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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633874/proportional-bias-between-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-and-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-varies-based-on-sex-in-active-adults-consuming-high-and-low-carbohydrate-diets
#1
Grant M Tinsley
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) are common methods of body composition assessment, but the agreement between these methods varies. Bias between DXA and single-frequency BIA was evaluated at 6 different time points in 48 active male and female adults consuming standardized high- and low-carbohydrate diets. It was hypothesized that fixed and proportional biases exist between DXA and BIA but that the extent of bias does not differ based on sex. Substantial fixed bias was present for estimates obtained by DXA and BIA, and both men and women exhibited proportional bias for fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM)...
June 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633157/epidemiology-practice-of-ventilation-and-outcome-for-patients-at-increased-risk-of-postoperative-pulmonary-complications-an-observational-study-in-29-countries
#2
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Limited information exists about the epidemiology and outcome of surgical patients at increased risk of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), and how intraoperative ventilation was managed in these patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of surgical patients at increased risk of PPCs, and to compare the intraoperative ventilation management and postoperative outcomes with patients at low risk of PPCs. DESIGN: This was a prospective international 1-week observational study using the 'Assess Respiratory Risk in Surgical Patients in Catalonia risk score' (ARISCAT score) for PPC for risk stratification...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632892/maternal-overweight-and-obesity-and-genital-anomalies-in-male-offspring-a-population-based-swedish-cohort-study
#3
Linn Håkonsen Arendt, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen, Morten Søndergaard Lindhard, Tine Brink Henriksen, Jørn Olsen, Yongfu Yu, Sven Cnattingius
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obese pregnant women face higher risk of several critical birth outcomes, including an overall increased risk of congenital abnormalities. Only few studies have focused on associations between maternal overweight and the genital anomalies in boys, cryptorchidism and hypospadias, and results are inconclusive. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study and assessed the associations between maternal body mass index (BMI) in early pregnancy and occurrence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias...
June 20, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632430/hematopoietic-developmental-potential-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-lines-is-accompanied-by-the-morphology-of-embryoid-bodies-and-the-expression-of-endodermal-and-hematopoietic-markers
#4
Lenka Tesarova, Pavel Simara, Stanislav Stejskal, Irena Koutna
The potential clinical applications of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are limited by the difficulty of recapitulating embryoid hematopoiesis and by the unknown differentiation potential of hPSC lines. To evaluate their hematopoietic developmental potential, available hPSC lines were differentiated by an embryoid body (EB) suspension culture in serum-free medium supplemented with three different cytokine mixes (CMs). The hPSC differentiation status was investigated by the flow cytometry expression profiles of cell surface molecules, and the gene expression of pluripotency and differentiation markers over time was evaluated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
June 20, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630768/plastic-surgery-inclusion-in-the-undergraduate-medical-curriculum-perception-challenges-and-career-choice-a-comparative-study
#5
M Farid, R Vaughan, S Thomas
OBJECTIVE: The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom), McGill University (Canada), and a control group (non-medical staff)...
2017: Plastic Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629426/development-and-validation-of-a-prognostic-scoring-model-for-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease-an-observational-cohort-study
#6
Shogo Kumagai, Akihiro Ito, Toru Hashimoto, Satoshi Marumo, Hironobu Tokumasu, Aya Kotani, Haruka Yamaki, Masahiro Shirata, Koji Furuuchi, Motonari Fukui, Tadashi Ishida
BACKGROUND: Patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease (LD) have a heterogeneous prognosis. This study aimed to develop and validate a prognostic scoring model for these patients using independent risk factors for survival. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with MAC-LD from two hospitals (cohort 1, n = 368; cohort 2, n = 118). Cohort 1 was evaluated using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model to identify independent risk factors for overall survival (OS)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629378/microrna-130b-is-involved-in-bovine-granulosa-and-cumulus-cells-function-oocyte-maturation-and-blastocyst-formation
#7
Pritam Bala Sinha, Dawit Tesfaye, Franca Rings, Munir Hossien, Michael Hoelker, Eva Held, Christaine Neuhoff, Ernst Tholen, Karl Schellander, Dessie Salilew-Wondim
BACKGROUND: Oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development are controlled by array of genes that are post-transcriptionally regulated by microRNAs. With respect to this, previously, we identified altered expression of microRNA-130b (miR-130b) during oocyte maturation. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-130b in bovine granulosa and cumulus cell function, oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryo development using gain- and loss-of- function approach. METHODS: For this study, the granulosa cells, cumulus cells and the oocytes were collected from ovaries obtained from slaughterhouse...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629362/long-term-exposure-to-ambient-ultrafine-particles-and-respiratory-disease-incidence-in-in-toronto-canada-a-cohort-study
#8
Scott Weichenthal, Li Bai, Marianne Hatzopoulou, Keith Van Ryswyk, Jeffrey C Kwong, Michael Jerrett, Aaron van Donkelaar, Randall V Martin, Richard T Burnett, Hong Lu, Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term health effects of ambient ultrafine particles (<0.1 μm) (UFPs) including their association with respiratory disease incidence. In this study, we examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient UFPs and the incidence of lung cancer, adult-onset asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Our study cohort included approximately 1.1 million adults who resided in Toronto, Canada and who were followed for disease incidence between 1996 and 2012...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629146/emerging-disparities-in-dietary-sodium-intake-from-snacking-in-the-us-population
#9
Elizabeth K Dunford, Jennifer M Poti, Barry M Popkin
BACKGROUND: The US population consumes dietary sodium well in excess of recommended levels. It is unknown how the contribution of snack foods to sodium intake has changed over time, and whether disparities exist within specific subgroups of the US population. OBJECTIVE: To examine short and long term trends in the contribution of snack food sources to dietary sodium intake for US adults and children over a 37-year period from 1977 to 2014. METHODS: We used data collected from eight nationally representative surveys of food intake in 50,052 US children aged 2-18 years, and 73,179 adults aged 19+ years between 1977 and 2014...
June 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629081/optimized-composition-of-nanocomposite-scaffolds-formed-from-silk-fibroin-and-nano-tio2-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#10
N Johari, H R Madaah Hosseini, A Samadikuchaksaraei
Natural silk fibroin (SF) polymer has biomedical and mechanical properties as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Freeze-dried porous nanocomposite scaffolds were prepared from silk fibroin and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as a bioactive reinforcing agent by a phase separation method. In order to fabricate SF/TiO2 scaffolds, 5, 10, 15 and 20wt% of the TiO2 were added to the SF. The phase structure, functional groups and morphology of the scaffolds were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques, respectively...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628141/-associations-of-sedentary-behavior-and-physical-activity-with-dyslipidemia
#11
J Zhou, Q Zhou, D P Wang, T Zhang, H J Wang, Y Song, H Z He, M Wang, P Y Wang, A P Liu
OBJECTIVE: To analyze associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with dyslipidemia among residents in Wuhai city. METHODS: Data about social demographic characteristics, life style, health status and other covariate required for analysis in this study was obtained from a cross-sectional study on a total of 11 497 18-79 years old residents in Wuhai City by questionnaire, body mea-surement and laboratory examination. In this study, sedentary behavior and physical activity were evaluated using international physical activity questionnaire long version (IPAQ)...
June 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628126/consumption-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages-and-type-2-diabetes-incidence-in-thai-adults-results-from-an-8-year-prospective-study
#12
K Papier, C D'Este, C Bain, C Banwell, S Seubsman, A Sleigh, S Jordan
BACKGROUND: The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is high and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid socio-economic development, including Thailand. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake may contribute to the risk of developing T2DM. However, few studies have assessed this association in Asian populations, and the results have been inconsistent. We aimed to assess that association in a prospective study of Thai adults. METHODS: Data were from Thai Cohort Study participants surveyed in 2005, 2009 and 2013...
June 19, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627192/-excess-weight-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-is-it-always-beneficial
#13
David González Jiménez, Rosana Muñoz-Codoceo, María Garriga-García, Manuel Molina-Arias, Marina Álvarez-Beltrán, Ruth García-Romero, Cecilia Martínez-Costa, Silvia María Meavilla-Olivas, Luis Rodrigo Peña-Quintana, Silvia Gallego Gutiérrez, José Manuel Marugán de Miguelsanz, Lucrecia Suárez Cortina, Esperanza Natividad Castejón Ponce, Rosaura Leis Trabazo, Fayna Martín Cruz, Juan José Díaz Martín, Carlos Bousoño García
INTRODUCTION: The primary objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of overweight and obese status, as well as their association to pulmonary function, total cholesterol and vitamin D in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a multicenter descriptive and cross-sectional study. Twelve Spanish hospitals participated. 451 patients with CF were included. Adults were classified according to body mass index (BMI) and children were classified according to BMI percentiles (WHO tables)...
June 5, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627024/the-applicability-of-a-weight-loss-grading-system-in-cancer-cachexia-a-longitudinal-analysis
#14
Ola Magne Vagnildhaug, David Blum, Andrew Wilcock, Peter Fayers, Florian Strasser, Vickie E Baracos, Marianne J Hjermstad, Stein Kaasa, Barry Laird, Tora S Solheim
BACKGROUND: A body mass index (BMI) adjusted weight loss grading system (WLGS) is related to survival in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of the WLGS by confirming its prognostic validity, evaluating its relationship to cachexia domains, and exploring its ability to predict cachexia progression. METHODS: An international, prospective observational study of patients with incurable cancer was conducted. For each patient, weight loss grade was scored 0-4...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626829/socioeconomic-status-as-an-effect-modifier-of-alcohol-consumption-and-harm-analysis-of-linked-cohort-data
#15
Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Elise Whitley, Jim Lewsey, Linsay Gray, Alastair H Leyland
BACKGROUND: Alcohol-related mortality and morbidity are high in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations compared with individuals from advantaged areas. It is unclear if this increased harm reflects differences in alcohol consumption between these socioeconomic groups, reverse causation (ie, downward social selection for high-risk drinkers), or a greater risk of harm in individuals of low socioeconomic status compared with those of higher status after similar consumption. We aimed to investigate whether the harmful effects of alcohol differ by socioeconomic status, accounting for alcohol consumption and other health-related factors...
June 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626153/association-between-lifestyle-factors-assessed-by-standard-question-items-of-specific-health-checkup-and-the-incidence-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-hypertension-in-community-dwellers-a-five-year-cohort-study-of-national-health-insurance-beneficiaries-in-habikino
#16
Hiromi Tsutatani, Mika Funamoto, Daisuke Sugiyama, Kazuyo Kuwabara, Naomi Miyamatsu, Kouichi Watanabe, Tomonori Okamura
Objective From April 2008, specific health checkups have been implemented to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related cardiovascular diseases based on assurance of medical care for the elderly in Japan. In its "Standard Health Checkup and Counseling Guidance Program," 22 standard question items are recommended to assess health conditions of Japanese citizens. However, there are few community-based studies to clarify the relationship between question items and new onset of high risk conditions for cardiovascular diseases such as MetS...
2017: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625602/frax-score-can-be-used-to-avoid-superfluous-dxa-scans-in-detecting-osteoporosis-in-celiac-disease-accuracy-of-the-frax-score-in-celiac-patients
#17
Raffaella Tortora, Nicola Imperatore, Pietro Capone, Nicolò Gerbino, Matilde Rea, Giovanna Affinito, Nicola Caporaso, Antonio Rispo
The Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX) tool has been developed to estimate patients' 10-yr probability of fracture, thus establishing which patients should undergo dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan. This study aimed to evaluate if the FRAX tool can replace or optimize the use of DXA scan in celiac disease (CD). We prospectively enrolled all CD patients aged over 40 yr diagnosed at our third-level unit. At time of CD diagnosis, all patients underwent FRAX score calculation for risk of major osteoporotic and hip fractures and DXA scan (used as gold standard) to assess the accuracy of the FRAX score...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625033/hydration-status-of-pregnant-women-in-west-jakarta
#18
Erry Yudhya Mulyani, Hardinsyah, Dodik Briawan, Budi Iman Santoso
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During pregnancy, the body exhibits dynamic changes in fluid composition. More than 50%of women experience nausea and vomiting during the first trimester. Studies of hydration status in pregnant women are limited, and not in tropical countries, like in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydration status and appropriate biomarkers for determination of hydration status in pregnant women in West Jakarta. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This study was cross-sectional...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624933/influence-of-food-consumption-patterns-and-galician-lifestyle-on-human-gut-microbiota
#19
María Castro-Penalonga, Paula Roca-Saavedra, Jose Manuel Miranda, Jose Julio Porto-Arias, Carolina Nebot, Alejandra Cardelle-Cobas, Carlos Manuel Franco, Alberto Cepeda
The proportion of different microbial populations in the human gut is an important factor that in recent years has been linked to obesity and numerous metabolic diseases. Because there are many factors that can affect the composition of human gut microbiota, it is of interest to have information about what is the composition of the gut microbiota in different populations in order to better understand the possibilities for improving nutritional management. A group of 31 volunteers were selected according to established inclusion and exclusion criteria and were asked about their diet history, lifestyle patterns, and adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624257/moderate-exercise-training-decreases-inflammation-in-transgenic-sickle-cell-mice
#20
Emmanuelle Charrin, John J Dubé, Philippe Connes, Vincent Pialoux, Samit Ghosh, Camille Faes, Solomon F Ofori-Acquah, Cyril Martin
Chronic systemic inflammation is a pathophysiological feature of sickle cell disease (SCD). Considering that regular exercise exerts multiple beneficial health effects including anti-inflammatory actions, we investigated whether a treadmill training program could minimize the inflammatory state in transgenic sickle cell (SS) mice. To test this hypothesis, SS mice were subjected to a treadmill training protocol of 1h/day, 5days a week for 8weeks. Exercise training increased the percent of venous oxyhemoglobin and sharply decreased the percent of carboxyhemoglobin suggesting that exercise training may limit the proportion of erythrocytes that were deoxygenated in the venous circulation...
June 13, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
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