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Nidhi Rawat, Michael O Pumphrey, Sixin Liu, Xiaofei Zhang, Vijay K Tiwari, Kaori Ando, Harold N Trick, William W Bockus, Eduard Akhunov, James A Anderson, Bikram S Gill
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that leads to reduced yield and mycotoxin contamination of grain, making it unfit for human consumption. FHB is a global problem, with outbreaks in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and South America. In the United States alone, total direct and secondary economic losses from 1993 to 2001 owing to FHB were estimated at $7.67 billion. Fhb1 is the most consistently reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FHB resistance breeding...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
Alexander J Sweidan, Navneet K Singh, Natasha Dang, Vinh Lam, Jyoti Datta
INTRODUCTION: Amiodarone is often used in the suppression of tachyarrhythmias. One of the more serious adverse effects includes amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT). Several pulmonary diseases can manifest including interstitial pneumonitis, organizing pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, pulmonary nodules or masses, and pleural effusion. Incidence of APT varies from 5-15% and is correlated to dosage, age of the patient, and preexisting lung disease...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
Toshihiko Akiba, Shiro Okumura
Parasporins are novel protein toxins preferentially cytotoxic against human cancer cells. They are obtained from parasporal inclusions of Bacillus thuringiensis and, accordingly, are considered congeners of the insecticidal Cry toxins. Two types of parasporins have been identified: the three-domain Cry toxin type and the β-pore-forming-toxin (β-PFT) type. Crystal structures of representative members of the two types, PS1Aa1 and PS2Aa1, have been determined and compared with those of well-studied toxins. PS1Aa1 has a typical architecture characteristic of the three-domain insecticidal Cry toxins, though it is cleaved into two polypeptides...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Eui Jin Lee, Jae Pil Han, Seung Eun Jung, Min Hee Choi, Doo Kyung Moon
In this study, we fabricated conventional structured organic solar cells (OSCs) by introducing a hole extraction layer (HEL) that consisted of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and conjugated polymer electrolyte (CPE) poly[9,9-bis(4'-sulfonatobutyl)fluorene-alt-thiophene] (PFT-D). PFT-D has a -SO3(-) functional group that acts as a conjugate base against the -SO3H of PSS. In addition, the molecular dipole of PFT-D can screen the coulombic attraction between PEDOT chains and PSS chains...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Pascal Kingah, Muhammad Alam, Karan Chugh, John Kamholz, Lobelia Samavati
BACKGROUND: Neurosarcoidosis is a serious extra pulmonary manifestation of sarcoidosis. Its presentation ranges from peripheral or cranial neuropathy to central nervous system dysfunction. It can mimic stroke or multiple sclerosis. Due to the variation in clinical presentation, diagnosis is difficult and often delayed. OBJECTIVE: Determine the proportion of patients with neurosarcoidosis who have positive findings on chest CT, lung biopsy or lymph node biopsy. METHODS: Retrospective study at the Sarcoidosis and Interstitial Lung Disease Center at Wayne State University-Detroit Medical Center in Detroit, MI...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Robert E Kelly, Robert J Obermeyer, Donald Nuss
BACKGROUND: Recently, technical improvement in the ability to measure lung function and the severity of chest deformity have enabled progress in understanding the mechanism of limitations of lung function in pectus excavatum. METHODS: After establishing that most patients with pectus excavatum do have symptoms of exercise intolerance, easy fatigability, and shortness of breath with exertion, lung function has been evaluated by a variety of methods in different centers...
September 2016: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Masashi Mikamo, Tomoyuki Fujisawa, Yoshiyuki Oyama, Masato Kono, Noriyuki Enomoto, Yutaro Nakamura, Naoki Inui, Hiromitsu Sumikawa, Takeshi Johkoh, Takafumi Suda
PURPOSE: Small airway disease (SAWD) in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is often assessed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, frequent HRCT examinations result in a high level of radiographic exposure. This study investigated the utility of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) to evaluate SAWD in patients with ILD. METHODS: Broadband FOT using a commercially available device (MostGraph-01) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed in 90 patients with ILD...
October 12, 2016: Lung
Tahreema N Matin, Najib Rahman, Annabel H Nickol, Mitchell Chen, Xiaojun Xu, Neil J Stewart, Tom Doel, Vicente Grau, James M Wild, Fergus V Gleeson
Purpose To compare lobar ventilation and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values obtained with hyperpolarized xenon 129 ((129)Xe) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to quantitative computed tomography (CT) metrics on a lobar basis and pulmonary function test (PFT) results on a whole-lung basis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods The study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee; written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Twenty-two patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage II-IV) underwent hyperpolarized (129)Xe MR imaging at 1...
October 12, 2016: Radiology
Julie Obert, Olivia Freynet, Hilario Nunes, Pierre-Yves Brillet, Makoto Miyara, Robin Dhote, Dominique Valeyre, Jean-Marc Naccache
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common form of extramuscular involvement in patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis and is associated with poor prognosis. This study was designed to describe the long-term outcome of myositis-associated ILD. This retrospective observational study was conducted in 48 consecutive patients. Two groups defined according to outcome were compared to determine prognostic factors: a "severe" group (vital capacity [VC] < 50 % or carbon monoxide transfer factor [TLCO] < 35 % or death or lung transplantation) and a "nonsevere" group (other patients)...
October 8, 2016: Rheumatology International
Huanhuan Jin, Naqi Lian, Feng Zhang, Mianli Bian, Xingran Chen, Chenxi Zhang, Yan Jia, Chunfeng Lu, Meng Hao, Shunyu Yao, Jiangjuan Shao, Li Wu, Anping Chen, Shizhong Zheng
Accumulating evidence indicates that hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the central mediators and major effectors in the development of hepatic fibrosis. It is well-known that regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis are potential strategies to block the activation of HSCs. Recently, several studies have revealed that induction of HSC senescence could prevent and cure the liver fibrosis. In our previous work, we have demonstrated that the natural product tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) could inhibit the activation of HSCs and ameliorate hepatic fibrosis...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Feng-Jia Chen, Xin-Yan Huang, Yang-Li Liu, Geng-Peng Lin, Can-Mao Xie
BACKGROUND: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is an easy, sensitive, reproducible, and noninvasive marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. Accordingly, FeNO is extensively used to diagnose and manage asthma. Patients with COPD who share some of the features of asthma have a condition called asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). The feasibility of using FeNO to differentiate ACOS patients from asthma and COPD patients remains unclear. METHODS: From February 2013 to May 2016, patients suspected with asthma and COPD through physician's opinion were subjected to FeNO measurement, pulmonary function test (PFT), and bronchial hyperresponsiveness or bronchodilator test...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Suparaporn Wangkaew, Juntima Euathrongchit, Pittaporn Wattanawittawas, Nuntana Kasitanon
BACKGROUND: The correlation of changes (delta: Δ) of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score with the Δ of other clinical variables has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of Δ HRCT score with Δ percent predicted forced vital capacity (%pFVC), Δ modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS), Δ erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and Δ percent of oxygen saturation at room air (%SpO2) in patients with early systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: We used an inception cohort of early-SSc patients seen at the Rheumatology Clinic, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, between January 2010 and June 2014...
August 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Caterina Trevisan, A Vianello, N Veronese, S Carraro, S Pizzato, P Lucato, G Girotti, C Rinaldo, A Coin, E Manzato, G Sergi
PURPOSE: As studies examining the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and airflow limitation (AL) have produced conflicting results, the current one set out to analyze if and to what degree there are any correlations between these variables in a population of fit elderly women. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one non-smoking, fit and healthy women (age ≥ 65 years) underwent anthropometric assessment, laboratory testing (serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, parathormone, and cytokine levels), pulmonary function testing (PFT), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to evaluate BMD values of the lumbar and femoral regions...
October 3, 2016: Lung
Pradeep Sathyanarayana, Rajat Desikan, K Ganapathy Ayappa, Sandhya S Visweswariah
Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) bind to cell membranes and form nanoscale pores that allow leakage of cellular components, resulting in cell death. The water-soluble, monomeric form of these toxins shows a dramatic conformational change during pore formation, as exemplified by crystal structures of the monomer and functional pore of cytolysin A (ClyA). The solvent-exposed, C-terminal residues of the protein are essential for activity, but the mechanism by which this region regulates pore formation remains unknown...
October 13, 2016: Biochemistry
Ahuva Grubstein, Osnat Shtraichman, Elizabeth Fireman, Gil N Bachar, Noa Noach-Ophir, Mordechai R Kramer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the computed tomography (CT) findings and correlate pulmonary function tests (PFTs) of silicosis patients with emphasis on the findings in lung transplantation (LTX) recipients. METHODS: We studied the chest CT scans from 82 marble workers exposed to artificial stone dust and who had a diagnosis of silicosis, of whom 13 patients underwent LTX. Silicosis-associated findings were graded and correlated to concomitant PFT...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Ryan R Kroll, J Gordon Boyd, David M Maslove
BACKGROUND: As the sensing capabilities of wearable devices improve, there is increasing interest in their application in medical settings. Capabilities such as heart rate monitoring may be useful in hospitalized patients as a means of enhancing routine monitoring or as part of an early warning system to detect clinical deterioration. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of heart rate monitoring by a personal fitness tracker (PFT) among hospital inpatients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of 50 stable patients in the intensive care unit who each completed 24 hours of heart rate monitoring using a wrist-worn PFT...
2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Joanna Wojsiat, Katarzyna Laskowska-Kaszub, Carolina Alquézar, Emilia Białopiotrowicz, Noemi Esteras, Mykola Zdioruk, Angeles Martin-Requero, Urszula Wojda
Familial (FAD) and sporadic (SAD) Alzheimer's disease do not share all pathomechanisms, but knowledge on their molecular differences is limited. We previously reported that cell cycle control distinguishes lymphocytes from SAD and FAD patients. Significant differences were found in p21 levels of SAD compared to FAD lymphocytes. Since p21 can also regulate apoptosis, the aim of this study was to compare the response of FAD and SAD lymphocytes to oxidative stress like 2-deoxy-D-ribose (2dRib) treatment and to investigate the role of p21 levels in this response...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Yu Wen, Song Kai, Zhang Yong-Gang, Zheng Guo-Quan, Dong Tian-Xiang
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. OBJECTIVES: We determined values for the volume of right lung (Vr), left lung (Vl), total lung volume (Vt), and left/right lung volume ratio (Vl/Vr), allowing comparison between those data measured and those of age-matched controls. To find whether lung volume correlates with preoperative pulmonary function. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: To our knowledge, no study on relationship between computed tomographic (CT) scans determined lung volume and pulmonary function test (PFT) in scoliosis have been published...
October 2016: Clinical Spine Surgery
Hamid Marefati, Exir Vizvari, Mahdi Esmaeilizadeh, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
Exercise-induced asthma is seen following vigorous or prolonged exercise or physical exertion. It has been suggested that climatic conditions have an influence on exercise-induced asthma. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of two climatic conditions on exercise-induced deterioration of pulmonary function tests in 10-12 year old students. Two hundred and fifty six students were randomly chosen from two cities namely Kerman and Gorgan (128 subjects in each who were equally from both cities) including 62 girls and 66 boys of 10-12 years old...
July 2016: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Lauren M Haack, Miguel Villodas, Keith McBurnett, Stephen Hinshaw, Linda J Pfiffner
We investigated whether parenting and child behavior improve following psychosocial treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-I) and whether parenting improvements mediate child outcomes. We analyzed data from a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills, CLAS, n = 74) in comparison to Parent-Focused Treatment (PFT, n = 74) and treatment as usual (TAU, n = 51) for youth with ADHD-I (average child age = 8...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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