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PET, Heart Failure, Atherosclerosis

Christina Byrne, Philip Hasbak, Andreas Kjaer, Jens Jakob Thune, Lars Køber
Both patients with non-ischaemic systolic heart failure and patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) often have reduced myocardial blood flow without significant coronary atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether perfusion is reduced additionally when the 2 are combined. In a cross-sectional study, we scanned patients with non-ischaemic systolic heart failure with and without T2DM using Rubidium-82 positron emission tomography/computed tomography at rest and adenosine-induced stress, thereby obtaining the myocardial flow reserve (myocardial flow reserve (MFR) = stress flow/rest flow) as a measure of the myocardial vasomotor function; 28 patients with T2DM and 123 without T2DM were included...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Edmund J Keliher, Yu-Xiang Ye, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Aaron D Aguirre, Benoit Tricot, Max L Senders, Hannah Groenen, Francois Fay, Carlos Perez-Medina, Claudia Calcagno, Giuseppe Carlucci, Thomas Reiner, Yuan Sun, Gabriel Courties, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Hye-Yeong Kim, Cuihua Wang, John W Chen, Filip K Swirski, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Jacob Hooker, Zahi A Fayad, Willem J M Mulder, Ralph Weissleder, Matthias Nahrendorf
Tissue macrophage numbers vary during health versus disease. Abundant inflammatory macrophages destruct tissues, leading to atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and heart failure. Emerging therapeutic options create interest in monitoring macrophages in patients. Here we describe positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with18 F-Macroflor, a modified polyglucose nanoparticle with high avidity for macrophages. Due to its small size, Macroflor is excreted renally, a prerequisite for imaging with the isotope flourine-18...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
Ismet Sarikaya
Routine use of cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) applications has been increasing but has not replaced cardiac single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies yet. The majority of cardiac PET tracers, with the exception of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), are not widely available, as they require either an onsite cyclotron or a costly generator for their production. 18F-FDG PET imaging has high sensitivity for the detection of hibernating/viable myocardium and has replaced Tl-201 SPECT imaging in centers equipped with a PET/CT camera...
October 2015: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Viviany R Taqueti, Rory Hachamovitch, Venkatesh L Murthy, Masanao Naya, Courtney R Foster, Jon Hainer, Sharmila Dorbala, Ron Blankstein, Marcelo F Di Carli
BACKGROUND: Coronary flow reserve (CFR), an integrated measure of focal, diffuse, and small-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD), identifies patients at risk for cardiac death. We sought to determine the association between CFR, angiographic CAD, and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients (n=329) referred for invasive coronary angiography after stress testing with myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography were followed (median 3...
January 6, 2015: Circulation
S Masi, R Lautamäki, L Guiducci, P Di Cecco, C Porciello, S Pardini, M A Morales, V Chubuchny, P A Salvadori, M Emdin, A M Sironi, J Knuuti, D Neglia, P Nuutila, E Ferrannini, P Iozzo
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance are often associated with the co-occurrence of coronary atherosclerosis and cardiac dysfunction. The aim of this study was to define the independent relationships between left ventricular dysfunction or ischaemia and patterns of myocardial perfusion and metabolism in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Twenty-four type 2 diabetic patients--12 with coronary artery disease (CAD) and preserved left ventricular function and 12 with non-ischaemic heart failure (HF)--were enrolled in a cross-sectional study...
September 2012: Diabetologia
Zahi A Fayad, Venkatesh Mani, Mark Woodward, David Kallend, Markus Abt, Tracy Burgess, Valentin Fuster, Christie M Ballantyne, Evan A Stein, Jean-Claude Tardif, James H F Rudd, Michael E Farkouh, Ahmed Tawakol
BACKGROUND: Dalcetrapib modulates cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). After the failure of torcetrapib it was unknown if HDL produced by interaction with CETP had pro-atherogenic or pro-inflammatory properties. dal-PLAQUE is the first multicentre study using novel non-invasive multimodality imaging to assess structural and inflammatory indices of atherosclerosis as primary endpoints. METHODS: In this phase 2b, double-blind, multicentre trial, patients (aged 18-75 years) with, or with high risk of, coronary heart disease were randomly assigned (1:1) to dalcetrapib 600 mg/day or placebo for 24 months...
October 29, 2011: Lancet
Florian Leuschner, Matthias Nahrendorf
Motivated by the promise to transform preclinical research and clinical care, cardiovascular molecular imaging has made advances toward targeting coronary atherosclerosis and heart failure. Here, we discuss recent progress in the field, highlight how molecular imaging may facilitate preventive patient care, and review specific challenges associated with coronary and heart failure imaging. Practical considerations stress the potential of fluorescence imaging for basic research and discuss hybrid protocols such as FMT-CT and PET-MRI...
March 4, 2011: Circulation Research
N Koivuviita, R Tertti, M Luotolahti, O Raitakari, T Vahlberg, P Nuutila, J Knuuti, K Metsärinne
BACKGROUND: Patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) are at increased risk of heart disease because of associated hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiac failure and chronic kidney disease. Although suggested to be beneficial, the cardiac effects of renal artery revascularization have not been well characterized. Our aim was to analyze the effects of percutaneous dilatation of renal artery stenosis (RAS) in ARVD patients on coronary and peripheral vascular function...
2011: Nephron. Clinical Practice
Thomas H Schindler, Heinrich R Schelbert, Alessandra Quercioli, Vasken Dilsizian
Positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging in concert with tracer-kinetic modeling affords the assessment of regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) of the left ventricle in absolute terms (milliliters per gram per minute). Assessment of MBF both at rest and during various forms of vasomotor stress provides insight into early and subclinical abnormalities in coronary arterial vascular function and/or structure, noninvasively. The noninvasive evaluation and quantification of MBF and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) extend the scope of conventional myocardial perfusion imaging from detection of end-stage, advanced, and flow-limiting, epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) to early stages of atherosclerosis or microvascular dysfunction...
June 2010: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Michel Zuber, Michael Zellweger, Jens Bremerich, Christoph Auf der Mauer, Peter T Buser
Noninvasive imaging of coronary artery disease has extensively evolved during the last decade. Today, at least four imaging techniques with excellent image quality such as echocardiography, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and PET, cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac CT are widely available in order to estimate the risk for future ischemic events, to corroborate the suspected diagnosis of coronary artery disease, to demonstrate the extent and localisation of myocardial ischemia, to diagnose myocardial infarction and measure it's size, to identify the myocardium at risk during acute ischemia, to differentiate between viable and nonviable myocardium and thereby provide the basis for indications of revascularisations, to follow revascularized patients over long time, to assess the risk for sudden cardiac death and the development of heart failure after myocardial infarction and to depict atheromatosis and atherosclerosis of the coronary artery tree...
April 2009: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
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