Bonnaire, Servane Barrault, Ania Aïte, Mathieu Cassotti, Sylvain Moutier, Isabelle Varescon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to see if: (i) alexithymia is associated with PG and with the severity of gambling behavior; (ii) alexithymia is associated with strategic and non-strategic gambling. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-six gamblers were recruited in different gambling locations. First, pathological gamblers (PGs) (n = 106) were compared to non-pathological gamblers (NPGs) (n = 120). Second, strategic gamblers (n = 92) were compared to non-strategic gamblers (n = 96)...
February 17, 2017: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203013/-curing-mode-of-universal-adhesives-affects-the-bond-strength-of-resin-cements-to-dentin
#16
Z R Fu, F C Tian, L Zhang, B Han, X Y Wang
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of curing mode of one-step and two-step universal adhesives on the micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) of different dual-cure resin cements to dentin. METHODS: One-step universal adhesive Single Bond Universal (SBU), and two-step universal adhesive OptiBond Versa (VSA) were chosen as the subjects, one-step self-etching adhesive OptiBond All in One (AIO) and two-step self-etching adhesive Clearfil SE Bond (SEB) were control groups, and two dual-cure resin cements RelyX Ultimate (RLX) and Nexus 3 Universal (NX3) were used in this study...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147655/monte-carlo-simulation-of-photon-emission-below-a-few-hundred-kiloelectronvolts-for-beam-monitoring-in-carbon-ion-therapy
#17
Mitsutaka Yamaguchi, Yuto Nagao, Takahiro Satoh, Hiroyuki Sugai, Makoto Sakai, Kazuo Arakawa, Naoki Kawachi
The purpose of this study is to determine whether the main component of the low-energy (63-68 keV) particles emitted perpendicularly to the (12)C beam from the (12)C-irradiated region in a water phantom is secondary electron bremsstrahlung (SEB). Monte Carlo simulations of a (12)C-beam (290 MeV/u) irradiated on a water phantom were performed. A detector was placed beside the water phantom with a lead collimator between the phantom and the detector. To move the Bragg-peak position, a binary filter was placed in an upper stream of the phantom...
January 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125395/editorial-for-the-seb-brighton-special-issue-dynamic-organization-of-the-nucleus
#18
David Evans, Iris Meier, Katja Graumann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123509/different-roles-of-staphylococcus-aureus-enterotoxin-in-different-subtypes-of-nasal-polyps
#19
Ke-Jia Cheng, Shen-Qing Wang, Ying-Ying Xu
Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a multifactorial disease. The pathogenesis of CRSwNP remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the role of inflammation and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin (SE) in this disease. The study included a total of 74 patients with CRSwNP and 6 controls. A serum Phadiatop assay was conducted to detect atopy status, and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and total immunoglobulin (Ig)E levels were determined using ELISA. SEA, SEB, total IgE, ECP and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in nasal tissue supernatant were measured using ELISA...
January 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116688/spatiotemporal-variability-in-surface-energy-balance-across-tundra-snow-and-ice-in-greenland
#20
Magnus Lund, Christian Stiegler, Jakob Abermann, Michele Citterio, Birger U Hansen, Dirk van As
The surface energy balance (SEB) is essential for understanding the coupled cryosphere-atmosphere system in the Arctic. In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal variability in SEB across tundra, snow and ice. During the snow-free period, the main energy sink for ice sites is surface melt. For tundra, energy is used for sensible and latent heat flux and soil heat flux leading to permafrost thaw. Longer snow-free period increases melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and glaciers and may promote tundra permafrost thaw...
February 2017: Ambio
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