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Jorge L Aguilar, Avanish K Varshney, Ximo Pechuan, Kaushik Dutta, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Bettina C Fries
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading infectious cause of life-threatening disease in humans, yet there is currently no vaccine to combat this bacterium. The pathogenesis of S. aureus is mediated by a diverse array of protein toxins including a large family of secreted pyrogenic superantigens. Neutralization of superantigens, including SEB and TSST-1, has proven to be protective in several animal models of toxic shock and sepsis. We demonstrate, for the first time, that a far more prevalent staphylococcal superantigen, SEK, can also induce lethal shock in mice...
October 7, 2016: Virulence
Stephen D Thorpe, Myriam Charpentier
The last decade has seen rapid advances in our understanding of the proteins of the nuclear envelope, which have multiple roles including positioning the nucleus, maintaining its structural organisation, and in events ranging from mitosis and meiosis to chromatin positioning and gene expression. Diverse new and stimulating results relating to nuclear organisation and genome function from across kingdoms were presented in a session stream entitled "Dynamic Organisation of the Nucleus" at this year's Society of Experimental Biology (SEB) meeting in Brighton, UK (July 2016)...
October 7, 2016: Nucleus
Xiaopeng Zhang, Weilong Shang, Jizhen Yuan, Zhen Hu, Huagang Peng, Junmin Zhu, Qiwen Hu, Yi Yang, Hui Liu, Bei Jiang, Yinan Wang, Shu Li, Xiaomei Hu, Xiancai Rao
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) has been demonstrated to be of importance in Staphylococcus aureus related diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD). Dysregulated apoptosis in AD is remarkable, and SEB can induce apoptosis of various cell types. However, the mechanisms by which SEB induces apoptosis and influences disease processes remain unclear. In this study, the recombinant SEB-induced THP-1 monocyte apoptosis was demonstrated in the absence of preliminary cell activation in a time- and dose-dependent manner...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Heonoh Kim, Sang Min Lee, Han Seb Moon
We present experimental demonstrations of two-photon interference involving temporally separated photons within two types of interferometers: a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a polarization-based Michelson interferometer. The two-photon states are probabilistically prepared in a symmetrically superposed state within the two interferometer arms by introducing a large time delay between two input photons; this state is composed of two temporally separated photons, which are in two different or the same spatial modes...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wilbur H Chen, Marcela F Pasetti, Rajan P Adhikari, Holly Baughman, Robin Douglas, Jill El-Khorazaty, Nancy Greenberg, Frederick W Holtsberg, Grant C Liao, Mardi K Reymann, Xiaolin Wang, Kelly L Warfield, M Javad Aman
: Staphylococcus aureus produces several enterotoxins and superantigens, exposure to which can elicit profound toxic shock. A recombinant staphylococcal enterotoxin B (rSEB), containing 3 distinct mutations in the MHCII binding site, was combined with Alhydrogel as a potential parenteral vaccine named STEBVax.Consenting healthy adult volunteers, age 23-38 years, participated in a first-in-human open label dose-escalation study of parenteral doses of STEBVax ranging from 0.01 μg up to 20 μg...
October 5, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Noushin Arfatahery, Abolfazl Davoodabadi, Taranehpeimaneh Abedimohtasab
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of seafood-borne diseases worldwide, which are attributable to the contamination of food by preformed enterotoxins. In this study, a total of 206 (34.3%) Staphylococcus aureus strains were obtained from 600 fish and shrimp samples and were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility. We assessed the prevalence of the genes responsible for the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA, SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) genes. The results indicated that 34% of aqua food samples were contaminated with S...
October 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xudong Chen, Chengcheng Chang, Ziyang Chen, Zhili Lin, Jixiong Pu
We generate a stochastic electromagnetic beam (SEB) with complete controllable coherence, that is, the coherence degree can be controlled independently along two mutually perpendicular directions. We control the coherence of the SEB by adjusting the phase modulation magnitude applied onto two crossed phase only spatial light modulators. We measure the beam's coherence properties using Young's interference experiment, as well as the beam propagation factor. It is shown that the experimental results are consistent with our theoretical predictions...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
Yacine Nia, Mélanie Rodriguez, Reinhard Zeleny, Sabine Herbin, Frédéric Auvray, Uwe Fiebig, Marc-André Avondet, Amalia Munoz, Jacques-Antoine Hennekinne
The aim of this work was to organize the first proficiency test (PT) dedicated to staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) detection in milk and buffer solutions. This paper describes the organization of the PT trial according to EN ISO 17043 requirements. Characterization of the SEB stock solution was performed using SDS-PAGE and SE-specific ELISA, and amino acid analysis was used to assign its protein concentration. The solution was then used to prepare six PT materials (four milk and two buffer batches) at a ng/g toxin level, which included one blank and one SEA-containing milk as specificity control...
2016: Toxins
Lenka Necidova, Katerina Bogdanovicova, Danka Harustiakova, Katerina Bartova
Our aim was to assess the effect of pasteurization temperature on inactivation of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE). Milk samples were inoculated with log 4.38 to 5.18 cfu/mL of 40 different Staphylococcus aureus strains having the ability to produce types A, B, or C SE and incubated at 37°C for 24 h to develop SE. This incubation was followed by heat treatment for 15 s at 72, 85, and 92°C. Samples were analyzed for Staph. aureus count by plate method and, specifically, for SE presence. An enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay on a MiniVIDAS analyzer (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France) was used to detect SE, which were determined semiquantitatively based on test values...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
M Savaris, V Dos Santos, R N Brandalise
This study aims at analyzing the modifications in the morphological, physical, chemical and thermal properties of commercial poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films after exposure to five different sterilization processes. Films were obtained by compression molding, hygienized and sterilized by ethylene oxide (SEtO), hydrogen peroxide plasma (SH2O2), saturated steam (SSS), electron beam radiation (SEB) and gamma radiation (SGR). The samples of PLASEtO, PLASH2O2, PLASEB and PLASGR exhibited thermal and physical changes after being submitted to sterilization processes...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Oki Suwarsa, Sudigdo Adi, Ponpon Idjradinata, Endang Sutedja, Erda Avriyanti, Adlina Asfara, Hendra Gunawan
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) triggers exacerbation of atopic dermatitis (AD) and causes chronic inflammation through the action of various proteins such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). SEB has a role in activating interleukin (IL)-18, an important regulator of interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-4, in regards to a therapeutic strategy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation of IL-18 level with the IL-4 and IFN-γ level in the lymphocyte cultures of AD patients with SEB stimulation...
August 16, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Abolfazl Akbari, Zohreh Farahnejad, Javad Akhtari, Mahdi Abastabar, Gholam Reza Mobini, Amir Seied Ali Mehbod
BACKGROUND: It has been revealed that Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB) may feature anti-cancer and anti-metastatic advantages due to its ability to modify cell immunity processes and signaling pathways. Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive human cancers; it has a high mortality nature, which makes it an attractive area for the development of novel therapies. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether the SEB could exert its growth inhibitory effects on glioblastoma cells partially through the manipulation of a key tumor growth factor termed transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)...
May 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
Enquebaher K Tarekgne, Taran Skjerdal, Siv Skeie, Knut Rudi, Davide Porcellato, Benjamin Félix, Judith A Narvhus
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is an important foodborne disease worldwide, and milk and milk products are commonly associated with SFP outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin (se) genes in Staphylococcus aureus from raw cow's milk and milk products and to assess their genetic background with the spa typing method. Of the 549 samples (297 bulk milk and 162 milk product samples) collected from Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia, 160 (29.1%) were positive for S...
August 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Fanghua Tian, Kaiyan Cao, Yin Zhang, Yuyang Zeng, Rui Zhang, Tieyan Chang, Chao Zhou, Minwei Xu, Xiaoping Song, Sen Yang
A spontaneous exchange bias (SEB) discovered by Wang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 (2011) 077203.] after zero-field cooling (ZFC) has attracted recent attention due to its interesting physics. In this letter, we report a giant SEB tuned by Sb-doping in Ni50Mn38Ga12-xSbx Heusler alloys. Such an SEB was switched on below the blocking temperature of approximately 50 K. The maximum exchange bias HE can arrive at 2930 Oe in a Ni50Mn38Ga10Sb2 sample after ZFC to 2 K. Further studies showed that this SEB was attributable to interaction of superspin glass (SSG) and antiferromagnetic matix, which was triggered by the crossover of SSG from canonical spin glass to a cluster spin glass...
2016: Scientific Reports
Pei Dai, Zhao-Hua Mo, Ri-Wei Xu, Shu Zhang, Yi-Xian Wu
Poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) triblock copolymer (SEBS) was selected for functionalization and cross-linking reaction to prepare the anion exchange membrane. The cross-linked quaternized SEBS (QSEBS-Cn) membranes were synthesized by simultaneous of quaternization and cross-linking of chloromethylated SEBS with α,ω-difunctional tertiary amines. The spacer groups of (-CH2-)n in diamines did affect the functionalization, micromorphology and properties of the resulting QSEBS-Cn membranes. The ionic conductivity of QSEBS-Cn membranes greatly increased and methanol resistance slightly decreased with increasing the length of spacer groups in the cross-linked structures from -(CH2)- to -(CH2)6-...
August 10, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaoying Xie, Yunwen Bao, Nengyong Ouyang, Xinlu Dai, Kunyi Pan, Baiji Chen, Yawen Deng, Xiquan Wu, Fengqin Xu, Hongyu Li, Songyin Huang
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of both hospital and community infections globally. It's important to illuminate the differences between community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) and hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), but there have been confusions on the definition, especially for the MRSA isolates identified within 48 h of admission. This study aimed to determine the molecular characteristics and virulence genes profile of CA and HA-MRSA isolates identified less than 48 h after hospital admission in our region...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
David E Marcovitz, R Kathryn McHugh, Julie Volpe, Victoria Votaw, Hilary S Connery
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Identifying predictors of early drop out from outpatient treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD) with buprenorphine/naloxone (BN) may improve care for subgroups requiring more intensive engagement to achieve stabilization. However, previous research on predictors of dropout among this population has yielded mixed results. The aim of the present study was to elucidate these mixed findings by simultaneously evaluating a range of putative risk factors that may predict dropout in BN maintenance treatment...
September 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Neil Andrew Brown, Laure N A Ries, Thaila F Reis, Ranjith Rajendran, Renato Augusto Corrêa Dos Santos, Gordon Ramage, Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón, Gustavo H Goldman
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane is one of the world's most profitable crops. Waste steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB) is a cheap, abundant, and renewable lignocellulosic feedstock for the next-generation biofuels. In nature, fungi seldom exist as planktonic cells, similar to those found in the nutrient-rich environment created within an industrial fermenter. Instead, fungi predominantly form biofilms that allow them to thrive in hostile environments. RESULTS: In turn, we adopted an RNA-sequencing approach to interrogate how the model fungus, Aspergillus nidulans, adapts to SEB, revealing the induction of carbon starvation responses and the lignocellulolytic machinery, in addition to morphological adaptations...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Jing Guo, Yang Xiang, Hua-Tuo Huang, You-Fan Peng, Ye-Sheng Wei, Yan Lan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the race- and gender-specific distribution characteristics of rs1891385A/C and rs10975519C/T polymorphism of interleukin-33 (IL-33) gene in Zhuang and Han populations. METHODS: The polymorphisms of rs1891385A/C and rs10975519C/T of IL-33 gene in 283 subjects from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were analyzed with single base extension (PCR-SEB) and DNA sequencing to analyze the differences in their distribution frequencies between genders and between Zhuang and Han populations...
June 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
John G Allen, Mirna Mujacic, Michael J Frohn, Alex J Pickrell, Paul Kodama, Dhanashri Bagal, Tisha San Miguel, E Allen Sickmier, Steve Osgood, Aleksander Swietlow, Vivian Li, John B Jordan, Ki Won Kim, Anne-Marie C Rousseau, Yong-Jae Kim, Seb Caille, Mike Achmatowicz, Oliver Thiel, Christopher H Fotsch, Pranhitha Reddy, John D McCarter
The efficacy of therapeutic antibodies that induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity can be improved by reduced fucosylation. Consequently fucosylation is a critical product attribute of monoclonal antibodies produced as protein therapeutics. Small molecule fucosylation inhibitors have also shown promise as potential therapeutics in animal models of tumor, arthritis, and sickle cell disease. Potent small molecule metabolic inhibitors of cellular protein fucosylation, 6,6,6-trifluorofucose per-O-acetate and 6,6,6-trifluorofucose (fucostatin I) were identified that reduced the fucosylation of recombinantly expressed antibodies in cell culture in a concentration-dependent fashion enabling the controlled modulation of protein fucosylation levels...
July 19, 2016: ACS Chemical Biology
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