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Body proportion

A Onder, C Benlice, J Church, H Kessler, E Gorgun
BACKGROUND: In the current study, we aimed to compare peri- and postoperative 30-day outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic versus open total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis in a case-matched design using data procedure-targeted database. METHODS: Patients who underwent elective total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis in 2012 and 2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Patients were divided into two groups according to the type of surgical approach (laparoscopic and open)...
October 25, 2016: Techniques in Coloproctology
Jana Pelclová, Karel Frömel, Emil Řepka, Ladislav Bláha, Aleš Suchomel, Igor Fojtík, Dana Feltlová, Petr Valach, Svatopluk Horák, Jiří Nykodým, Michal Vorlíček
Objective measured trend data are important for public health practice. However, these data are rare for an adult population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe time trends in pedometer-determined physical activity of Czech adults (25-65 years) from 2008 to 2013. Participants were Czech national citizens whose physical activity was assessed objectively using a Yamax Digiwalker SW-700 pedometer (Yamax Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) for seven consecutive days in the period 2008 to 2013. The final sample was 4647 Czech adults [M age 41...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Russell K W Spencer, Paul F Curry, Robert A Wickham
We examine nucleation of the stable body-centred-cubic (BCC) phase from the metastable uniform disordered phase in an asymmetric diblock copolymer melt. Our comprehensive, large-scale simulations of the time-dependent, mean-field Landau-Brazovskii model find that spherical droplets of the BCC phase nucleate directly from disorder. Near the order-disorder transition, the critical nucleus is large and has a classical profile, attaining the bulk BCC phase in an interior that is separated from disorder by a sharp interface...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
H Wan, S Wu, J Wang, Y Yang, J Zhu, X Shao, B Huang, H Zhang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: High body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality rate. In patients presenting with nonvalvular AF (NVAF), the prognostic relevance of BMI remains unclear. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this prospective observational study, a total of 1759 patients with NVAF (69.9±12.9 years old, 47.9% male) were divided into three clinical settings according to estimated stroke risks (CHADS2 score ⩽1 (low), =2 (moderate) and ⩾3 (high))...
October 26, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, A E Heazell, I Jeffrey, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: Of 780 000 births annually in the UK, around 3300 are stillborn, a rate of approximately 4 per 1000 births. Traditional epidemiological associations are based on historic data. The aim of this study was to document contemporary demographic findings in a large series of > 1000 deaths in utero in London and compare these with national datasets. METHODS: From a dedicated database, including > 400 data fields per case, of fetal, infant and pediatric autopsies performed at Great Ormond Street Hospital and St George's Hospital, London, we extracted information on all intrauterine deaths, excluding terminations of pregnancy, from 2005 to 2013, inclusive...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
J Man, J C Hutchinson, M Ashworth, A E Heazell, S Levine, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVE: According to the classification system used, 15-60% of stillbirths remain unexplained, despite undergoing recommended autopsy examination, with variable attribution of fetal growth restriction (FGR) as a cause of death. Distinguishing small-for-gestational age (SGA) from pathological FGR is a challenge at postmortem examination. This study uses data from a large, well-characterized series of intrauterine death autopsies to investigate the effects of secondary changes such as fetal maceration, intrauterine retention and postmortem interval on body weight...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
J Man, J C Hutchinson, A E Heazell, M Ashworth, S Levine, N J Sebire
OBJECTIVES: There have been several attempts to classify cause of death (CoD) in stillbirth; however, all such systems are subjective, allowing for observer bias and making comparisons between systems challenging. This study aimed to examine factors relating to determination of CoD using a large dataset from two specialist centers in which observer bias had been reduced by classifying findings objectively and assigning CoD based on predetermined criteria. METHODS: Detailed autopsy reports from intrauterine deaths in the second and third trimesters during 2005-2013 were reviewed and findings entered into a specially designed database, in which CoD was assigned using predefined objective criteria...
October 25, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Xianglong Cao, Tao Yu, Gang Zhao, Gang Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive value of preoperative Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) for the postoperative complications and survival in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing laparoscopic radical resection. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in the Beijing Hospital between January 2009 and January 2012. A total of 228 patients with primary CRC undergoing laparoscopic radical resection were analyzed. The GPS was constructed based on routine preoperative blood tests of C-reactive protein and serum albumin...
October 25, 2016: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Sandeep J Joseph, Ben Li, Robert A Petit Iii, Zhaohui S Qin, Lyndsey Darrow, Timothy D Read
In this study we developed a genome-based method for detecting Staphylococcus aureus subtypes from metagenome shotgun sequence data. We used a binomial mixture model and the coverage counts at >100,000 known S. aureus SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites derived from prior comparative genomic analysis to estimate the proportion of 40 subtypes in metagenome samples. We were able to obtain >87% sensitivity and >94% specificity at 0.025X coverage for S. aureus. We found that 321 and 149 metagenome samples from the Human Microbiome Project and metaSUB analysis of the New York City subway, respectively, contained S...
2016: PeerJ
Julia M Potter, Aaron J Simpson, Jennifer Kerrigan, Emma Southcott, Marie M Salib, Gus Koerbin, Peter E Hickman
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac troponins are specific for the heart, but not for the acute coronary syndrome. We wanted to assess how common elevated cardiac troponin concentrations were, in a population with significant non-cardiac disease. DESIGN & METHODS: We measured both hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI on all samples submitted to the laboratory during one 24h period, and assessed the magnitude of the cTn concentration with the location and severity of disease of the patient. RESULTS: Community patients and patients from the maternity ward had the lowest cTn concentrations with results above the 99th percentile being only 0-2% of the total...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Biochemistry
Andreas C Bryhn, Peter H Dimberg, Lena Bergström, Ronny E Fredriksson, Johanna Mattila, Ulf Bergström
Identifying the main sources of nutrient loading is a key factor for efficient mitigation of eutrophication. This study has investigated the pathways of external nutrient loading to 656 coastal water bodies along the entire Swedish coastline. The studied water bodies have been delineated to meet requirements in the European Union's Water Framework Directive, and recent status assessments have shown that 57% of them fail to attain good or high ecological status with respect to nutrients. The analysis in the study was performed on data from mass-balance based nutrient budgets computed using the modelling framework Vattenwebb...
October 22, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Chiung-Ying Huang, Szu-Ying Lee, Chung-Wei Yang, Szu-Chun Hung, Chih-Kang Chiang, Jenq-Wen Huang, Kuan-Yu Hung
BACKGROUND: Low lean body mass (LBM) is an indicator of malnutrition inflammation syndrome, which is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The creatinine index (CI) has been validated as a reliable method to estimate LBM and evaluate the protein-energy status of HD patients. However, the traditional creatinine index formula was complex. We sought to investigate the impact of CI derived from a new simple formula on Chinese HD patient outcomes. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 1269 patients who initiated HD between February 1981 and February 2012 and followed them until the end of February 2013...
2016: PloS One
Melissa A Wren-Dail, Robert T Dauchy, Tara G Ooms, Kate C Baker, David E Blask, Steven M Hill, Lynell M Dupepe, Rudolf P Bohm
Environmental enrichment (EE) gives laboratory animals opportunities to engage in species-specific behaviors. However, the effects of EE devices on normal physiology and scientific outcomes must be evaluated. We hypothesized that the spectral transmittance (color) of light to which rats are exposed when inside colored enrichment devices (CED) affects the circadian rhythms of various plasma markers. Pair-housed male Crl:SD rats were maintained in ventilated racks under a 12:12-h light:dark environment (265.0 lx; lights on, 0600); room lighting intensity and schedule remained constant throughout the study...
2016: Comparative Medicine
Yoonja Kang, Ying-Zhong Tang, Gordon T Taylor, Christopher J Gobler
To date, the life stages of pelagophytes have been poorly described. This study describes the ability of Aureoumbra lagunensis to enter a resting stage in response to environmental stressors including high temperature, nutrient depletion, and darkness as well as their ability to revert from resting cells back to vegetative cells after exposure to optimal light, temperature, and nutrient conditions. Resting cells became round in shape and larger in size, filled with red accumulation bodies, had smaller and fewer plastids, more vacuolar space, contained lower concentrations of chlorophyll a and RNA, displayed reduced photosynthetic efficiency, and lower respiration rates relative to vegetative cells...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Nanette Santoro, Amanda Allshouse, Genevieve Neal-Perry, Lubna Pal, Rogerio A Lobo, Frederick Naftolin, Dennis M Black, Eliot A Brinton, Matthew J Budoff, Marcelle I Cedars, N Maritza Dowling, Mary Dunn, Carey E Gleason, Howard N Hodis, Barbara Isaac, Maureen Magnani, JoAnn E Manson, Virginia M Miller, Hugh S Taylor, Whitney Wharton, Erin Wolff, Viola Zepeda, S Mitchell Harman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to compare the efficacy of two forms of menopausal hormone therapy in alleviating vasomotor symptoms, insomnia, and irritability in early postmenopausal women during 4 years. METHODS: A total of 727 women, aged 42 to 58, within 3 years of their final menstrual period, were randomized to receive oral conjugated estrogens (o-CEE) 0.45 mg (n = 230) or transdermal estradiol (t-E2) 50 μg (n = 225; both with micronized progesterone 200 mg for 12 d each mo), or placebos (PBOs; n = 275)...
October 24, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Ana Babic, Shelley S Tworoger, Libin Zhang, Kana Wu, Stephanie A Smith-Warner, Shuji Ogino, Andrew T Chan, Jeffrey Meyerhardt, Edward Giovannucci, Charles Fuchs, Eunyoung Cho, Dominique S Michaud, Meir J Stampfer, Yau-Hua Yu, David Kim, Xuehong Zhang
Periodontal diseases including tooth loss might increase systemic inflammation, lead to immune dysregulation, and alter gut microbiota, thereby possibly influencing colorectal carcinogenesis. Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between periodontal diseases and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We collected information on the periodontal disease (defined as history of periodontal bone loss) and number of natural teeth in the Nurses' Health Study. A total of 77,443 women were followed since 1992...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Shuaihua Pu, Hamidreza Khazanehei, Peter J Jones, Ehsan Khafipour
Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mariangela Marrelli, Filomena Conforti, Fabrizio Araniti, Giancarlo A Statti
Obesity is one of the greatest public health problems. This complex condition has reached epidemic proportions in many parts of the world, and it constitutes a risk factor for several chronic disorders, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In the last few decades, several studies dealt with the potential effects of natural products as new safe and effective tools for body weight control. Saponins are naturally-occurring surface-active glycosides, mainly produced by plants, whose structure consists of a sugar moiety linked to a hydrophobic aglycone (a steroid or a triterpene)...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Stephanie K Tanamas, Evelyn Wong, Kathryn Backholer, Asnawi Abdullah, Rory Wolfe, Jan Barendregt, Anna Peeters
OBJECTIVE: To compare a simple measure - age of onset of obesity - to an obese-years construct (a product of duration and magnitude of obesity) as risk factors for type 2 diabetes. METHOD: Participants from the Framingham Heart Study who were not obese and did not have diabetes at baseline were included (n=4,320). The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) was computed to compare four Cox proportional hazards models with incident diabetes as the outcome and: (i) obese-years; (ii) age of onset of obesity; (iii) body mass index (BMI); and (iv) age of onset of obesity plus magnitude of BMI combined, as exposures...
October 23, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Juanjuan Zhao, Chao Chen, Mengmeng Guo, Yijin Tao, PanPan Cui, Ya Zhou, Nalin Qin, Jing Zheng, Jidong Zhang, Lin Xu
Recent evidence showed that microRNA-7 (miR-7) played an important role in the pathologies of lung-related diseases. However, the potential role of miR-7 in acute lung injury (ALI) still remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed the effect of miR-7 deficiency on the pathology of ALI. We, first, found that the expression of miR-7 was upregulated in lung tissue in murine LPS-induced ALI model. Notably, we generated miR-7 knock down mice by using miRNA-Sponge technique and found that miR-7 deficiency could ameliorate the pathologies of lung as evidenced by accelerated body weight recovery, reduced level of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proinflammatory cytokines and decreased number of BAL cells in ALI mice...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
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