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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772261/maternal-immune-activation-with-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-a-produces-unique-behavioral-changes-in-c57bl-6-mouse-offspring
#1
Ruthy Glass, Sara Norton, Nicholas Fox, Alexander W Kusnecov
Stimulation of the immune system during pregnancy, known as maternal immune activation (MIA), can cause long-lasting neurobiological and behavioral changes in the offspring. This phenomenon has been implicated in the etiology of developmental psychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Much of this evidence is predicated on animal models using bacterial agents such as LPS and/or viral mimics such as Poly I:C, both of which act through toll-like receptors. However, fewer studies have examined the role of direct activation of maternal T-cells during pregnancy using microbial agents...
May 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732725/time-trends-and-geographical-variation-in-prescribing-of-drugs-for-diabetes-in-england-1998-2017
#2
Helen J Curtis, John M Dennis, Beverley M Shields, Alex J Walker, Seb Bacon, Andrew T Hattersley, Angus G Jones, Ben Goldacre
AIMS: UK guidelines for type II diabetes leave the choice of glucose lowering therapies after metformin largely to prescribers. They vary greatly in cost, and comparative effectiveness data is lacking. We set out to measure the variation in prescribing of these second-line non-insulin diabetes drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated time trends 1998-2016, using England's publicly available prescribing datasets, and stratified by the order prescribed to patients using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)...
May 7, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715559/functional-characterization-of-gh7-endo-1-4-%C3%AE-glucanase-from-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-its-potential-industrial-application
#3
Aline Vianna Bernardi, Paula Fagundes de Gouvêa, Luis Eduardo Gerolamo, Deborah Kimie Yonamine, Laís de Lourdes de Lima Balico, Sergio Akira Uyemura, Taisa Magnani Dinamarco
A gene encoding an endo-1,4-β-glucanase (Afu6g01800) from A. fumigatus was cloned into the vector pET-28a(+) and expressed in the E. coli strain RosettaTM (DE3) pLysS. Sequence analysis indicated that the enzyme Af-EGL7 belonged to the GH7 family. The gene Af-egl7 encoded a protein comprising 460 amino acids, with a CBM1 domain at residues 424-460 and molecular mass of 52 kDa, as estimated by SDS-PAGE. This enzyme was optimally active at pH and temperatures ranging from 4.5 to 5.5 and from 40 to 60 °C, respectively...
April 28, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703987/staphylococcus-aureus-enterotoxins-modulate-il-22-secreting-cells-in-adults-with-atopic-dermatitis
#4
Raquel Leao Orfali, Luanda Mara da Silva Oliveira, Josenilson Feitosa de Lima, Gabriel Costa de Carvalho, Yasmim Alefe Leuzzi Ramos, Natalli Zanete Pereira, Naiura Vieira Pereira, Mariana Colombini Zaniboni, Mirian Nacagami Sotto, Alberto José da Silva Duarte, Maria Notomi Sato, Valeria Aoki
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated skin disease characterized by skin colonization by Staphylococcus aureus. Interleukin (IL)-22, in cooperation with IL-17, triggers antimicrobial peptide elaboration and enhances certain immunological responses. In AD, IL-22 is related to epidermal hyperplasia, keratinocyte apoptosis, and inhibition of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production. We aimed to evaluate the impact of staphylococcal enterotoxins on the Tc22/Th22 induction in the peripheral blood of AD patients and on CD4+/ CD8+ T cells expressing IL-22 in AD skin...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695922/characterization-of-enterotoxin-a-producing-staphylococcus-aureus
#5
Dong Chen, Qifa Song, Zhaojun Xu, Dandan Zhang
Purpose: This study aims to characterize the wild-type staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA)-producing Staphylococcus aureus . Materials and methods: We identified 29 wild-type sea -positive S. aureus isolates from dairy and meat samples, as well as from patients, measured the amount of SEA produced under favorable cultivation conditions using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and sea mRNA transcriptional level and investigated the phage type as well as genetic diversity by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691447/encapsulating-networks-of-droplet-interface-bilayers-in-a-thermoreversible-organogel
#6
Elio J Challita, Joseph S Najem, Rachel Monroe, Donald J Leo, Eric C Freeman
The development of membrane-based materials that exhibit the range and robustness of autonomic functions found in biological systems remains elusive. Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) have been proposed as building blocks for such materials, owing to their simplicity, geometry, and capability for replicating cellular phenomena. Similar to how individual cells operate together to perform complex tasks and functions in tissues, networks of functionalized DIBs have been assembled in modular/scalable networks. Here we present the printing of different configurations of picoliter aqueous droplets in a bath of thermoreversible organogel consisting of hexadecane and SEBS triblock copolymers...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678220/analysis-of-the-vidas-%C3%A2-staph-enterotoxin-iii-set3-for-detection-of-staphylococcal-enterotoxins-g-h-and-i-in-foods
#7
Jennifer M Hait, Angela T Nguyen, Sandra M Tallent
Background : Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) frequently causes illnesses worldwide. SFP occurs from the ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) preformed in foods by enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus species, primarily S. aureus . SEG, SEH, and SEI induce emesis and have been implicated in outbreaks. Immunological-based methods are deemed the most practical methods for the routine analysis of SEs in foods given their ease of use, sensitivity, specificity, and commercial availability. These kits are routinely used to test for SEA-SEE...
April 20, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676483/molecular-characteristics-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-determinants-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-derived-from-clinical-infection-and-food
#8
Kui Luo, Fuye Shao, Kadijatu N Kamara, Shuaiyin Chen, Rongguang Zhang, Guangcai Duan, Haiyan Yang
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important human etiologic agent. An investigation of the characteristics of common genotypes of S. aureus relating to pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance may provide a foundation to prevent infection. METHODS: This study collected 275 S. aureus isolates from Zhengzhou city in China, including 148 isolates from patient samples and 127 isolates from ready-to-eat food samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the broth dilution method...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672171/prevalence-of-enterotoxin-genes-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-pork-production
#9
Yang Zhang, Yage Wang, Rujian Cai, Lei Shi, Chunling Li, He Yan
In this study, 130 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from samples associated with pork production were tested for prevalence of 18 staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes. Approximately 94.6% (123/130) of isolates from different stages of pork production harbored one or more SE genes forming 37 different enterotoxin gene profiles. Seb was present in 60.0% of the S. aureus isolates, the highest among the genes tested. The genes, sed, sej, seo, sep, ser, and seu, were not found. The five classical SE genes (including sea, seb, sec, sed, see) had lower prevalence than the egc gene cluster (seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, or seu)...
April 19, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669216/is-use-of-homeopathy-associated-with-poor-prescribing-in-english-primary-care-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Alex J Walker, Richard Croker, Seb Bacon, Edzard Ernst, Helen J Curtis, Ben Goldacre
Objectives Prescribing of homeopathy still occurs in a small minority of English general practices. We hypothesised that practices that prescribe any homeopathic preparations might differ in their prescribing of other drugs. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting English primary care. Participants English general practices. Main outcome measures We identified practices that made any homeopathy prescriptions over six months of data. We measured associations with four prescribing and two practice quality indicators using multivariable logistic regression...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663037/polyfunctionality-of-cd4-t-lymphocytes-is-increased-after-chemoradiotherapy-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
J Doescher, S Jeske, S E Weissinger, C Brunner, S Laban, E Bölke, T K Hoffmann, T L Whiteside, P J Schuler
BACKGROUND: For head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC), standard therapy consists of surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy. Antineoplastic immunotherapy could be an option in an adjuvant setting and is already in palliation. A functional immune system is a prerequisite for successful immunotherapy. However, effects of the standard-of-care therapy on the patients' immune system are not fully understood. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from patients with HNSCC (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 10)...
April 16, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662467/multilocus-sequence-typing-and-virulence-associated-gene-profile-analysis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-retail-ready-to-eat-food-in-china
#12
Xiaojuan Yang, Shubo Yu, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Shi Wu, Dongli Rong
The aim of this study was to characterize the subtypes and virulence profiles of 69 Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from retail ready-to-eat food in China. The isolates were analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of important virulence factor genes, including the staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes ( sea , seb , sec , sed , see , seg , seh , sei , sej ), the exfoliative toxin genes ( eta and etb ), the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 gene ( tst ), and the Panton-Valentine leucocidin-encoding gene ( pvl )...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661914/trends-geographical-variation-and-factors-associated-with-prescribing-of-gluten-free-foods-in-english-primary-care-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Alex J Walker, Helen J Curtis, Seb Bacon, Richard Croker, Ben Goldacre
OBJECTIVES: There is substantial disagreement about whether gluten-free foods should be prescribed on the National Health Service. We aim to describe time trends, variation and factors associated with prescribing gluten-free foods in England. SETTING: English primary care. PARTICIPANTS: English general practices. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We described long-term national trends in gluten-free prescribing, and practice and Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) level monthly variation in the rate of gluten-free prescribing (per 1000 patients) over time...
April 16, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621281/evidence-of-functional-cell-mediated-immune-responses-to-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-in-otitis-prone-children
#14
Elke Seppanen, Dino Tan, Karli J Corscadden, Andrew J Currie, Peter C Richmond, Ruth B Thornton, Lea-Ann S Kirkham
Otitis media (OM) remains a common paediatric disease, despite advances in vaccinology. Susceptibility to recurrent acute OM (rAOM) has been postulated to involve defective cell-mediated immune responses to common otopathogenic bacteria. We compared the composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 20 children with a history of rAOM (otitis-prone) and 20 healthy non-otitis-prone controls, and assessed innate and cell-mediated immune responses to the major otopathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618431/investigation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-prevailing-in-the-environment-of-khyber-teaching-hospital-peshawar-pakistan
#15
Farmanullah Khan, Bashir Ahmad, Jawad Ahmed, Han Sang Yoo, Shumaila Bashir
The hospital environment plays an important role in the spread of microorganisms, including multi drug resistant (MDR) strains. Patients can acquire Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which can reside in the clinical setup that are not cleaned and can spread through air droplets, bed clothing, and healthcare workers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of S. aureus in the Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH). A total of 200 samples were collected from the floor, walls, air and inanimate objects in different wards of the KTH, during May 2012 to September 2012...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616025/differences-between-pediatric-and-adult-t-cell-responses-to-in-vitro-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-b-stimulation
#16
Mark E Rudolph, Monica A McArthur, Robin S Barnes, Laurence S Magder, Wilbur H Chen, Marcelo B Sztein
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is capable of inducing life-threatening fever, rash, and systemic organ failure, though the specific mechanisms behind these symptoms remain poorly understood. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and other superantigens have shown to be important factors in TSS, capable of promoting cross-linking between T cell receptors and major histocompatibility complexes which results in overwhelming T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. The resulting proinflammatory cytokine cascade, often referred to as the "cytokine storm," seems to be critical to the development of disease...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614953/transcriptome-and-secretome-analysis-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-in-the-presence-of-sugarcane-bagasse
#17
Paula Fagundes de Gouvêa, Aline Vianna Bernardi, Luis Eduardo Gerolamo, Emerson de Souza Santos, Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón, Sergio Akira Uyemura, Taisa Magnani Dinamarco
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane bagasse has been proposed as a lignocellulosic residue for second-generation ethanol (2G) produced by breaking down biomass into fermentable sugars. The enzymatic cocktails for biomass degradation are mostly produced by fungi, but low cost and high efficiency can consolidate 2G technologies. A. fumigatus plays an important role in plant biomass degradation capabilities and recycling. To gain more insight into the divergence in gene expression during steam-exploded bagasse (SEB) breakdown, this study profiled the transcriptome of A...
April 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608635/older-adult-normative-data-for-the-sniffin-sticks-odor-identification-test
#18
Kayci L Vickers, Kathleen Breslin, David R Roalf, Vidyulata Kamath, Sharon X Xie, Paul J Moberg, David A Wolk, Dawn Mechanic-Hamilton
Objective: The current study establishes normative Sniffin' Sticks Odor Identification Test (SS-OIT) scores for cognitively intact older adults. Method: Two hundred and twenty-six cognitively normal older adults were identified as eligible for the current study (Mean Age = 70.49 years; 71.7% female). Important demographic covariates were identified using step-wise regression, and a normative regression equation was developed. Results: Analyses of the effects of demographic variables (including age, education, and sex) on SS-OIT performance revealed that age was the only significant predictor, b = -0...
March 28, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599675/activity-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-conventional-antibiotics-against-superantigen-positive-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#19
Izabela Błażewicz, Maciej Jaśkiewicz, Lidia Piechowicz, Damian Neubauer, Roman J Nowicki, Wojciech Kamysz, Wioletta Barańska-Rybak
Introduction: Staphylococcus aureus causes a diverse array of diseases, ranging from relatively harmless localized skin infections to life-threatening systemic conditions. It secretes toxins directly associated with particular disease symptoms. Aim: To determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) colonization among patients with atopic dermatitis and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility to conventional antibiotics and selected antimicrobial peptides among toxin-producing strains and nonproducing strains...
February 2018: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596471/predicting-dementia-from-primary-care-records-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Elizabeth Ford, Nicholas Greenslade, Priya Paudyal, Stephen Bremner, Helen E Smith, Sube Banerjee, Shanu Sadhwani, Philip Rooney, Seb Oliver, Jackie Cassell
INTRODUCTION: Possible dementia is usually identified in primary care by general practitioners (GPs) who refer to specialists for diagnosis. Only two-thirds of dementia cases are currently recorded in primary care, so increasing the proportion of cases diagnosed is a strategic priority for the UK and internationally. Variables in the primary care record may indicate risk of developing dementia, and could be combined in a predictive model to help find patients who are missing a diagnosis...
2018: PloS One
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