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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427555/impact-of-cavity-and-infiltration-on-pulmonary-function-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-complex-disease-a-3-dimensional-computed-tomographic-analysis
#1
Takanori Asakura, Yoshitake Yamada, Ho Namkoong, Shoji Suzuki, Yuki Niijima, Hirofumi Kamata, Yohei Funatsu, Kazuma Yagi, Satoshi Okamori, Hiroaki Sugiura, Makoto Ishii, Masahiro Jinzaki, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Naoki Hasegawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (pMAC) disease manifests as various types of lesions, such as infiltrates, nodules, cavities, and bronchiectasis. However, the important determinants for clinical parameters in lung involvement are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to obtain quantitative parameters by 3-dimensional CT, and investigate the relationship between these parameters and the pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and health-related quality of life...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427553/familial-pulmonary-fibrosis-clinical-and-radiological-characteristics-and-progression-analysis-in-different-high-resolution-ct-patterns
#2
David Bennett, Maria Antonietta Mazzei, Nevada Cioffi Squitieri, Elena Bargagli, Rosa Metella Refini, Antonella Fossi, Luca Volterrani, Paola Rottoli
BACKGROUND: Familial pulmonary fibrosis (FPF) is defined as an idiopathic diffuse parenchymal lung disease affecting two or more members of the same primary biological family. The aim of the present study was to contribute to the clinical, functional and radiological characterisation of FPF with particular regards to disease progression and survival. METHODS: Baseline clinical, functional and radiological data of a FPF population (n = 46 patients) were retrospectively collected and analysed according to the 2011 IPF guidelines HRCT classification...
May 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427470/pulmonary-hypertension-in-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-prevalence-severity-and-the-role-of-carbon-monoxide-diffusion-capacity-as-a-screening-method
#3
Carolina S G Freitas, Bruno G Baldi, Carlos Jardim, Mariana S Araujo, Juliana Barbosa Sobral, Gláucia I Heiden, Ronaldo A Kairalla, Rogério Souza, Carlos R R Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is included within group 5 of the current PH classification (unclear multifactorial mechanisms). However, data regarding the occurrence of PH in LAM are scarce. The aims of the study were to describe the prevalence and characteristics of PH in a large cohort of LAM patients with different levels of severity, and to evaluate the role of echocardiography and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) as screening methods for PH in LAM. METHODS: One hundred five LAM patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and 6-min walk test (6MWT)...
April 20, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426895/short-term-pulmonary-function-trends-are-predictive-of-mortality-in-interstitial-lung-disease-associated-with-systemic-sclerosis
#4
Nicole S Goh, Rachel K Hoyles, Christopher P Denton, David M Hansell, Elisabetta A Renzoni, Toby M Maher, Andrew G Nicholson, Athol U Wells
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic value of pulmonary function test (PFT) trends at one and two years in interstitial lung disease associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD). METHODS: The prognostic significance of PFT trends at one year (n=162), and two years (n=140) was examined against 15 year survival. PFT trends, expressed as continuous and categorical change in separate analyses, were examined against mortality in univariate and multivariate models. SSc-ILD was defined at presentation as limited lung fibrosis or extensive lung fibrosis using the UKRSA staging system...
April 20, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426175/differences-in-xylem-and-leaf-hydraulic-traits-explain-differences-in-drought-tolerance-among-mature-amazon-rainforest-trees
#5
Thomas L Powell, James K Wheeler, Alex A R de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Lola da Costa, Scott R Saleska, Patrick Meir, Paul R Moorcroft
Considerable uncertainty surrounds the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on the composition and structure Amazon forests. Two large-scale ecosystem drought experiments in the eastern Brazilian Amazon observed increases in mortality rates among some tree species but not others; and therefore, the physiological traits underpinning these differential demographic responses were investigated. Xylem pressure at 50% conductivity (xylem-P50 ), leaf turgor loss point (TLP), cellular osmotic potential (πo ) and cellular bulk modulus of elasticity (ε), all traits mechanistically linked to drought tolerance, were measured on upper canopy branches and leaves of mature trees from selected species growing at the two drought experiment sites...
April 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424225/quantitative-assessment-of-airway-pathology-in-subjects-with-copd-using-low-dose-high-resolution-computed-tomography
#6
Huai Chen, Gai-Qun Chen, Qing-Si Zeng, Ting-Ting Xia, Jia-Xuan Zhou, Shi-Jun Qiu
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to correlate airway parameters of COPD determined by low-dose high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with pulmonary function testing (PFT) results. METHODS: PFT data were collected for subjects with COPD and healthy controls. All subjects received inspiratory and expiratory phase low-dose HRCT. Bronchi in the apical segment of the right upper lobe (RB1), posterior segment of the right lower lobe (RB6), and lower lingual segment of the left upper lobe (LB5) were the target bronchi...
April 19, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411026/drp1-mediates-compression-induced-programmed-necrosis-of-rat-nucleus-pulposus-cells-by-promoting-mitochondrial-translocation-of-p53-and-nuclear-translocation-of-aif
#7
Hui Lin, Lei Zhao, Xuan Ma, Bai-Chuan Wang, Xiang-Yu Deng, Min Cui, Song-Feng Chen, Zeng-Wu Shao
Compression-induced programmed cell death of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells is an important contributor to intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a crucial mitochondrial fission protein, triggers programmed necrosis upon cellular injury. However, limited information is available about the role of Drp1 in compression-induced programmed necrosis of NP cells. In the present study, we found that compression resulted in upregulation and mitochondrial translocation of Drp1. Inhibition of Drp1 by siRNA or mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1) effectively prevented the programmed necrosis of NP cells treated with compression...
April 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410672/effects-of-sedation-and-salbutamol-administration-on-hyperpnoea-and-tidal-breathing-spirometry-in-healthy-horses
#8
S L Raidal, K Burnheim, D Evans, K J Hughes
Sedation is often required to perform pulmonary function testing (PFT) in horses, but drug effects may influence respiratory function. The current study was designed to characterise the effects of sedation and bronchodilator administration on absolute and relative indices of pulmonary function during eupnoeic respiration and carbon dioxide-induced hyperpnoea (rebreathing) in healthy horses using a pneumotachographic spirometry system. Sedation with acetylpromazine (ACP), xylazine, or both drugs in combination was associated with significant reductions in respiratory frequency, minute ventilation and peak airflows during eupnoeic respiration...
April 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408319/deriving-and-testing-of-dysplastic-murine-hepatocytes-a-new-platform-in-liver-cancer-research
#9
Sharon Pok, Harpreet Vohra, Charbel Wehbe, Vanessa A Barn, Evi Arfianti, Yock-Young Dan, Geoffrey C Farrell, Narci C Teoh
Dysplastic hepatocytes(DH) represent altered hepatocytes with potential for malignant transformation. To date, most research on pathways to hepatocarcinogenesis has focused on use of "hepatoma" cell-lines derived from hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). We describe a novel technique for deriving/culturing DH and demonstrate their utility for functional studies in vitro, compared to primary hepatocytes(PH) and HCC. PH and DH were prepared by portal vein collagenase perfusion from C57BL/6J mice. DH were subsequently subjected to FACS...
April 10, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399675/evaluating-the-appropriateness-of-hospital-doctors-requests-for-pulmonary-function-tests-beyond-basic-spirometry-results-from-a-prospective-observational-study
#10
Krishna Bajee Sriram, Zoe Fountain, Jessica Hockenhull, Debbie Zagami
OBJECTIVES: Hospitalists request 'complete' pulmonary function tests (PFTs), typically comprising of spirometry, diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and absolute lung volumes (ALVs), the results of which assist in the management of patients with respiratory disorders. Recently, concerns have been raised about over-requesting of 'complete' PFTs, but there is a paucity of information on the proportion of requests that can be considered clinically inappropriate. This study prospectively evaluated the 'complete' PFTs requested in a hospital service and assessed the impact of medical review of the requests...
April 19, 2017: Hospital Practice (Minneapolis)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393574/transbronchial-biopsies-safely-diagnose-amyloid-lung-disease
#11
Praveen Govender, Colleen M Keyes, Elizabeth A Hankinson, Carl J O'Hara, Vaishali Sanchorawala, John L Berk
BACKGROUND: Autopsy identifies lung involvement in 58-92% of patients with the most prevalent forms of systemic amyloidoses. In the absence of lung biopsies, amyloid lung disease often goes unrecognized. Report of a death following transbronchial biopsies in a patient with systemic amyloidosis cautioned against the procedure in this patient cohort. We reviewed our experience with transbronchial biopsies in patients with amyloidosis to determine the safety and utility of bronchoscopic lung biopsies...
April 10, 2017: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387756/pore-forming-toxin-mediated-ion-dysregulation-leads-to-death-receptor-independent-necroptosis-of-lung-epithelial-cells-during-bacterial-pneumonia
#12
Norberto González-Juarbe, Kelley Margaret Bradley, Anukul Taranath Shenoy, Ryan Paul Gilley, Luis Felipe Reyes, Cecilia Anahí Hinojosa, Marcos Ignacio Restrepo, Peter Herman Dube, Molly Ann Bergman, Carlos Javier Orihuela
We report that pore-forming toxins (PFTs) induce respiratory epithelial cell necroptosis independently of death receptor signaling during bacterial pneumonia. Instead, necroptosis was activated as a result of ion dysregulation arising from membrane permeabilization. PFT-induced necroptosis required RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL, and could be induced in the absence or inhibition of TNFR1, TNFR2 and TLR4 signaling. We detected activated MLKL in the lungs from mice and nonhuman primates experiencing Serratia marcescens and Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia, respectively...
April 7, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384959/thoracic-sarcoidosis-imaging-with-high-resolution-computed-tomography
#13
Peeyush Kumar Dhagat, Sarvinder Singh, Megha Jain, Satyendra Narayan Singh, Rajat Kumar Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown aetiology that primarily affects the lungs. Clinical and radiological findings with demonstration of non caseating granulomas on pathology is utilised for diagnosing the disease. AIM: To assess and evaluate the features of thoracic sarcoidosis on High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 (31 males and 9 females) cases of pulmonary sarcoidosis in a period of three years were included in this study...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384541/focused-ion-beam-assisted-fabrication-of-soft-high-aspect-ratio-silicon-nanowire-atomic-force-microscopy-probes
#14
Peter Knittel, Nicolas Hibst, Boris Mizaikoff, Steffen Strehle, Christine Kranz
In this study, high-aspect ratio silicon nanowire (SiNW) - modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes are fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) microfabrication technology and vapor-solid-solid synthesis. Commercially available soft silicon nitride probes are used for localized nanowire growth yielding soft high-aspect ratio AFM probes. The SiNW-modified cantilevers are used here for imaging in PeakForce Tappingۛ (PFT) mode, which offers high force control along with valuable information about tip-sample adhesion...
March 28, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371489/a-strategy-to-accelerate-protein-production-from-a-pool-of-clones-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cells-for-toxicology-studies
#15
Zhilan Hu, Wendy Hsu, Abby Pynn, Domingos Ng, Donna Quicho, Yilma Adem, Zephie Kwong, Brad Mauger, John Joly, Bradley Snedecor, Michael W Laird, Dana C Andersen, Amy Shen
In the biopharmaceutical industry, a clonally derived cell line is typically used to generate material for Investigational New Drug (IND)-enabling toxicology studies. The same cell line is then used to generate material for clinical studies. If a pool of clones can be used to produce material for IND-enabling toxicology studies ("Pool for Tox strategy") during the time a lead clone is being selected for clinical material production, the toxicology studies can be accelerated significantly (approximately four months at Genentech), leading to a potential acceleration of four months for the IND submission...
April 3, 2017: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367422/adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-treatment-of-airway-injuries-in-a-patient-after-long-term-exposure-to-sulfur-mustard
#16
Amir Nejad-Moghaddam, Soheila Ajdari, Eisa Tahmasbpour, Hassan Goodarzi, Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei
OBJECTIVE: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent mutagenic agent that targets several organs, particularly lung tissue. Changes in morphological structure of the airway system are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary deficiency following exposure to SM. Although numerous studies have demonstrated pathological effects of SM on respiratory organs, unfortunately there is no effective treatment to inhibit further respiratory injuries or induce repair in these patients. Due to the extensive progress and achievements in stem cell therapy, we have aimed to evaluate safety and potential efficacy of systemic mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration on a SM-exposed patient with chronic lung injuries...
April 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366825/novel-quinuclidinone-derivatives-induced-apoptosis-in-human-breast-cancer-via-targeting-p53
#17
Ahmed Malki, Rasha Y Elbayaa, Omnia Ali, Ahmed Sultan, Amal M Youssef
Small molecules that can target human cancers have been highly sought to increase the anticancer efficacy, the present work describes the design and synthesis of novel series of five quinuclidinone derivatives (2a-2e). Their anticancer activities were investigated against breast cancer cells MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells harboring mutant p53 and normal breast counterpart MCF-12a. Derivative 2e reduced proliferation of MCF-7 and MCF-12a while it has no effect on MDA-MB-231. Derivative 2e induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells which is further confirmed by TUNEL assay and it reduced the percentage of cell in G2/M phase as confirmed by increased expression of cyclin B and reduced expression of cyclin D1...
March 22, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353118/computed-tomography-findings-of-bronchiectasis-in-different-respiratory-phases-correlate-with-pulmonary-function-test-data-in-adults
#18
Ricardo Holderbaum do Amaral, Carlos S Nin, Vinicius V S de Souza, Giordano R T Alves, Edson Marchiori, Klaus Irion, Gustavo S P Meirelles, Bruno Hochhegger
OBJECTIVE: To investigate bronchiectasis variations in different computed tomography (CT) respiratory phases, and their correlation with pulmonary function test (PFT) data, in adults. METHODS: Retrospective data analysis from 63 patients with bronchiectasis according to CT criteria selected from the institution database and for whom PFT data were also available. Bronchiectasis diameter was measured on inspiratory and expiratory phases. Its area and matched airway-vessel ratios in both phases were also calculated...
March 28, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342134/dopaminergic-neuron-specific-deletion-of-p53-gene-attenuates-methamphetamine-neurotoxicity
#19
Tao Lu, Paul P Kim, Nigel H Greig, Yu Luo
p53 plays an essential role in the regulation of cell death in dopaminergic (DA) neurons and its activation has been implicated in the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (MA). However, how p53 mediates MA neurotoxicity remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effect of DA-specific p53 gene deletion in DAT-p53KO mice. Whereas in vivo MA binge exposure reduced locomotor activity in wild-type (WT) mice, this was significantly attenuated in DAT-p53KO mice and associated with significant differences in the levels of the p53 target genes BAX and p21 between WT and DAT-p53KO...
March 24, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341068/clinical-characteristics-of-pyogenic-flexor-tenosynovitis-in-pediatric-patients
#20
Christopher M Brusalis, Stephanie Thibaudeau, Robert B Carrigan, Ines C Lin, Benjamin Chang, Apurva S Shah
PURPOSE: To characterize the clinical presentation, common pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and treatment methods associated with pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis (PFT) in pediatric patients. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgical treatment for PFT at a large tertiary-care children's hospital between 2001 and 2015 were identified. Descriptive summary statistics were reported on patient demographics, presenting symptoms and clinical examination features, culture results, treatment strategies, and early complications...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
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