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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346319/hierarchical-discriminant-analysis
#1
Di Lu, Chuntao Ding, Jinliang Xu, Shangguang Wang
The Internet of Things (IoT) generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification) is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem...
January 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342892/next-generation-wireless-technologies-for-internet-of-things
#2
EDITORIAL
Giovanni Pau, Claude Chaudet, Dixian Zhao, Mario Collotta
In the fast-growing Internet of Things (IoT)[...].
January 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337921/unified-compact-ecc-aes-co-processor-with-group-key-support-for-iot-devices-in-wireless-sensor-networks
#3
Luis Parrilla, Encarnación Castillo, Juan A López-Ramos, José A Álvarez-Bermejo, Antonio García, Diego P Morales
Security is a critical challenge for the effective expansion of all new emerging applications in the Internet of Things paradigm. Therefore, it is necessary to define and implement different mechanisms for guaranteeing security and privacy of data interchanged within the multiple wireless sensor networks being part of the Internet of Things. However, in this context, low power and low area are required, limiting the resources available for security and thus hindering the implementation of adequate security protocols...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329248/performance-analysis-of-millimeter-wave-multi-hop-machine-to-machine-networks-based-on-hop-distance-statistics
#4
Haejoon Jung, In-Ho Lee
As an intrinsic part of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is another promising technology for the future communication systems to alleviate the pressure of scarce spectrum resources. For this reason, in this paper, we consider multi-hop M2M communications, where a machine-type communication (MTC) device with the limited transmit power relays to help other devices using mmWave...
January 12, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316643/solving-smart-city-transport-problems-by-designing-carpooling-gamification-schemes-with-multi-agent-systems-the-case-of-the-so-called-mordor-of-warsaw
#5
Robert Olszewski, Piotr Pałka, Agnieszka Turek
To reduce energy consumption and improve residents' quality of life, "smart cities" should use not only modern technologies, but also the social innovations of the "Internet of Things" (IoT) era. This article attempts to solve transport problems in a smart city's office district by utilizing gamification that incentivizes the carpooling system. The goal of the devised system is to significantly reduce the number of cars, and, consequently, to alleviate traffic jams, as well as to curb pollution and energy consumption...
January 6, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311598/graphene-oxide-dielectric-permittivity-at-ghz-and-its-applications-for-wireless-humidity-sensing
#6
Xianjun Huang, Ting Leng, Thanasis Georgiou, Jijo Abraham, Rahul Raveendran Nair, Kostya S Novoselov, Zhirun Hu
In this work, the relative dielectric permittivity of graphene oxide (GO), both its real and imaginary parts, have been measured under various humidity conditions at GHz. It is demonstrated that the relative dielectric permittivity increases with increasing humidity due to water uptake. This finding is very different to that at a couple of MHz or lower frequency, where the relative dielectric permittivity increases with decreasing humidity. This GO electrical property was used to create a battery-free wireless radio-frequency identification (RFID) humidity sensor by coating printed graphene antenna with the GO layer...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301351/hare-supporting-efficient-uplink-multi-hop-communications-in-self-organizing-lpwans
#7
Toni Adame Vázquez, Sergio Barrachina-Muñoz, Boris Bellalta, Albert Bel
The emergence of low-power wide area networks (LPWANs) as a new agent in the Internet of Things (IoT) will result in the incorporation into the digital world of low-automated processes from a wide variety of sectors. The single-hop conception of typical LPWAN deployments, though simple and robust, overlooks the self-organization capabilities of network devices, suffers from lack of scalability in crowded scenarios, and pays little attention to energy consumption. Aimed to take the most out of devices' capabilities, the HARE protocol stack is proposed in this paper as a new LPWAN technology flexible enough to adopt uplink multi-hop communications when proving energetically more efficient...
January 3, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300449/alkoxybenzothiadiazole-based-fullerene-and-nonfullerene-polymer-solar-cells-with-high-shunt-resistance-for-indoor-photovoltaic-applications
#8
Song Yi Park, Yuxiang Li, Jaewon Kim, Tack Ho Lee, Bright Walker, Han Young Woo, Jin Young Kim
We synthesized three semi-crystalline polymers (PTTBTBO, PDTBTBO, and P2FDTBTBO) by modulating the intra- and intermolecular noncovalent coulombic interactions, and investigated their photovoltaic characteristics under various light intensities. Low series (Rs) and high shunt (Rsh) resistances are essential prerequisites for good device properties under standard illumination (100 mW cm-2). Considering these factors, among three polymers PDTBTBO polymer solar cells (PSCs) exhibited the most desirable characteristics, with peak power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of 7...
January 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286339/simplified-antenna-group-determination-of-rs-overhead-reduced-massive-mimo-for-wireless-sensor-networks
#9
Byung Moo Lee
Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can be applied to support numerous internet of things (IoT) devices using its excessive amount of transmitter (TX) antennas. However, one of the big obstacles for the realization of the massive MIMO system is the overhead of reference signal (RS), because the number of RS is proportional to the number of TX antennas and/or related user equipments (UEs). It has been already reported that antenna group-based RS overhead reduction can be very effective to the efficient operation of massive MIMO, but the method of deciding the number of antennas needed in each group is at question...
December 29, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280975/design-and-practical-evaluation-of-a-family-of-lightweight-protocols-for-heterogeneous-sensing-through-ble-beacons-in-iot-telemetry-applications
#10
Dixys L Hernández-Rojas, Tiago M Fernández-Caramés, Paula Fraga-Lamas, Carlos J Escudero
The Internet of Things (IoT) involves a wide variety of heterogeneous technologies and resource-constrained devices that interact with each other. Due to such constraints, IoT devices usually require lightweight protocols that optimize the use of resources and energy consumption. Among the different commercial IoT devices, Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)-based beacons, which broadcast periodically certain data packets to notify their presence, have experienced a remarkable growth, specially due to their application in indoor positioning systems...
December 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261113/enhancing-time-synchronization-support-in-wireless-sensor-networks
#11
Leandro Tavares Bruscato, Tales Heimfarth, Edison Pignaton de Freitas
With the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technology becoming reality, a number of applications are being proposed. Several of these applications are highly dependent on wireless sensor networks (WSN) to acquire data from the surrounding environment. In order to be really useful for most of applications, the acquired data must be coherent in terms of the time in which they are acquired, which implies that the entire sensor network presents a certain level of time synchronization. Moreover, to efficiently exchange and forward data, many communication protocols used in WSN rely also on time synchronization among the sensor nodes...
December 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244776/internet-of-things-iot-based-design-of-a-secure-and-lightweight-body-area-network-ban-healthcare-system
#12
Yong-Yuan Deng, Chin-Ling Chen, Woei-Jiunn Tsaur, Yung-Wen Tang, Jung-Hsuan Chen
As sensor networks and cloud computation technologies have rapidly developed over recent years, many services and applications integrating these technologies into daily life have come together as an Internet of Things (IoT). At the same time, aging populations have increased the need for expanded and more efficient elderly care services. Fortunately, elderly people can now wear sensing devices which relay data to a personal wireless device, forming a body area network (BAN). These personal wireless devices collect and integrate patients' personal physiological data, and then transmit the data to the backend of the network for related diagnostics...
December 15, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242117/design-implementation-and-evaluation-of-an-internet-of-things-iot-network-system-for-restaurant-food-waste-management
#13
Zongguo Wen, Shuhan Hu, Djavan De Clercq, M Bruce Beck, Hua Zhang, Huanan Zhang, Fan Fei, Jianguo Liu
Catering companies around the world generate tremendous amounts of waste; those in China are no exception. The paper discusses the design, implementation, and evaluation of a sensor-based Internet of Things (IoT) network technology for improving the management of restaurant food waste (RFW) in the city of Suzhou, China. This IoT-based system encompasses the generation, collection, transportation and final disposal of RFW. The Suzhou case study comprised four steps: (1) examination of the required functionality of an IoT-enabled system in the specific context of Suzhou; (2) configuration of the system architecture, both software and hardware components, according to the identified functionality; (3) installation of the components of the IoT system at the facilities of the stakeholders across the RFW generation-collection-transportation-disposal value chain; and (4) evaluation of the performance of the entire system, based on data from three years of operation...
December 11, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222422/reconfigurable-yagi-uda-antenna-based-on-a-silicon-reflector-with-a-solid-state-plasma
#14
Da-Jin Kim, Jang-Soon Park, Cheol Ho Kim, Jae Hur, Choong-Ki Kim, Young-Kyun Cho, Jun-Bong Ko, Bonghyuk Park, Dongho Kim, Yang-Kyu Choi
This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of a reconfigurable Yagi-Uda antenna based on a silicon reflector with a solid-state plasma. The silicon reflector, composed of serially connected p-i-n diodes, forms a highly dense solid-state plasma by injecting electrons and holes into the intrinsic region. When this plasma silicon reflector is turned on, the front-realized gain of the antenna increases by more than 2 dBi beyond 5.3 GHz. To achieve the large gain increment, the structure of the antenna is carefully designed with the aid of semiconductor device simulation and antenna simulation...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215064/self-adaptive-bioinspired-hummingbird-wing-stimulated-triboelectric-nanogenerators
#15
Abdelsalam Ahmed, Islam Hassan, Peiyi Song, Mohamed Gamaleldin, Ali Radhi, Nishtha Panwar, Swee Chuan Tjin, Ahmed Y Desoky, David Sinton, Ken-Tye Yong, Jean Zu
Bio-inspired technologies have remarkable potential for energy harvesting from clean and sustainable energy sources. Inspired by the hummingbird-wing structure, we propose a shape-adaptive, lightweight triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) designed to exploit the unique flutter mechanics of the hummingbird for small-scale wind energy harvesting. The flutter is confined between two surfaces for contact electrification upon oscillation. We investigate the flutter mechanics on multiple contact surfaces with several free-standing and lightweight electrification designs...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210411/graphene-integrated-circuits-new-prospects-towards-receiver-realisation
#16
Mohamed Saeed, Ahmed Hamed, Zhenxing Wang, Mehrdad Shaygan, Daniel Neumaier, Renato Negra
This work demonstrates a design approach which enables the fabrication of fully integrated radio frequency (RF) and millimetre-wave frequency direct-conversion graphene receivers by adapting the frontend architecture to exploit the state-of-the-art performance of the recently reported wafer-scale CVD metal-insulator-graphene (MIG) diodes. As a proof-of-concept, we built a fully integrated microwave receiver in the frequency range 2.1-2.7 GHz employing the strong nonlinearity and the high responsivity of MIG diodes to successfully receive and demodulate complex, digitally modulated communication signals at 2...
December 21, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206215/dynamic-spectrum-access-for-internet-of-things-service-in-cognitive-radio-enabled-lpwans
#17
Bongkyo Moon
In this paper, we focus on a dynamic spectrum access strategy for Internet of Things (IoT) applications in two types of radio systems: cellular networks and cognitive radio-enabled low power wide area networks (CR-LPWANs). The spectrum channel contention between the licensed cellular networks and the unlicensed CR-LPWANs, which work with them, only takes place within the cellular radio spectrum range. Our aim is to maximize the spectrum capacity for the unlicensed users while ensuring that it never interferes with the licensed network...
December 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196713/a-hybrid-strain-and-thermal-energy-harvester-based-on-an-infra-red-sensitive-er3-modified-poly-vinylidene-fluoride-ferroelectret-structure
#18
Sujoy Kumar Ghosh, Mengying Xie, Christopher Rhys Bowen, Philip R Davies, David J Morgan, Dipankar Mandal
In this paper, a novel infra-red (IR) sensitive Er3+ modified poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) (Er-PVDF) film is developed for converting both mechanical and thermal energies into useful electrical power. The addition of Er3+ to PVDF is shown to improve piezoelectric properties due to the formation of a self-polarized ferroelectric β-phase and the creation of an electret-like porous structure. In addition, we demonstrate that Er3+ acts to enhance heat transfer into the Er-PVDF film due to its excellent infrared absorbance, which, leads to rapid and large temperature fluctuations and improved pyroelectric energy transformation...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190659/a-digital-memories-based-user-authentication-scheme-with-privacy-preservation
#19
JunLiang Liu, Qiuyun Lyu, Qiuhua Wang, Xiangxiang Yu
The traditional username/password or PIN based authentication scheme, which still remains the most popular form of authentication, has been proved insecure, unmemorable and vulnerable to guessing, dictionary attack, key-logger, shoulder-surfing and social engineering. Based on this, a large number of new alternative methods have recently been proposed. However, most of them rely on users being able to accurately recall complex and unmemorable information or using extra hardware (such as a USB Key), which makes authentication more difficult and confusing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186072/a-dependable-localization-algorithm-for-survivable-belt-type-sensor-networks
#20
Mingqiang Zhu, Fei Song, Lei Xu, Jung Taek Seo, Ilsun You
As the key element, sensor networks are widely investigated by the Internet of Things (IoT) community. When massive numbers of devices are well connected, malicious attackers may deliberately propagate fake position information to confuse the ordinary users and lower the network survivability in belt-type situation. However, most existing positioning solutions only focus on the algorithm accuracy and do not consider any security aspects. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive scheme for node localization protection, which aims to improve the energy-efficient, reliability and accuracy...
November 29, 2017: Sensors
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