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Brain injury rehab

Muhammad Khan, Terence O'Keeffe, Faisal Jehan, Narong Kulvatunyou, Abdullah Kattaa, Lynn Gries, Andrew Tang, Bellal Joseph
BACKGROUND: As the population ages, increasing number of geriatric patients sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI). Communication of accurate prognostic information is crucial for making informed decisions on behalf of such patients. Therefore, the aim of our study was to develop a simple and clinically applicable tool that accurately predicts the prognosis in geriatric TBI patients. METHODS: We performed a 1-y (2011) retrospective analysis of isolated geriatric TBI patients (age ≥65 y, head abbreviated injury score [AIS] ≥ 3, and other body AIS < 3) in the National Trauma Data Bank...
August 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
Faisal Jehan, Asad Azim, Peter Rhee, Muhammad Khan, Lynn Gries, Terence OʼKeeffe, Narong Kulvatunyou, Andrew Tang, Bellal Joseph
BACKGROUND: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is often performed in conjunction with evacuation of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) to control intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The efficacy of DC in lowering ICP is well established; however, its effect on clinical outcomes remains controversial. The aim of our study is to assess outcomes in TBI patients undergoing DC versus craniotomy only (CO) for the evacuation of ICH. METHODS: We performed a 5-year retrospective analysis of TBI patients with ICH who underwent craniotomy or craniectomy for traumatic ICH...
December 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Abeer Salama, Rehab Hegazy, Azza Hassan
Chromium (Cr) is used in many industries and it is widely distributed in the environment. Exposure to Cr dust has been reported among workers at these industries. Beside its hazardous effects on the lungs, brain injury could be induced, as the absorption of substances through the nasal membrane has been found to provide them a direct delivery to the brain. We investigated the distribution and the effects of Cr in both brain and lung following the intranasal instillation of potassium dichromate (inPDC) in rats...
2016: PloS One
Jenny L Wilkerson, Sudeshna Ghosh, Mohammed Mustafa, Rehab A Abdullah, Micah J Niphakis, Roberto Cabrera, Rafael L Maldonado, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
Although opioids are highly efficacious analgesics, their abuse potential and other untoward side effects diminish their therapeutic utility. The addition of non-opioid analgesics offers a promising strategy to reduce required antinociceptive opioid doses that concomitantly reduce opioid-related side effects. Inhibitors of the primary endocannabinoid catabolic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) show opioid-sparing effects in preclinical models of pain. As simultaneous inhibition of these enzymes elicits enhanced antinociceptive effects compared with single enzyme inhibition, the present study tested whether the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 [4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester] produces morphine-sparing antinociceptive effects, without major side effects associated with either drug class...
March 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
Giuseppe Frazzitta, Ilaria Zivi, Roberto Valsecchi, Sara Bonini, Sara Maffia, Katia Molatore, Luca Sebastianelli, Alessio Zarucchi, Diana Matteri, Giuseppe Ercoli, Roberto Maestri, Leopold Saltuari
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Verticalization was reported to improve the level of arousal and awareness in patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and to be safe in ICU. We evaluated the effectiveness of a very early stepping verticalization protocol on their functional and neurological outcome. METHODS: Consecutive patients with Vegetative State or Minimally Conscious State were enrolled in ICU on the third day after an ABI. They were randomized to undergo conventional physiotherapy alone or associated to fifteen 30-minute sessions of verticalization, using a tilt table with robotic stepping device...
2016: PloS One
Breda Cullen, Jaycee Pownall, Joanne Cummings, Satu Baylan, Niall Broomfield, Caroline Haig, Denyse Kersel, Heather Murray, Jonathan J Evans
Psychological distress is common following acquired brain injury (ABI), but the evidence base for psychotherapeutic interventions is small and equivocal. Positive psychotherapy aims to foster well-being by increasing experiences of pleasure, engagement and meaning. In this pilot trial, we investigated the feasibility and acceptability of brief positive psychotherapy in adults with ABI and emotional distress. Participants were randomised to brief positive psychotherapy plus usual treatment, or usual treatment only...
January 4, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
David T Pruitt, Ariel N Schmid, Lily J Kim, Caroline M Abe, Jenny L Trieu, Connie Choua, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Robert L Rennaker
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is one of the largest health problems in the United States, and affects nearly 2 million people every year. The effects of TBI, including weakness and loss of coordination, can be debilitating and last years after the initial injury. Recovery of motor function is often incomplete. We have developed a method using electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve paired with forelimb use by which we have demonstrated enhanced recovery from ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Here we have tested the hypothesis that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with physical rehabilitation could enhance functional recovery after TBI...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Alexander W Dromerick, Matthew A Edwardson, Dorothy F Edwards, Margot L Giannetti, Jessica Barth, Kathaleen P Brady, Evan Chan, Ming T Tan, Irfan Tamboli, Ruth Chia, Michael Orquiza, Robert M Padilla, Amrita K Cheema, Mark E Mapstone, Massimo S Fiandaca, Howard J Federoff, Elissa L Newport
INTRODUCTION: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Bogna Ignatowska-Jankowska, Jenny L Wilkerson, Mohammed Mustafa, Rehab Abdullah, Micah Niphakis, Jenny L Wiley, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
The endogenous cannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) plays an important role in a variety of physiologic processes, but its rapid breakdown by monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) results in short-lived actions. Initial MAGL inhibitors were limited by poor selectivity and low potency. In this study, we tested JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-[bis(2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)(hydroxy)methyl]piperidine-1-carboxylate] and MJN110 [2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl 4-(bis(4-chlorophenyl)methyl)piperazine-1-carboxylate], MAGL inhibitors that possess increased selectivity and potency, in mouse behavioral assays of neuropathic pain [chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve], interoceptive cannabimimetic effects (drug-discrimination paradigm), and locomotor activity in an open field test...
May 2015: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Grzegorz Mańko, Artur Ziółkowski, Andrzej Mirski, Michał Kłosiński
BACKGROUND: Difficulties in self-care constitute a very common problem for patients recovering from prolonged coma after a severe TBI, and a major factor reducing their quality of life. Effective new rehabilitation programs that would help solve this problem are urgently needed. The purpose of our experiment was to evaluate improvement in this respect in a group of patients aroused from prolonged coma who participated in a goal-oriented rehabilitation program (Rehab-3), enhanced with selected elements of Tai-Chi...
2013: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
S Bilgin, N Kose, J Karakaya, M Mut
BACKGROUND: The similar symptoms seen in the brain tumor (BT) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) population. However, functional comparisons between these two diagnostic groups have been limited. AIM: To compare functional outcomes in patients with supratentorial BT and TBI after early rehabilitation. DESIGN: This was a retrospective database analysis. Setting. Patients admitted to an Acute Care Unit as inpatient (Hacettepe Hospital, Ankara-Turkey)...
February 2014: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Steven G Kinsey, Laura E Wise, Divya Ramesh, Rehab Abdullah, Dana E Selley, Benjamin F Cravatt, Aron H Lichtman
The monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitor 4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (JZL184) produces antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. However, repeated administration of high-dose JZL184 (40 mg/kg) causes dependence, antinociceptive tolerance, cross-tolerance to the pharmacological effects of cannabinoid receptor agonists, and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) downregulation and desensitization. This functional CB1 receptor tolerance poses a hurdle in the development of MAGL inhibitors for therapeutic use...
June 2013: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
W Schupp
Stroke, Multiple Sclerosis (MS), traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and neuropathies are the most important diseases in neurological rehabilitation financed by the German Pension Insurance. The primary goal is vocational (re)integration. Driven by multiple findings of neuroscience research the traditional holistic approach with mainly empirically derived strategies was developed further and improved by new evidence-based interventions. This process had been, and continues to be, necessary to meet the health-economic pressures for ever shorter and more efficient rehab measures...
December 2011: Die Rehabilitation
Owen Samuels, Adam Webb, Steve Culler, Kathleen Martin, Daniel Barrow
BACKGROUND: Intensivist staffing of intensive care units (ICUs) has been associated with a reduction in in-hospital mortality. These improvements in patient outcomes have been extended to neurointensivist staffing of neuroscience ICUs for patients with intracranial hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to determine if hospital outcomes (measured by discharge status) for patients admitted with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage changed after the introduction of a neurointensivist-led multidisciplinary neurocritical care team...
June 2011: Neurocritical Care
Catherine Wiseman-Hakes, Sheila MacDonald, Michelle Keightley
Growing evidence suggests that acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation and research should be guided by a philosophy that focuses on: restoration, compensation, function and participation in all aspects of daily life. Such a broad, more pluralistic approach influences ABI rehabilitation research at a number of levels, including both the generation of evidence, and in searching for, critiquing and applying the evidence to practice. The objective of evidence based medicine/practice (EBM/EBP) is to apply and integrate clinical expertise with evidence gained through systematic research and scientific inquiry to medical/clinical practice...
2010: NeuroRehabilitation
Michelle R Hoot, Laura J Sim-Selley, Justin L Poklis, Rehab A Abdullah, Krista L Scoggins, Dana E Selley, William L Dewey
The present studies examined the effect of chronic neuropathic pain on cannabinoid receptor density and receptor-mediated G-protein activity within supraspinal brain areas involved in pain processing and modulation in mice. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) produced a significant decrease in WIN 55,212-2-stimulated [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding in membranes prepared from the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) of CCI mice when compared to sham-operated controls. Saturation binding with [(3)H]SR 141716A in membranes of the rACC showed no significant differences in binding between CCI and sham mice...
June 21, 2010: Brain Research
W T Ang, U-X Tan, H G Tan, T Myo, C K Ng, K L Koh, B S Cheam
This paper presents a novel, portable and cost-effective balance trainer with the necessary important features to improve the reach of rehabilitation to the masses. There are three factors that contribute to a person's ability to maintain standing balance: Proprioceptive feedback (from the joints), vision, and the vestibular system. These systems can be affected by injury, infection, or brain damage caused by stroke. One example of such injuries is ankle injury. A large focus of the physiotherapy and sports medicine community is using postural-control tasks to prevent, assess and rehabilitate patients...
November 2008: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
Angela M Auriat, Frederick Colbourne
Rehabilitation improves recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. In some cases, brain damage is attenuated. In this study, we tested whether environmental enrichment (EE) combined with skilled reach training improves recovery and lessens brain injury after ICH in rats. Collagenase was injected stereotaxically to produce a moderate-sized striatal ICH. One week after ICH rats were either placed into a rehabilitation (REHAB) or control (CONT) condition. The REHAB rats received 15 h of EE and four 15-minute reach-training sessions daily over 5 days a week for 2 weeks...
January 28, 2009: Brain Research
Haydn Bush
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2007: Hospitals & Health Networks
Lesley Murphy, Elaine Chamberlain, Jim Weir, Alister Berry, David Nathaniel-James, Robert Agnew
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To report the outcome of 232 clients undertaking Rehab UKs Vocational Rehabilitation Programme, over three consecutive years, in three centres across the UK. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Data regarding demographic characteristics of participants, type and severity of acquired brain injury were collected on admission to the programme. The duration of the vocational programme and occupational status on discharge is also reported. INTERVENTIONS: A description of the vocational programme is given including selection and admission criteria, main components of the programme, monitoring and evaluation frameworks...
October 2006: Brain Injury: [BI]
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