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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128806/emotional-disorders-induced-by-hemopressin-and-rvd-hemopressin-%C3%AE-administration-in-rats
#1
Sheila Leone, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Sara Martinotti, Claudio Ferrante, Adriano Mollica, Giorgia Macedonio, Azzurra Stefanucci, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Csaba Tömböly, Luciano De Petrocellis, Michele Vacca, Luigi Brunetti, Giustino Orlando
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays an important role in regulating emotional disorders, and is involved, directly or indirectly, in psychiatric diseases, such as anxiety and depression. Hemopressin, a hemoglobin α chain-derived peptide, and RVD-hemopressin(α), a N-terminally extended form of hemopressin, act as antagonist/inverse agonist and negative allosteric modulator of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor, respectively. METHODS: Considering the possible involvement of these peptides on emotional behaviour, the aim of our study was to investigate the behavioural effects of a single intraperitoneal (ip) injection of hemopressin (0...
June 23, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122949/the-effects-of-extended-crawling-on-the-physiology-and-swim-performance-of-loggerhead-and-green-sea-turtle-hatchlings
#2
Karen Pankaew, Sarah L Milton
Following emergence from the nest, sea turtle hatchling dispersal can be disrupted by artificial lights or skyglow from urban areas. Mis- or disorientation may increase exposure to predation, thermal stress, and dehydration, and consume valuable energy, thus decreasing the likelihood of survival. In this study hatchlings were run on a treadmill for 200m or 500m to investigate the physiological impacts of disorientation crawling on loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and green (Chelonia mydas) sea turtle hatchlings...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122314/blood-transcriptional-and-microrna-responses-to-short-term-exposure-to-disinfection-by-products-in-a-swimming-pool
#3
Almudena Espín-Pérez, Laia Font-Ribera, Karin van Veldhoven, Julian Krauskopf, Lutzen Portengen, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Roel Vermeulen, Joan O Grimalt, Cristina M Villanueva, Paolo Vineis, Manolis Kogevinas, Jos C Kleinjans, Theo M de Kok
BACKGROUND: Swimming in a chlorinated pool results in high exposure levels to disinfection by-products (DBPs), which have been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. OBJECTIVES: By studying molecular responses at the blood transcriptome level we examined the biological processes associated with exposure to these compounds. METHODS: Whole-genome gene expression and microRNA analysis was performed on blood samples collected from 43 volunteers before and 2h after 40min swimming in an indoor chlorinated pool (PISCINAII study)...
January 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120695/hypoxia-and-sprint-swimming-performance-of-juvenile-striped-bass-morone-saxatilis
#4
Krista Kraskura, Jay A Nelson
Annual hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay has expanded to the point where Darwinian fitness of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) may depend on their ability to perform in low-oxygen environments. The locomotion they use in predator/prey dynamics relies primarily on white (type II) muscle that is powered by anaerobic metabolic pathways and has generally been thought to be immune to aquatic hypoxia. We tested the sprint performance of 15 juvenile striped bass twice under acute hypoxia (20% air saturation [AS]) 5 wk apart and once under normoxia (>85% AS) in between...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118132/physical-trade-offs-shape-the-evolution-of-buoyancy-control-in-sharks
#5
Adrian C Gleiss, Jean Potvin, Jeremy A Goldbogen
Buoyancy control is a fundamental aspect of aquatic life that has major implications for locomotor performance and ecological niche. Unlike terrestrial animals, the densities of aquatic animals are similar to the supporting fluid, thus even small changes in body density may have profound effects on locomotion. Here, we analysed the body composition (lipid versus lean tissue) of 32 shark species to study the evolution of buoyancy. Our comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that although lean tissue displays minor positive allometry, liver volume exhibits pronounced positive allometry, suggesting that larger sharks evolved bulkier body compositions by adding lipid tissue to lean tissue rather than substituting lean for lipid tissue, particularly in the liver...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108561/thermal-performance-curves-under-daily-thermal-fluctuation-a-study-in-helmeted-water-toad-tadpoles
#6
José L Bartheld, Paulina Artacho, Leonardo Bacigalupe
Most research in physiological ecology has focused on the effects of mean changes in temperature under the classic "hot vs cold" acclimation treatment; however, current evidence suggests that an increment in both the mean and variance of temperature could act synergistically to amplify the negative effects of global temperature increase and how it would affect fitness and performance-related traits in ectothermic organisms. We assessed the effects of acclimation to daily variance of temperature on thermal performance curves of swimming speed in helmeted water toad tadpoles (Calyptocephalella gayi)...
December 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108503/stress-during-development-of-experimental-endometriosis-influences-nerve-growth-and-disease-progression
#7
Marielly Cuevas, Myrella L Cruz, Antonio E Ramirez, Idhaliz Flores, Kenira J Thompson, Manuel Bayona, Michael W Vernon, Caroline B Appleyard
PURPOSE: We have previously shown that stress prior to induction worsens clinical presentation and inflammatory parameters in a rat model of endometriosis. This study was designed to examine whether stress during the development of endometriosis can affect the growth of endometriotic implants through nerve growth and immune alterations. METHODS: Endometriosis was surgically induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats by suturing uterine horn implants onto the small intestine mesentery...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108018/swimming-championship-finalist-positions-on-success-in-international-swimming-competitions
#8
I Yustres, R Martín, L Fernández, J M González-Ravé
The primary goal was to determine whether the achievement of finalist positions in the Junior Championship was associated with the achievement of success in the International Swimming Federation (FINA) World Championship (WC). Secondary goals included analyzing the effect of various factors (gender, age, country, etc) on swimmers' performances. Data were obtained from FINA information about the finalists from 2007 to 2015 WCs and finalists from 2006 to 2013 Junior-WCs (2400 entries). Final filtered database just included swimmers who participated in both junior and senior WCs (719 entries)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107199/kindling-epileptogenesis-and-panic-like-behavior-their-bidirectional-connection-and-contribution-to-epilepsy-associated-depression
#9
Jesús-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
Anxiety is one of the most common comorbidities of epilepsy, which has major detrimental effects on the quality of life. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) associated with epilepsy has been receiving most attention. However, several other forms of anxiety reportedly present in patients with epilepsy, including panic disorder (PD). In this study, using an animal model of limbic epilepsy, we examined the interplay between epilepsy and panic-like behavior (PLB). Further, considering the high degree of comorbidity between depression on the one hand, and both epilepsy and PD on the other hand, we studied whether and how the presence of PLB in animals with epilepsy would affect their performance in depression-relevant tests...
October 26, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104465/effect-of-coriolus-versicolor-mycelia-extract-on-exercise-performance-and-physical-fatigue-in-mice
#10
Chun-Sheng Ho, Yu-Tang Tung, Woon-Man Kung, Wen-Ching Huang, Wing-Ki Leung, Chi-Chang Huang, Jyh-Horng Wu
In this study, Coriolus versicolor mycelia (CVM) was evaluated the ergogenic and anti-fatigue activities. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups (n = 8/group) to receive vehicle or CVM by oral gavage for 4 weeks at 0, 615, 1230 or 3075 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CVM-1X, CVM-2X and CVM-5X groups. Forelimb grip strength, endurance swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-associated parameters serum lactate, ammonia, glucose and creatine kinase (CK) after physical challenge were performed to evaluate exercise performance and anti-fatigue activity...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102461/effect-of-swarna-jibanti-coelogyne-cristata-lindley-in-alleviation-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-in-aged-wistar-rats
#11
Achintya Mitra, Tapas Kumar Sur, Sachhidananda Upadhyay, Dipankar Bhattacharyya, Jayram Hazra
BACKGROUND: Swarna Jibanti scientifically known as Coelogyne cristata Lindley (Orchidaceae), an orchid mentioned in Ayurvedic medicine is used to promote healthy life span. OBJECTIVE: The present work was planned to study the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extract of pseudobulbs of C.cristata (CCE) to assess its role on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) induced behavioural and biochemical changes in aged Wistar rats compared to Panax ginseng (PG), a prototype anti-stress agent...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101685/short-term-feed-and-light-deprivation-reduces-voluntary-activity-but-improves-swimming-performance-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#12
J R Khan, C C Lazado, C Methling, P V Skov
Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (~ 180 g, 16 °C and < 5 kg m(-3)) that were feed deprived and kept in total darkness showed a significant increase in critical swimming speed (U crit) between 1 and 12 days of deprivation (from 3.35 to 4.46 body length (BL) s(-1)) with no increase in maximum metabolic rate (MMR). They also showed a significant decrease in the estimated metabolic rate at 0 BL s(-1) over 12 days which leads to a higher factorial aerobic metabolic scope at day 12 (9.38) compared to day 1 (6...
November 3, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101602/garcinia-mangostana-linn-displays-antidepressant-like-and-pro-cognitive-effects-in-a-genetic-animal-model-of-depression-a-bio-behavioral-study-in-the-flinders-sensitive-line-rat
#13
Inge Oberholzer, Marisa Möller, Brendan Holland, Olivia M Dean, Michael Berk, Brian H Harvey
There is abundant evidence for both disorganized redox balance and cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD). Garcinia mangostana Linn (GM) has anti-oxidant activity. We studied the antidepressant-like and pro-cognitive effects of raw GM rind in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic model of depression, following acute and chronic treatment compared to a reference antidepressant, imipramine (IMI). The chemical composition of the GM extract was analysed for levels of α- and γ-mangostin...
November 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098684/comparative-hindlimb-myology-of-foot-propelled-swimming-birds
#14
Glenna T Clifton, Jennifer A Carr, Andrew A Biewener
Several groups of birds have convergently evolved the ability to swim using their feet despite facing trade-offs with walking. However, swimming relative to terrestrial performance varies across these groups. Highly specialized divers, such as loons and grebes, excel at swimming underwater but struggle to stand on land, whereas species that primarily swim on the water surface, such as Mallards, retain the ability to move terrestrially. The identification of skeletal features associated with a swimming style and conserved across independent groups suggests that the hindlimb of foot-propelled swimming birds has adapted to suit the physical challenges of producing propulsive forces underwater...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096975/plastic-debris-collars-an-underreported-stressor-in-tropical-reef-fishes
#15
Joséde Anchieta C C Nunes, Cláudio L S Sampaio, Francisco Barros, Antoine O H C Leduc
Plastic debris collar wrappings (PDCW) are involved in the frequent entanglement of several groups of marine animals. In fishes, however aside from 'ghost fishing', PDCW events are rarely documented, and no record of this occurrence exists in tropical reef fishes. Here, we present records for four species afflicted by plastic debris collars. Observations occurred during snorkeling, and included the silver mojarra Eucinostomus argenteus, Atlantic thread herring Ophistonema oglinum, tomtate grunt Haemulon aurolineatum and gray parrotfish Sparisoma axillare...
October 30, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091526/hericium-erinaceus-extract-reduces-anxiety-and-depressive-behaviors-by-promoting-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-mouse-brain
#16
Sun Ryu, Hyoun Geun Kim, Joo Youn Kim, Seong Yun Kim, Kyung-Ok Cho
Versatile biological activities of Hericium erinaceus (HE) have been reported in many brain diseases. However, roles of HE in major psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety remain to be investigated. Therefore, we evaluated whether HE could reduce anxiety and depressive behaviors in the adult mouse and its underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered HE (20 or 60 mg/kg, p.o.) or saline once a day for 4 weeks. Open field and tail suspension tests were performed 30 min after the last administration of HE, followed by forced swim test 2 days later...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089020/transcriptomic-study-of-salmonella-enterica-subspecies-enterica-serovar-typhi-biofilm
#17
Khee Chian Jason Chin, Todd Duane Taylor, Maxime Hebrard, Kogaan Anbalagan, Marjan Ganjali Dashti, Kia Kien Phua
BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever is an acute systemic infection of humans caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). In chronic carriers, the bacteria survive the harsh environment of the gallbladder by producing biofilm. The phenotype of S. Typhi biofilm cells is significantly different from the free-swimming planktonic cells, and studies have shown that they are associated with antibiotic resistance, immune system evasion, and bacterial persistence. However, the mechanism of this transition and the events leading to biofilm formation are unknown...
October 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083008/energy-efficiency-of-mobile-soft-robots
#18
Langquan Shui, Liangliang Zhu, Zhe Yang, Yilun Liu, Xi Chen
The performance of mobile soft robots is usually characterized by their locomotion/velocity efficiency, whereas the energy efficiency is a more intrinsic and fundamental criterion for the performance evaluation of independent or integrated soft robots. In this work, a general framework is established to evaluate the energy efficiency of mobile soft robots by considering the efficiency of the energy source, actuator and locomotion, and some insights for improving the efficiency of soft robotic systems are presented...
November 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079453/the-effect-of-paddles-on-pressure-and-force-generation-at-the-hand-during-front-crawl
#19
Takaaki Tsunokawa, Tempei Tsuno, Hirotoshi Mankyu, Hideki Takagi, Futoshi Ogita
Through pressure measurement, this study aimed to clarify the effects of hand paddle use on pressure and force generation around the hand during the front crawl. Eight male swimmers performed two trials of front crawl swimming with maximal effort, once using only their hands and once aided by hand paddles. During trials, pressure sensors and underwater motion capture cameras were used together to analyze hand kinematics and pressure forces acting on the hand. Six pressure sensors were attached to the right hand, and pressure forces acting on the right hand were estimated by multiplying the areas and the pressure differences between the palm side and dorsal side of the hand...
October 24, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075479/field-swimming-performance-of-bluegill-sunfish-lepomis-macrochirus-implications-for-field-activity-cost-estimates-and-laboratory-measures-of-swimming-performance
#20
Kelsey Cathcart, Seo Yim Shin, Joanna Milton, David Ellerby
Mobility is essential to the fitness of many animals, and the costs of locomotion can dominate daily energy budgets. Locomotor costs are determined by the physiological demands of sustaining mechanical performance, yet performance is poorly understood for most animals in the field, particularly aquatic organisms. We have used 3-D underwater videography to quantify the swimming trajectories and propulsive modes of bluegills sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus, Rafinesque) in the field with high spatial (1-3 mm per pixel) and temporal (60 Hz frame rate) resolution...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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