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Swim performance

Muaz Belviranli, Nilsel Okudan, Nuran Karakuyu
The objective of this investigation was to compare irisin concentration and its relation with oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes and element levels in both male adolescent swimmers and sedentary controls. Twelve male swimmers aged between 11 and 18 years, who performed regular swimming training for at least 2 years and 12 age- and gender-matched sedentary controls participated in this study. After anthropometric measurements were performed, fasting venous blood samples were taken at rest. Irisin, malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress, superoxide dismutase (SOD) as a marker of antioxidant enzyme and elements (Zn, Cu, Se, Cr, Ni, Al, Fe) were analyzed in these samples...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Senda Sammoud, Alan Michael Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Helmi Chaabene, Younés Hachana
This study aimed to estimate the optimal body size, limb segment length, and girth or breadth ratios of 100-m breaststroke performance in youth swimmers. In total, 59 swimmers [male: n = 39, age = 11.5 (1.3) y; female: n = 20, age = 12.0 (1.0) y] participated in this study. To identify size/shape characteristics associated with 100-m breaststroke swimming performance, we computed a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. Results showed that the 100-m breaststroke performance revealed a significant negative association with fat mass and a significant positive association with the segment length ratio (arm ratio = hand length/forearm length) and limb girth ratio (girth ratio = forearm girth/wrist girth)...
March 16, 2018: Pediatric Exercise Science
Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Madalina Andreea Robea, Gabriel Plavan, Elena Todirascu-Ciornea, Alin Ciobica, Mircea Nicoara
Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing new evidence about the toxicological effects of the pollutants upon the life forms. Behavioural abnormalities in the swimming performance and cognitive processes were well associated with the response of organisms to pollutants from environment. The aim of the paper was to study the behavioural changes of zebrafish (memory, swimming performances and aggression) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde) during 32 h of acute exposure with methylmercury (II) chloride to measure its neurotoxicity effects upon fish community...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Yun Tang, Zhen-Yuan Zhu, Li-Chao Pan, Huiqing Sun, Qiao-Ying Song, Yongmin Zhang
A polysaccharide was obtained from Lepidium meyenii Walp by hot water extraction and purification by Millipore (100 kD) and Sephadex G-200. The content of polysaccharide was examined to be 89.9% with phenol-sulfuric acid method. Its average molecular weight was estimated to be 2.213 × 106  Da by High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography (HPGPC). Monosaccharide analysis showed that the polysaccharide was composed of arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose with the molar ratio of 2.134: 1: 2.78: 2...
March 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
Michael D Kennedy, Jessie M S Gill, Alastair N H Hodges
Background: Diagnosing Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) requires bronchial provocation tests that are performed at rest and after exercise or hyperventilation in either a lab or field setting. Presently, it is unclear whether the proposed AHR field test for swimming induces sufficient provocation due to lack of intensity. Thus we aimed to examine how the 8 minute field swim test compared to all out racing and a lower intensity practice exposure affected AHR. We hypothesized that the race would affect AHR the most thereby highlighting the importance of maximal effort in swim AHR...
June 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Simone de Campos Neitzke Winter, Rafael Michel de Macedo, Júlio Cesar Francisco, Paula Costa Santos, Ana Paula Sarraff Lopes, Leanderson Franco de Meira, Katherine A Teixeira de Carvalho, José Rocha Faria Neto, Ana Carolina Brandt de Macedo, Luiz César Guarita-Souza
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise should be part of the treatment of post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of two training prescription models (continuous x interval) and its impact on ventricular function in rats after AMI with normal ventricular function. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were evaluated by echocardiography 21 days after the AMI. Those with LVEF = 50% (n = 29) were included in the study and randomized to control group (CG n = 10), continuous training group (CTG n = 9) or interval training group (ITG, n = 10)...
March 12, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Chi-Hyeon Yoo, Song-I Lim, Kyu-Ho Song, Dong-Cheol Woo, Bo-Young Choe
Although recent investigations of major depressive disorder (MDD) have focused on the monoaminergic system, accumulating evidences suggest that alternative pathophysiological models of MDD and treatment options for patients with MDD are needed. Animals subjected to chronic forced swim stress (CFSS) develop behavioral despair. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of CFSS on systems other than the monoamine system in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) with 7T and short-echo-time (16.3 ms) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS)...
March 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
João Cavaleiro Rufo, Inês Paciência, Diana Silva, Carla Martins, Joana Madureira, Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes, Patrícia Padrão, Pedro Moreira, Luís Delgado, André Moreira
BACKGROUND: Endurance swimming exercises coupled to disinfection by-products exposure has been associated with increased airways dysfunction and neurogenic inflammation in elite swimmers. However, the impact of swimming pool exposure at a recreational level on autonomic activity has never been explored. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate how swimming pool attendance is influencing lung and autonomic function in school-aged children. METHODS: A total of 858 children enrolled a cross sectional survey...
2018: PloS One
Ryan M Hulteen, Philip J Morgan, Lisa M Barnett, David F Stodden, David R Lubans
Evidence supports a positive association between competence in fundamental movement skills (e.g., kicking, jumping) and physical activity in young people. Whilst important, fundamental movement skills do not reflect the broad diversity of skills utilized in physical activity pursuits across the lifespan. Debate surrounds the question of what are the most salient skills to be learned which facilitate physical activity participation across the lifespan. In this paper, it is proposed that the term 'fundamental movement skills' be replaced with 'foundational movement skills'...
March 9, 2018: Sports Medicine
Joanna Rosińczuk, Robert Dymarek, Ireneusz Całkosiński
BACKGROUND: Dioxins contribute to neurological disorders in humans and animals, causing also neurological disorders in offspring during prenatal and postnatal periods. These compounds significantly affect the development of the central nervous system (CNS) structures, which results in behavioral changes. Tocopherol (TCP) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) may provide protective measures to reduce the inflammatory effects in the CNS associated with free radicals generated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), thus contributing to the reduction of the negative effects of dioxin...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
María Laura Ponssa, Jéssica Fratani, Virginia Abdala
Anurans are characterized by their saltatory mode of locomotion, which is associated with a specific morphology. The coordinated action of the muscles and bones of the pelvic girdle is key to the transmission of the force of the hindlimbs to the axial skeleton during jumping. Two features are critical for optimal locomotory performance: the cross-sectional area of muscle and the bone crest attachment sites. The first character is a proxy of the force exerted by the muscle, whereas the crests are muscle attachments sites related to muscle force...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Nicholas L Payne, Carl G Meyer, James A Smith, Jonathan D R Houghton, Adam Barnett, Bonnie J Holmes, Itsumi Nakamura, Yannis P Papastamatiou, Mark A Royer, Daniel M Coffey, James M Anderson, Melanie R Hutchinson, Katsufumi Sato, Lewis G Halsey
The redistribution of species has emerged as one of the most pervasive impacts of anthropogenic climate warming, and presents many societal challenges. Understanding how temperature regulates species distributions is particularly important for mobile marine fauna such as sharks given their seemingly rapid responses to warming, and the socio-political implications of human encounters with some dangerous species. The predictability of species distributions can potentially be improved by accounting for temperature's influence on performance, an elusive relationship for most large animals...
March 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
Thomas R Neil, Graham N Askew
The chambered nautilus ( Nautilus pompilius ) encounters severe environmental hypoxia during diurnal vertical movements in the ocean. The metabolic cost of locomotion ( C met ) and swimming performance depend on how efficiently momentum is imparted to the water and how long on-board oxygen stores last. While propulsive efficiency is generally thought to be relatively low in jet propelled animals, the low C met in Nautilus indicates that this is not the case. We measured the wake structure in Nautilus during jet propulsion swimming, to determine their propulsive efficiency...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Roberto Guidotti, Raffaele Sinibaldi, Cinzia De Luca, Allegra Conti, Risto J Ilmoniemi, Koos C J Zevenhoven, Per E Magnelind, Vittorio Pizzella, Cosimo Del Gratta, Gian Luca Romani, Stefania Della Penna
The prototypes of ultra-low-field (ULF) MRI scanners developed in recent years represent new, innovative, cost-effective and safer systems, which are suitable to be integrated in multi-modal (Magnetoencephalography and MRI) devices. Integrated ULF-MRI and MEG scanners could represent an ideal solution to obtain functional (MEG) and anatomical (ULF MRI) information in the same environment, without errors that may limit source reconstruction accuracy. However, the low resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ULF images, as well as their limited coverage, do not generally allow for the construction of an accurate individual volume conductor model suitable for MEG localization...
2018: PloS One
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Caio Victor Sousa, Beat Knechtle
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of wearing a wetsuit with sex, age group, nationality, calendar year, and performance in crossing the "Strait of Gibraltar"(14.3 km). Materials and methods: A sample of 1,130 open-water (females, n=180, age 35.9±11.9 years; males, n=950, age 40.0±10.2 years) ultra-distance swimmers crossing the "Strait of Gibraltar" since 1950 was analyzed. Results: Male, older, and Spanish swimmers used wetsuits more often than female, younger, and athletes of other nationalities, respectively, and the use of the wetsuit has increased during the past three decades...
2018: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Xiao Sun, Xin-Yue Jiao, Jing Li, Li Xu
The molecularly imprinted polymer using 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone as the template (DHBP-MIP) was synthesized via sacrificial support method. The DHBP-MIP was demonstrated to possess good adsorption capacity and selectivity towards benzophenones. Moreover, a miniaturized sorbent phase-based extraction device in the form of syringe filter holder using DHBP-MIP as the sorbent was proposed, and named as μ-SPE-SFH-MIP device. The μ-SPE-SFH-MIP device consisted of a reusable syringe filter holder, flexible amount of sorbent and a sub-microporous membrane, which could be conveniently connected to different driving forces, like syringe pump, solid-phase extraction device and peristaltic pump...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ya-Bo Feng, You-Ting Lin, Yu-Xiang Han, Yue-Jiu Pang, Jing-Jing Xu, Yuan Xue, Hong Yao
This study aimed to study the protective effect of (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (2R,4R-APDC), a selective metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, against hippocampal neuronal apoptosis induced by seizures in a rat model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. The Morris water maze test was used to assess the spatial memory abilities of epileptic rats with or without 2R,4R-APDC treatment. TUNEL assay was performed to examine neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus. Western blot was conducted to evaluate changes in the levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in hippocampus...
March 1, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Qixuan Wang, Hans G Othmer
Recent research has shown that motile cells can adapt their mode of propulsion depending on the environment in which they find themselves. One mode is swimming by blebbing or other shape changes, and in this paper we analyze a class of models for movement of cells by blebbing and of nano-robots in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. At the level of individuals, the shape changes comprise volume exchanges between connected spheres that can control their separation, which are simple enough that significant analytical results can be obtained...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
D F Campos, A L Val, V M F Almeida-Val
The metabolism of fishes is profoundly affected by environmental factors such as temperature, oxygen concentration, and pH levels. Also, biotic elements, for instance, activity levels of species, have been suggested to affect the energy demand, driving their capacity to support environmental challenges. The present work aims to investigate the effects of the lifestyle and swimming activities levels of fishes living in Amazon forest stream on the aerobic metabolism and thermal tolerance. Intermittent flow respirometry was used to measure routine metabolic rate and thermal maximum metabolic rate with a thermal ramp methodology...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Lorena Parra, Sandra Sendra, Laura García, Jaime Lloret
The monitoring of farming processes can optimize the use of resources and improve its sustainability and profitability. In fish farms, the water quality, tank environment, and fish behavior must be monitored. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a promising option to perform this monitoring. Nevertheless, its high cost is slowing the expansion of its use. In this paper, we propose a set of sensors for monitoring the water quality and fish behavior in aquaculture tanks during the feeding process. The WSN is based on physical sensors, composed of simple electronic components...
March 1, 2018: Sensors
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