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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725246/dehydroepiandrosterone-supplementation-combined-with-weight-loading-whole-body-vibration-training-wwbv-affects-exercise-performance-and-muscle-glycogen-storage-in-middle-aged-c57bl-6-mice
#1
Yi-Ming Chen, Hao-Chieh Lee, Mu-Tsung Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Wen-Chyuan Chen
Background : Adequate nutritional intake and an optimal training program are important elements of any strategy to preserve or increase muscle mass and strength during aging. Purpose : In the current study, we investigate the effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), one of the most abundant circulating steroids in humans and a precursor hormone, supplementation combined with a weight-loading whole-body vibration (WWBV) on exercise performance, physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in middle-aged 9 months old C57BL/6 mice...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655762/amateur-endurance-triathletes-performance-is-improved-independently-of-volume-or-intensity-based-training
#2
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Rosa Delgado-Moreno, Beatriz González, Javier Ortega, Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo
The aim of the present research was to compare the effects in swimming and running performance, horizontal jump test, autonomic modulation, and body composition of four training weeks with emphasis on volume versus intensity in moderate trained triathletes. Thirty-two amateur triathletes (20 males and 12 females) were randomly divided in three different groups that performed 6 training session per week: Intensity (INT): training focused on performs intensity training Volume (VOL): training focused on performs volume training; and Control (CON): physical active group with no periodized training...
April 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238536/body-macronutrient-composition-is-predicted-by-lipid-and-not-protein-content-of-the-diet
#3
Joshua P Moatt, Catherine Hambly, Elizabeth Heap, Anna Kramer, Fiona Moon, John R Speakman, Craig A Walling
Diet is an important determinant of fitness-related traits including growth, reproduction, and survival. Recent work has suggested that variation in protein:lipid ratio and particularly the amount of protein in the diet is a key nutritional parameter. However, the traits that mediate the link between dietary macronutrient ratio and fitness-related traits are less well understood. An obvious candidate is body composition, given its well-known link to health. Here, we investigate the relationship between dietary and body macronutrient composition using a first-generation laboratory population of a freshwater fish, the three-spine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus )...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199788/adaptive-thermogenesis-and-changes-in-body-composition-and-physical-fitness-in-army-cadets
#4
Juliano H Borges, Gary R Hunter, Analiza M Silva, Vagner X Cirolini, Raquel D Langer, Mauro A Páscoa, Gil Guerra, Ezequiel M Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: To analyze the association between a 34-week military training on body composition, physical fitness and compensatory changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) recognized as adaptive thermogenesis (AT). We also explored if regional body composition changes were related to AT. METHODS: Twenty-nine male army cadets, aged 17 to 22 years were tested at baseline (T0) and after 34-weeks military training (T1). Physical training was performed 5 days/week during 90 minutes/day...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170037/stiff-and-tough-a-comparative-study-on-the-tensile-properties-of-shark-skin
#5
Shelby B Creager, Marianne E Porter
In sharks, the skin is a biological composite with mineralized denticles embedded within a collagenous matrix. Swimming performance is enhanced by the dermal denticles on the skin, which have drag reducing properties produced by regional morphological variations and changes in density along the body. We used mechanical testing to quantify the effect of embedded mineralized denticles on the quasi-static tensile properties of shark skin to failure in four coastal species. We investigated regional differences in denticle density and skin properties by dissecting skin from the underlying fascia and muscle at 10 anatomical landmarks...
October 31, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118132/physical-trade-offs-shape-the-evolution-of-buoyancy-control-in-sharks
#6
Adrian C Gleiss, Jean Potvin, Jeremy A Goldbogen
Buoyancy control is a fundamental aspect of aquatic life that has major implications for locomotor performance and ecological niche. Unlike terrestrial animals, the densities of aquatic animals are similar to the supporting fluid, thus even small changes in body density may have profound effects on locomotion. Here, we analysed the body composition (lipid versus lean tissue) of 32 shark species to study the evolution of buoyancy. Our comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that although lean tissue displays minor positive allometry, liver volume exhibits pronounced positive allometry, suggesting that larger sharks evolved bulkier body compositions by adding lipid tissue to lean tissue rather than substituting lean for lipid tissue, particularly in the liver...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104316/determination-of-size-sex-and-maturity-stage-of-free-swimming-catsharks-using-laser-photogrammetry
#7
REVIEW
Toby D Rogers, Giulia Cambiè, Michel J Kaiser
The lack of detailed life history (LH) information (e.g. age, growth, size at maturity, sex composition etc.) for many species of conservation importance limits the implementation of appropriate conservation measures. Typically, LH information is acquired using lethal sampling techniques, which undermines the goal of conservation. This is particularly problematic for many shark species that have low fecundity and slow growth rates. Here we tested the use of non-invasive laser photogrammetry to measure body morphometry in vivo...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972121/gaze-stabilizing-central-vestibular-neurons-project-asymmetrically-to-extraocular-motoneuron-pools
#8
David Schoppik, Isaac H Bianco, David A Prober, Adam D Douglass, Drew N Robson, Jennifer M B Li, Joel S F Greenwood, Edward Soucy, Florian Engert, Alexander F Schier
Within reflex circuits, specific anatomical projections allow central neurons to relay sensations to effectors that generate movements. A major challenge is to relate anatomical features of central neural populations, such as asymmetric connectivity, to the computations the populations perform. To address this problem, we mapped the anatomy, modeled the function, and discovered a new behavioral role for a genetically defined population of central vestibular neurons in rhombomeres 5-7 of larval zebrafish. First, we found that neurons within this central population project preferentially to motoneurons that move the eyes downward...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825965/effects-of-intermittent-fasting-and-chronic-swimming-exercise-on-body-composition-and-lipid-metabolism
#9
Ruan Carlos Macedo de Moraes, Guilherme Vannucchi Portari, Alex Soares Marreiros Ferraz, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira da Silva, Moacir Marocolo
Intermittent fasting protocol (IFP) has been suggested as a strategy to change body metabolism and improve health. The effects of IFP seem to be similar to aerobic exercise, having a hormetic adaptation according to intensity and frequency. However, the effects of combining both interventions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IFP with and without endurance-exercise training on body composition, food behavior, and lipid metabolism. Twenty-week-old Wistar rats were kept under an inverted circadian cycle of 12 h with water ad libitum and assigned to 4 different groups: control group (ad libitum feeding and sedentary), exercise group (ad libitum feeding and endurance training), intermittent fasting group (IF; intermittent fasting and sedentary), and intermittent fasting and exercise group (IFEX; intermittent fasting and endurance training)...
December 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542004/do-dynamic-fat-and-fat-free-mass-changes-follow-theoretical-driven-rules-in-athletes
#10
Analiza M Silva, Catarina N Matias, Diana A Santos, Paulo M Rocha, Cláudia S Minderico, Diana Thomas, Steven B Heymsfield, Luís B Sardinha
INTRODUCTION: Maximizing fat mass (FM) loss while preserving or increasing fat-free mass (FFM) is a central goal for athletic performance but the composition of body weight (BW) changes over time with training are largely unknown. PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze FM and FFM contributions to BW changes and to test if these contributions follow established rules and predictions over one athletic season. METHODS: Seventy athletes (42 men; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlon, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning to the competitive stage of the season and were empirically divided into those who lost (n = 20) or gained >1...
October 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488837/allometric-associations-between-body-size-shape-and-100-m-butterfly-speed-performance
#11
Senda Sammoud, Alan M Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Helmi Chaabene, Younés Hachana
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate the optimal body size, limb--segment length, and girth or breadth ratios associated with 100--m butterfly speed performance in swimmers. METHODS: One--hundred--sixty-seven swimmers as subjects (male: n=103; female: n=64). Anthropometric measurements comprised height, body--mass, skinfolds, arm-span, upper--limb--length, upper--arm, forearm, hand--lengths, lower--limb--length, thigh--length, leg--length, foot--length, arm--relaxed--girth, forearm--girth, wrist--girth, thigh--girth, calf--girth, ankle--girth, biacromial and biiliocristal--breadths...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487524/vertebral-bone-microarchitecture-and-osteocyte-characteristics-of-three-toothed-whale-species-with-varying-diving-behaviour
#12
Tim Rolvien, Michael Hahn, Ursula Siebert, Klaus Püschel, Hans-Joachim Wilke, Björn Busse, Michael Amling, Ralf Oheim
Although vertebral bone microarchitecture has been studied in various tetrapods, limited quantitative data are available on the structural and compositional changes of vertebrae in marine mammals. Whales exhibit exceptional swimming and diving behaviour, and they may not be immune to diving-associated bone pathologies. Lumbar vertebral bodies were analysed in three toothed whale species: the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), orca (Orcinus orca) and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) did not scale with body size, although the trabeculae were thicker, fewer in number and further apart in larger whale species than in the other two species...
May 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459347/characteristics-and-challenges-of-open-water-swimming-performance-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo, Maria Francesca Piacentini
CONTEXT: Although the popularity of open-water swimming (OWS) events has significantly increased in the last decades, specific studies regarding performance of elite or age-group athletes in these events are scarce. PURPOSE: To analyze the existing literature on OWS. METHODS: Relevant literature was located via computer-generated citations. During August 2016, online computer searches on PubMed and Scopus databases were conducted to locate published research...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423005/an-archosauromorph-dominated-ichnoassemblage-in-fluvial-settings-from-the-late-early-triassic-of-the-catalan-pyrenees-ne-iberian-peninsula
#14
Eudald Mujal, Josep Fortuny, Arnau Bolet, Oriol Oms, José Ángel López
The vertebrate recovery after the end-Permian mass extinction can be approached through the ichnological record, which is much more abundant than body fossils. The late Olenekian (Early Triassic) tetrapod ichnoassemblage of the Catalan Pyrenean Basin is the most complete and diverse of this age from Western Tethys. This extensional basin, composed of several depocenters, was formed in the latest phases of the Variscan orogeny (Pangea breakup) and was infilled by braided and meandering fluvial systems of the red-beds Buntsandstein facies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419963/acute-toxicity-and-anti-fatigue-activity-of-polysaccharide-rich-extract-from-corn-silk
#15
He-Peng Zhao, Yang Zhang, Zhuo Liu, Jiang-Yue Chen, Song-Yan Zhang, Xiu-Dong Yang, Hong-Li Zhou
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and potential of PCS as the anti-fatigue functional food. PCS was prepared by water extracting-alcohol precipitating method, and its chemical compositions of monosaccharide were analyzed. Then, acute toxicity and anti-fatigue activity of PCS were evaluated. PCS is composed of Rha, Arab, Xyl, Man, Glu, and Gal, its molar ratio is 0.17: 0.30: 0.26: 0.35: 1.00: 0.57. No mortality and general symptoms of toxicity were observed in the PCS treated mice (7.5, 15, and 20g/kg body weight), the body weight and food consumption were not significantly changed compared with the normal control group...
June 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303338/blood-glucose-kinetics-and-physiological-changes-in-a-type-1-diabetic-finisher-of-the-ultraman-triathlon-a-case-study
#16
Christopher W Bach, Daniel A Baur, William S Hyder, Michael J Ormsbee
PURPOSE: To investigate the blood glucose kinetics and physiological effects experienced by a type 1 diabetic (T1D) finisher of a 3-day, multi-stage ultra endurance triathlon consisting of a 10 km swim and 144.8 km bike (stage 1), a 275.4 km bike (stage 2), and an 84.4 km run (stage 3). METHODS: The athlete self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) levels via fingerstick blood draw and hand-held glucometer. Researchers evaluated blood glucose kinetics via a continuous glucose monitoring device...
May 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228583/food-responsiveness-regulates-episodic-behavioral-states-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Richard J McCloskey, Anthony D Fouad, Matthew A Churgin, Christopher Fang-Yen
Animals optimize survival and reproduction in part through control of behavioral states, which depend on an organism's internal and external environments. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans a variety of behavioral states have been described, including roaming, dwelling, quiescence, and episodic swimming. These states have been considered in isolation under varied experimental conditions, making it difficult to establish a unified picture of how they are regulated. Using long-term imaging, we examined C...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163267/cornu-cervi-pantotrichum-supplementation-improves-physiological-adaptions-during-intensive-endurance-training
#18
Wen-Ching Huang, Chi-Chang Huang, Hsiao-Li Chuang, Chien-Chao Chiu, Wen-Chyuan Chen, Mei-Chich Hsu
Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP), used in traditional Chinese medicine, is a well-known yang-invigorating agent with multifunctional bioactivities. We previously showed, through an acute exercise challenge, that short-term CCP supplementation improved physical activities and fatigue-associated biochemical indices. Questions about the long-term effects of CCP treatment on exercise performance and physical fatigue, as well as safety, with intensive exercise training need further research. ICR-strain mice were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (SC); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (ET); and (3) ET with CCP treatment at 4,108 mg/kg/day (ET+CCP)...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111151/control-of-movement-initiation-underlies-the-development-of-balance
#19
David E Ehrlich, David Schoppik
Balance arises from the interplay of external forces acting on the body and internally generated movements. Many animal bodies are inherently unstable, necessitating corrective locomotion to maintain stability. Understanding how developing animals come to balance remains a challenge. Here we study the interplay among environment, sensation, and action as balance develops in larval zebrafish. We first model the physical forces that challenge underwater balance and experimentally confirm that larvae are subject to constant destabilization...
February 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099477/chronic-maternal-low-protein-diet-in-mice-affects-anxiety-night-time-energy-expenditure-and-sleep-patterns-but-not-circadian-rhythm-in-male-offspring
#20
Randy F Crossland, Alfred Balasa, Rajesh Ramakrishnan, Sangeetha K Mahadevan, Marta L Fiorotto, Ignatia B Van den Veyver
Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP) diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure...
2017: PloS One
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