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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195765/central-nervous-system-blastomycosis-diagnosed-using-the-mvista%C3%A2-blastomyces-quantitative-antigen-enzyme-immunoassay-test-on-cerebrospinal-fluid-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Andrew Walkty, Yoav Keynan, James Karlowsky, Perry Dhaliwal, John Embil
Blastomyces dermatitidis is a thermally dimorphic fungus that is capable of causing pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease, including infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Diagnosis of CNS blastomycosis with non-invasive testing can be difficult, and a surgical biopsy may ultimately be required for microbiological and/or histopathological confirmation. A case of B. dermatitidis meningitis is presented where the diagnosis was made by testing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using the MVista® Blastomyces Quantitative Antigen Enzyme Immunoassay test...
October 31, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190379/fungal-specific-cyp51-inhibitor-vt-1598-demonstrates-in-vitro-activity-against-candida-and-cryptococcus-species-endemic-fungi-including-coccidioides-species-aspergillus-species-and-rhizopus-arrhizus
#2
Nathan P Wiederhold, Hoja P Patterson, Bich Hue Tran, Christopher M Yates, Robert J Schotzinger, Edward P Garvey
Background: Invasive fungal infections, including those caused by yeasts, moulds and endemic organisms, can be significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts, those with multiple comorbidities and occasionally immunocompetent hosts. Current antifungal agents are often limited by drug toxicities, drug interactions or the development of resistance. VT-1598 is a novel tetrazole that has greater specificity for fungal Cyp51 than currently available triazoles and thus the potential for clinically significant drug interactions is reduced...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127615/fungal-and-parasitic-cns-infections
#3
Pratibha Singhi, Arushi Gahlot Saini
Central nervous system fungal infections can be broadly divided into those that infect a healthy host such as Cryptococcus, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Sporothrix spp., and those that cause opportunistic infections in an immunocompromised host such as Candida, Aspergillus, Zygomycetes, Trichosporon spp. The clinical manifestations of central nervous system fungal infections commonly seen in children in clinical practice include a chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis syndrome, brain abscess, rhino-cerebral syndrome and rarely, a fungal ventriculitis...
November 11, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115539/two%C3%A2-component-histidine-kinase-drk1-is-required-for-pathogenesis-in-sporothrix%C3%A2-schenckii
#4
Zhenying Zhang, Binbin Hou, Yong Zhuo Wu, Ying Wang, Xiaoming Liu, Shixin Han
Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus with a global distribution. It grows in a multicellular hyphal form at 25˚C and a unicellular yeast form at 37˚C. The morphological switch from mold to yeast form is obligatory for establishing pathogenicity in S. schenckii. Two‑component signaling systems are utilized by eukaryotes to sense and respond to external environmental changes. DRK1is a hybrid histidine kinase, which functions as a global regulator of dimorphism and virulence in Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838445/blastomyces-dermatitidis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient-a-case-report
#5
M Ben Salem, M Hamouda, M Mohamed, S Aloui, A Letaief, A Moussa, H Skhiri, A Zakahama, N Ben Dhia
Fungal infections have an important role in organ transplant recipients, and in some cases can be lethal. Blastomycosis is rare in kidney transplantation. We present a case of cutaneous blastomycosis in a kidney transplant recipient in Tunisia, a country outside the known endemic countries. This case, with the very uncommon and unexpected diagnosis of blastomycosis, demonstrates the diversity of infections in transplant recipients and reflects the importance of histologic and serologic tests in the immunocompromised patient...
September 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813733/disseminated-blastomycosis-mimicking-malignancy
#6
Jennifer L Hsu, B Joel Tjarks, Aaron Berg, Tony Oliver
Blastomycosis is an endemic fungal infection commonly found within the Mississippi and Ohio River basins and Great Lakes region. While patients typically present with acute pneumonia, Blastomyces dermatitidis has the potential to spread hematogenously, resulting in disseminated infection of multiple organs. In this report, we describe a 57-year-old male with disseminated blastomycosis acquired in South Dakota. The diagnostic evaluation was confounded by concern for malignancy given the involvement of multiple locations, including brain, lungs, adrenal glands, and testes...
April 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806010/blastomycosis-and-histoplasmosis-in-a-patient-with-glioblastoma-receiving-temozolomide
#7
Aiham H Jbeli, John Yu
Malignant glioblastoma multiform (GBM) is the most common primary malignancy of the brain in the U.S. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the cornerstone of management along with surgical resection and radiotherapy. Because of the reduction in the CD4+ lymphocyte count as a side effect of TMZ use, this patient population is under risk for opportunistic infections like Pneumocystis jiroveci. A male patient with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiform presented with non-productive cough and chest pain. Before presentation, the patient received the standard therapy including surgical resection, radiation and TMZ...
October 2016: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797489/approach-to-fungal-infections-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-pneumocystis-and-beyond
#8
REVIEW
Richard J Wang, Robert F Miller, Laurence Huang
Many fungi cause pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pathogens include Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Talaromyces marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. Because symptoms are frequently nonspecific, a high index of suspicion for fungal infection is required for diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of fungal infection in HIV-infected patients frequently depend on the degree of immunosuppression and the CD4+ helper T cell count...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797487/clinical-manifestations-and-treatment-of-blastomycosis
#9
REVIEW
Joseph A McBride, Gregory M Gauthier, Bruce S Klein
The causal agents of blastomycosis, Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces gilchristii, belong to a group of thermally dimorphic fungi that can infect healthy and immunocompromised individuals. Following inhalation of mycelial fragments and spores into the lungs, Blastomyces spp convert into pathogenic yeast and evade host immune defenses to cause pneumonia and disseminated disease. The clinical spectrum of pulmonary blastomycosis is diverse. The diagnosis of blastomycosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and involves culture-based and non-culture-based fungal diagnostic tests...
September 2017: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793349/ligation-of-dectin-2-with-a-novel-microbial-ligand-promotes-adjuvant-activity-for-vaccination
#10
Huafeng Wang, Taek-Jin Lee, Scott J Fites, Richard Merkhofer, Robert Zarnowski, Tristan Brandhorst, Kevin Galles, Bruce Klein, Marcel Wüthrich
The development of vaccines against fungi and other intracellular microbes is impeded in part by a lack of suitable adjuvants. While most current vaccines against infectious diseases preferentially induce production of antibodies, cellular immunity is essential for the resolution of fungal infections. Microbes such as fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis require Th17 and Th1 cells for resistance, and engage the C-type lectin receptors including Dectin-2. Herein, we discovered a novel Dectin-2 ligand, the glycoprotein Blastomyces Eng2 (Bl-Eng2)...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783875/antifungal-activity-of-the-lipophilic-antioxidant-ferrostatin-1
#11
Michael C Horwath, Tiffany R Bell-Horwath, Victor Lescano, Karthik Krishnan, Edward J Merino, George S Deepe
Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) is a lipophilic antioxidant that effectively blocks ferroptosis, a distinct non-apoptotic form of cell death caused by lipid peroxidation. During many infections, both pathogens and host cells are subjected to oxidative stress, but the occurrence of ferroptosis had not been investigated. We examined ferroptosis in macrophages infected with the pathogenic yeast Histoplasma capsulatum. Unexpectedly, Fer-1 not only reduced the death of macrophages infected in vitro, but inhibited the growth of H...
October 18, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774699/pulmonary-and-sinus-fungal-diseases-in-non-immunocompromised-patients
#12
REVIEW
David W Denning, Arunaloke Chakrabarti
The human respiratory tract is exposed daily to airborne fungi, fungal enzymes, and secondary metabolites. The endemic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and occasionally Aspergillus fumigatus, are primary pulmonary pathogens of otherwise healthy people. Such infections resolve in most people, and only a few infections lead to disease. However, many fungi are directly allergenic by colonising the respiratory tract or indirectly through contact with cell wall constituents and proteases, causing or exacerbating allergic disease...
November 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721351/cerebral-epidural-abscess-secondary-to-blastomyces-masquerading-as-an-epidermoid-tumor
#13
Cody Doberstein, Abass Noor, David Choi, Jacob Smith, Darren Groh, Leonard Mermel, Curtis Doberstein
There have been infrequent reports of isolated central nervous system blastomycosis. We report a case of intracranial epidural abscess secondary to Blastomyces dermatitidis in a patient residing in Rhode Island with a history of remote travel to an endemic area. The clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features of this unique case are reviewed.
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702025/cellular-and-molecular-defects-underlying-invasive-fungal-infections-revelations-from-endemic-mycoses
#14
REVIEW
Pamela P Lee, Yu-Lung Lau
The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698913/antibacterial-and-antioxidant-constituents-of-extracts-of-endophytic-fungi-isolated-from-ocimum-basilicum-var-thyrsiflora-leaves
#15
Piyamas Atiphasaworn, Sakon Monggoot, Eleni Gentekaki, Siraprapa Brooks, Patcharee Pripdeevech
Fourteen fungal endophytes were isolated from the Ocimum basilicum var. thyrsiflora leaves collected from Northern Thailand. Eight genera were identified including Aspergillus, Ascochyta, Nigrospora, Blastomyces, Colletotrichum, Exidia, Clitopilus, and Nomuraea. The antibacterial activity of crude extracts from all endophytic fungi was tested against nine human bacterial pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus...
July 12, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628236/blastomyces-dermatitidis-peritonitis-complicating-peritoneal-dialysis
#16
Yogesh Sanghvi, Douglas Somers
Fungal peritonitis is an uncommon complication in peritoneal dialysis patients. We report a case of blastomyces dermatitis peritonitis in a nonimmunocompromised peritoneal dialysis patient, who initially presented with symptoms of lower extremity weakness and altered mental status. Peritoneal blastomycosis is rare condition and not previously reported in end stage renal disease patients on peritoneal dialysis. Fungal peritonitis can present with subtle clinical findings so a high index of suspicion is needed as early detection and treatment may decrease mortality and morbidity...
June 19, 2017: Seminars in Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622118/imaging-spectrum-of-invasive-fungal-and-fungal-like-infections
#17
REVIEW
Hilary L P Orlowski, Sebastian McWilliams, Vincent M Mellnick, Sanjeev Bhalla, Meghan G Lubner, Perry J Pickhardt, Christine O Menias
Invasive fungal and fungal-like infections contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. The incidence of these infections is increasing-largely because of rising numbers of immunocompromised patients, including those with neutropenia, human immunodeficiency virus, chronic immunosuppression, indwelling prostheses, burns, and diabetes mellitus, and those taking broad-spectrum antibiotics. Invasive fungal pathogens include primary mycotic organisms such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which are true pathogens and inherently virulent...
July 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400399/cardiotoxicity-with-itraconazole
#18
Vishesh Paul, Harsh Rawal
Itraconazole is a commonly used antifungal drug. In addition to commonly described adverse effects, there have been few reports of heart failure with its use. We present two cases that developed acute systolic heart failure with Itraconazole use. A man in his early 30s was admitted with worsening leg swelling and dyspnoea on exertion. He had been on Itraconazole for blastomyces skin ulcer. His ejection fraction (EF) was found to be 10%-15%. Another man in his 50s was admitted with similar symptoms; his EF was 40%-45%...
April 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346820/blastomyces-dermatitidis-serine-protease-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iva-dppiva-cleaves-elr-cxc-chemokines-altering-their-effects-on-neutrophils
#19
Jenna Lorenzini, J Scott Fites, Jeniel Nett, Bruce S Klein
Blastomycosis elicits a pyogranulomatous inflammatory response that involves a prominent recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. Although neutrophils are efficiently recruited to the site of infection, this event is paradoxically coupled with the host's inability to control infection by Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent. The mechanisms underlying this characteristic pyogranulomatous response and inability of neutrophils to kill the yeast are poorly understood. We recently reported that the fungal protease dipeptidyl peptidase IVA (DppIVA) promotes B...
September 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300442/an-atypical-case-of-mucocutaneous-blastomycosis-in-the-greater-toronto-area
#20
Annie Liu, Neil Shear, John Wong, Hagen B E Klieb
Blastomycosis is an uncommon infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. While management is fairly straightforward, diagnosis can be quite challenging. We describe a case of a healthy 37-year-old man who presented with progressive mucocutaneous lesions, without lung or other systemic involvement. Treatment with itraconazole resulted in complete resolution of signs and symptoms. This case showcases the variety of blastomycosis clinical presentation and the importance of blastomycosis in the differential diagnosis of verrucous and papillomatous mucocutaneous lesions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
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