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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303338/blood-glucose-kinetics-and-physiological-changes-in-a-type-1-diabetic-finisher-of-the-ultraman-triathlon-a-case-study
#1
Christopher W Bach, Daniel A Baur, William S Hyder, Michael J Ormsbee
PURPOSE: To investigate the blood glucose kinetics and physiological effects experienced by a type 1 diabetic (T1D) finisher of a 3-day, multi-stage ultra endurance triathlon consisting of a 10 km swim and 144.8 km bike (stage 1), a 275.4 km bike (stage 2), and an 84.4 km run (stage 3). METHODS: The athlete self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) levels via fingerstick blood draw and hand-held glucometer. Researchers evaluated blood glucose kinetics via a continuous glucose monitoring device...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228583/food-responsiveness-regulates-episodic-behavioral-states-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
Richard J McCloskey, Anthony D Fouad, Matthew A Churgin, Christopher Fang-Yen
Animals optimize survival and reproduction in part through control of behavioral states, which depend on the organism's internal and external environments. In the nematode C. elegans, a variety of behavioral states have been described, including roaming, dwelling, quiescence, and episodic swimming. These states have been considered in isolation, under varied experimental conditions, making it difficult to establish a unified picture of how they are regulated. Using long-term imaging, we examined C. elegans episodic behavioral states under varied mechanical and nutritional environments...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163267/cornu-cervi-pantotrichum-supplementation-improves-physiological-adaptions-during-intensive-endurance-training
#3
Wen-Ching Huang, Chi-Chang Huang, Hsiao-Li Chuang, Wen-Chyuan Chen, Mei-Chich Hsu
Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP), used in traditional Chinese medicine, is a well-known yang-invigorating agent with multifunctional bioactivities. We previously showed, through an acute exercise challenge, that short-term CCP supplementation improved physical activities and fatigue-associated biochemical indices. Questions about the long-term effects of CCP treatment on exercise performance and physical fatigue, as well as safety, with intensive exercise training need further research. ICR-strain mice were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (SC); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (ET); (3) ET with CCP treatment at 4108 mg/kg/day (ET+CCP)...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111151/control-of-movement-initiation-underlies-the-development-of-balance
#4
David E Ehrlich, David Schoppik
Balance arises from the interplay of external forces acting on the body and internally generated movements. Many animal bodies are inherently unstable, necessitating corrective locomotion to maintain stability. Understanding how developing animals come to balance remains a challenge. Here we study the interplay among environment, sensation, and action as balance develops in larval zebrafish. We first model the physical forces that challenge underwater balance and experimentally confirm that larvae are subject to constant destabilization...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099477/chronic-maternal-low-protein-diet-in-mice-affects-anxiety-night-time-energy-expenditure-and-sleep-patterns-but-not-circadian-rhythm-in-male-offspring
#5
Randy F Crossland, Alfred Balasa, Rajesh Ramakrishnan, Sangeetha K Mahadevan, Marta L Fiorotto, Ignatia B Van den Veyver
Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026207/impact-sports-and-bone-fractures-among-adolescents
#6
Kyle R Lynch, Han C G Kemper, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Ricardo R Agostinete, Igor H Ito, Rafael Luiz-De-Marco, Mario A Rodrigues-Junior, Rômulo A Fernandes
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of different sports on stress fractures among adolescents during a 9-month follow-up period. The sample was composed of 184 adolescents divided into three groups (impact sports [n = 102]; swimming [n = 35]; non-sports [n = 47]). The occurrence of stress fracture was reported by participants and coaches. As potential confounders we considered age, sex, resistance training, body composition variables and age at peak of height velocity. There were 13 adolescents who reported fractures during the 9-month period...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011098/serum-igf-i-igfbp-3-and-als-concentrations-and-physical-performance-in-young-swimmers-during-a-training-season
#7
H Tourinho Filho, M Pires, E F Puggina, M Papoti, R Barbieri, C E Martinelli
INTRODUCTION: The GH/IGF-I axis is a system of growth mediators, receptors, and binding proteins that regulate somatic and tissue growth; and it has been shown that exercise programs are related to the anabolic function of this axis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the changes of serum IGF-I concentration and that of its binding proteins IGFBP-3 and ALS in adolescent swimmers at different stages of a training season, and compare them with physical performance parameters and body composition of the athletes...
December 18, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940620/how-to-build-a-deep-diver-the-extreme-morphology-of-mesoplodonts
#8
D Ann Pabst, William A McLellan, Sentiel A Rommel
Mesoplodont beaked whales are extreme divers, diving for over 45 mins and to depths of over 800 m. These dives are of similar depth and duration to those of the giant sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) whose body mass can be 50 times larger. Velten et al. (2013) provided anatomical data that demonstrated that on-board oxygen stores were sufficient to aerobically support the extreme dives of mesoplodonts if their diving metabolic rates are low. Because no physiological data yet exist, we utilized an anatomical approach-the body composition technique-to examine the relative metabolic rates of mesoplodonts...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766021/dehydroepiandrosterone-supplementation-combined-with-whole-body-vibration-training-affects-testosterone-level-and-body-composition-in-mice
#9
Wen-Chyuan Chen, Yi-Ming Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Yen-Dun Tzeng
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632832/assessment-of-body-composition-and-sport-performance-of-brazilian-paralympic-swim-team-athletes
#10
Radamés M V Medeiros, Eduardo S Alves, Valdir A Lemos, Paulo A Schwingel, Andressa da Silva, Roberto Vital, Alexandre S Vieira, Murilo M Barreto, Edilson A Rocha, Sergio Tufik, Marco T de Mello
CONTEXT: Body-composition assessments of high-performance athletes are very important for identifying physical performance potential. Although the relationship between the kinanthropometric characteristics and performance abilities of Olympic swimmers is extremely important, this subject is not completely understood for Paralympic swimmers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between body composition and sport performance in Brazilian Paralympic swimmers 6 mo after training...
December 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27385543/body-composition-changes-in-an-endurance-athlete-using-two-different-training-strategies
#11
Peter Francis, William Mc Cormack, Aaron Caseley, June Copeman, Gareth Jones
Swimming, running and cycling are among the most popular and fastest growing sports in the world. Inherent in these sports is a desire to favourably alter body composition. Here we report a ~5.4kg and ~5.3kg fat tissue mass (FTM) loss in two separate interventions (12 - 16 weeks), in the same athlete, separated by 5 years. Whole body composition was assessed using dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dietary analysis for intervention 2 was completed using Mc Cance and Widdowson's composition of foods. In 2010, the male athlete (23 yrs, 85kg, 195cm, 18...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365419/material-properties-of-hagfish-skin-with-insights-into-knotting-behaviors
#12
Andrew J Clark, Callie H Crawford, Brooke D King, Andrew M Demas, Theodore A Uyeno
Hagfishes (Myxinidae) often integrate whole-body knotting movements with jawless biting motions when reducing large marine carcasses to ingestible items. Adaptations for these behaviors include complex arrangements of axial muscles and flexible, elongate bodies without vertebrae. Between the axial muscles and the hagfish skin is a large, blood-filled subcutaneous sinus devoid of the intricate, myoseptal tendon networks characteristic of the taut skins of other fishes. We propose that the loose-fitting skin of the hagfish facilitates the formation and manipulation of body knots, even if it is of little functional significance to steady swimming...
June 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27300590/an-insight-of-disinfection-by-product-dbp-formation-by-alternative-disinfectants-for-swimming-pool-disinfection-under-tropical-conditions
#13
Linyan Yang, Christina Schmalz, Jin Zhou, Christian Zwiener, Victor W-C Chang, Liya Ge, Man Pun Wan
Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is the most commonly used disinfectant in pool treatment system. Outdoor pools usually suffer from the strong sunlight irradiation which degrades the free chlorine rapidly. In addition, more pools start to adopt the recirculation of swimming pool water, which intensifies the disinfection by-product (DBP) accumulation issue. Given these potential drawbacks of using NaClO in the tropical environment, two alternative organic-based disinfectants, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA, C3Cl3N3O3) and bromochlorodimethylhydantoin (BCDMH, C5H6BrClN2O2), were investigated and compared to NaClO in terms of their self-degradation and the formation of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), under simulated tropical climate conditions...
September 15, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27042167/critical-evaluation-of-food-intake-and-energy-balance-in-young-modern-pentathlon-athletes-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Leticia Azen Alves Coutinho, Cristiana Pedrosa Melo Porto, Anna Paola Trindade Rocha Pierucci
BACKGROUND: Modern pentathlon comprises five sports: fencing, swimming, equestrian jumping, and a combined event of pistol shooting and running. Despite the expected high energy demand of this sport, there are few studies that provide support for the nutritional recommendations for pentathletes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate young modern pentathlon athletes with respect to body composition, biochemical profile, and consumption of food and supplements. METHODS: Fifty-six young modern pentathletes aged 13...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26966319/cold-water-swimming-beneficially-modulates-insulin-sensitivity-in-middle-aged-individuals
#15
Magdalena Gibas-Dorna, Zuzanna Chęcińska, Emilia Korek, Justyna Kupsz, Anna Sowińska, Hanna Krauss
We determined whether cold water swimming for six consecutive months results in adaptive changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Thirty healthy subjects aged 50.2 ± 9.4 years were exposed to cold water at least twice a week. Body composition was determined and serum glucose and insulin served to calculate beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and resistance using HOMA2. Compared with control subjects, swimmers were overweight, and had greater percent body fat and beta cell function. Women had lower values of BMI, fat free mass, muscle mass, visceral adipose tissue level, and greater percent body fat than men...
2016: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26907336/sake-protein-supplementation-affects-exercise-performance-and-biochemical-profiles-in-power-exercise-trained-mice
#16
Yi-Ming Chen, Che-Li Lin, Li Wei, Yi-Ju Hsu, Kuan-Neng Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Chin-Hsung Kao
UNLABELLED: Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public's attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. PURPOSE: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue...
February 20, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26841434/intraindividual-variability-in-test-retest-air-displacement-plethysmography-measurements-of-body-density-for-men-and-women
#17
Ann L Gibson, Jenevieve L Roper, Christine M Mermier
Air displacement plethysmography (ADP) is a popular method for estimating body density (Db). Most ADP tests are performed once, with test-retest investigations scarce. Therefore, we investigated test-retest reliability of ADP. Active men (n = 25) and women (n = 25) volunteered and followed standard pretest guidelines. Participants wore dry, form-fitting swimwear and manufacturer-supplied swim caps. In a single session, two ADP trials with measured thoracic gas volume (TGV) were performed without repositioning participants...
October 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26835005/the-effect-of-cold-water-endurance-swimming-on-core-temperature-in-aspiring-english-channel-swimmers
#18
Tara Diversi, Vanessa Franks-Kardum, Mike Climstein
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine if cold water swimmers (CWS) developed hypothermia over a 6-h cold water endurance swim and whether body composition, stroke rate (SR) or personal characteristics correlated with core temperature (TC) change. Nine experienced male and female CWS who were aspiring English Channel (EC) swimmers volunteered to participate. Subjects aimed to complete their 6-h EC qualifying swim (water 15-15.8 °C/air 15-25 °C) while researchers intermittently monitored TC and SR...
2016: Extreme Physiology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26582018/metabolic-programming-mediated-by-an-essential-fatty-acid-alters-body-composition-and-survival-skills-of-a-marine-fish
#19
Lee A Fuiman, Kestrel O Perez
Metabolic programming occurs when variations in nutrition during a specific developmental window result in long-term metabolic effects. It has been studied almost exclusively in humans and other mammals but never in an ecological context. Here, we report metabolic programming and its functional consequences in a marine fish, red drum. We demonstrate that maternal provisioning of eggs with an essential fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), varies with DHA content of the maternal diet. When offspring are reared on a DHA-replete diet, whole-body DHA content of offspring depends upon the amount of DHA that was in the egg...
November 22, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26560107/fluid-retention-muscle-damage-and-altered-body-composition-at-the-ultraman-triathlon
#20
Daniel A Baur, Christopher W Bach, William J Hyder, Michael J Ormsbee
PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of participation in a 3-day multistage ultraendurance triathlon (stage 1 = 10 km swim, 144.8 km bike; stage 2 = 275.4 km bike; stage 3 = 84.4 km run) on body mass and composition, hydration status, hormones, muscle damage, and blood glucose. METHODS: Eighteen triathletes (mean ± SD; age 41 ± 7.5 years; height 175 ± 9 cm; weight 73.5 ± 9.8 kg; male n = 14, female n = 4) were assessed before and after each stage of the race...
March 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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