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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230155/perceived-moral-traits-of-others-differentiate-the-neural-activation-that-underlies-inequity-aversion
#1
Hironori Nakatani, Akitoshi Ogawa, Chisato Suzuki, Takeshi Asamizuya, Kenichi Ueno, Kang Cheng, Kazuo Okanoya
We have a social preference to reduce inequity in the outcomes between oneself and others. Such a preference varies according to others. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging during an economic game to investigate how the perceived moral traits of others modulate the neural activities that underlie inequity-aversion. The participants unilaterally allocated money to three partners (good, neutral, and bad). During presentation of the good and neutral partners, the anterior region of the rostral medial frontal cortex (arMFC) showed increased functional connectivity with the caudate head and the anterior insula, respectively...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227409/projected-current-density-comparison-in-tdcs-block-and-smooth-fe-modeling
#2
Aprinda Indahlastari, Munish Chauhan, Rosalind J Sadleir, Aprinda Indahlastari, Munish Chauhan, Rosalind J Sadleir, Aprinda Indahlastari, Munish Chauhan, Rosalind J Sadleir
Current density distribution and projected current density calculation following transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) forward model in a human head were compared between two modeling pipelines: block and smooth. Block model was directly constructed from MRI voxel resolution and simulated in C. Smooth models underwent a boundary smoothing process by applying recursive Gaussian filters and simulated in COMSOL. Three smoothing levels were added to determine their effects on current density distribution compared to block models...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227317/co-activation-periods-of-gastrocnemius-and-vastus-lateralis-during-walking-evaluated-by-surface-electromyography
#3
Alessandro Mengarelli, Annachiara Strazza, Agnese Sbrollini, Angela Agostinelli, Laura Burattini, Sandro Fioretti, Francesco Di Nardo, Alessandro Mengarelli, Annachiara Strazza, Agnese Sbrollini, Angela Agostinelli, Laura Burattini, Sandro Fioretti, Francesco Di Nardo, Alessandro Mengarelli, Sandro Fioretti, Agnese Sbrollini, Annachiara Strazza, Laura Burattini, Angela Agostinelli, Francesco Di Nardo
"In vivo" studies reported that the co-activation of gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles produces ACL strain values greater than those caused by an isolated activation of either muscle. Aim of this study was to assess the co-activation of gastrocnemius (lateral head, GL) and vastus lateralis (VL) in healthy and young adults during walking. To this purpose the Statistical Gait Analysis was performed, that allows a characterization of gait considering hundreds of strides belonging to the same walking trial...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224074/arthroscopic-resection-of-too-long-anterior-process-of-the-calcaneus
#4
Tun Hing Lui
A too-long anterior process (TLAP) of the calcaneus is an elongated anteromedial process of the calcaneus impinging the navicular or the talar head. TLAP can cause recurrent ankle sprain, peroneal muscle spasm, or persistent tarsal pain in adolescents. Arthroscopic resection is indicated if the symptoms do not respond to conservative treatment. It has the advantage of assessment of completeness of bone resection and treatment of associated lesions of the adjacent joints. The purpose of this technical note is to report an arthroscopic approach of the resection of the TLAP with the lateral midtarsal portal as the viewing portal...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224068/arthroscopic-remplissage-and-open-latarjet-procedure-for-the-treatment-of-anterior-glenohumeral-instability-with-severe-bipolar-bone-loss
#5
J Christoph Katthagen, Jack Anavian, Dimitri S Tahal, Peter J Millett
Bipolar bone loss in patients with anterior glenohumeral instability is challenging to treat. The goal of the treatment is to restore stability by ensuring that the humeral head remains within the glenoid vault. This can be achieved either with the combination of an arthroscopic Bankart procedure and remplissage (glenoid bone loss <25%), or with a Latarjet procedure (glenoid bone loss >25%). In cases with more severe bipolar bone loss of both the glenoid and the humeral head, the conventional approach has been to lengthen the articular arc of the glenoid and to ignore the Hill-Sachs lesion...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224065/the-supine-position-for-shoulder-arthroscopy
#6
Chonlathan Iamsumang, Bancha Chernchujit
Shoulder arthroscopy is traditionally performed with the patient in either the beach chair position or the lateral decubitus position. Each position has its advantages and disadvantages. The main topics for consideration include ease of surgery, view into the surgical field, risks to the patient, and economics of the setup. In the lateral decubitus position, it is inconvenient to work through the anterior portal and it is difficult to convert to an open procedure. In the beach chair position, it is difficult to manage the airway and cerebral oxygenation and the patient's head and the beach chair frame obstruct the insertion of a scope into the superior and posterior portals...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221329/relationship-between-anterior-lamina-cribrosa-surface-tilt-and-glaucoma-development-in-myopic-eyes
#7
Eun Jung Lee, Jong Chul Han, Changwon Kee
PURPOSE: To evaluate the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface tilt angle in myopic eyes and associate it with glaucoma development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, medical records of myopic patients referred for glaucoma examination from July 1, 2012 to March 30, 2016 were reviewed. Comprehensive ophthalmic examination including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed. We measured the angle of anterior LC surface tilt against Bruch's membrane opening from optical coherence tomography images at the center of the clinical optic disc margin...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220064/effect-of-experimentally-induced-trunk-muscular-tensions-on-the-sit-to-stand-task-performance-and-associated-postural-adjustments
#8
Alain Hamaoui, Caroline Alamini-Rodrigues
It has been shown that increased muscular activity along the trunk is likely to impair body balance, but there is little knowledge about its consequences on more dynamic tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of unilateral and bilateral increases of muscular tension along the trunk on the sit-to-stand task (STS) performance and associated anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Twelve healthy females (23 ± 3 years, 163 ± 0.06 cm, 56 ± 9 kg), free of any neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, performed six trials of the STS at maximum speed, in seven experimental conditions varying the muscular tension along each side of the trunk, using a specific bimanual compressive load paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219364/the-relationship-between-changes-of-cervical-sagittal-alignment-after-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-and-spino-pelvic-sagittal-alignment-under-roussouly-classification-a-four-year-follow-up-study
#9
Dong-Ning Huang, Miao Yu, Nan-Fang Xu, Mai Li, Shao-Bo Wang, Yu Sun, Liang Jiang, Feng Wei, Xiao-Guang Liu, Zhong-Jun Liu
BACKGROUND: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is widely used in the treatment of cervical degenerative disease; however, the variation of cervical sagittal alignment changes after ACDF has been rarely explored. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between changes of cervical sagittal alignment after ACDF and spino-pelvic sagittal alignment under Roussouly classification. METHODS: A cohort of 133 Chinese cervical spondylotic patients who received ACDF from 2011 to 2012 was recruited...
February 20, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217161/posttraumatic-giant-fronto-orbito-encephalocele-causing-cosmetic-disfiguring-forehead-swelling-with-proptosis-management
#10
Guru Dutta Satyarthee, Amandeep Kumar
Fracture of the anterior skull base can occur following head injury. Growing skull fracture is usually observed in children under age of 3-years. It commonly involves frontal and parietal regions. However, orbit involvement is extremely uncommon. Authors report a case of giant orbital encephalocele with a forehead disfiguring swelling in a 4-years boy, who sustained head injury about 3½ years back. However, such delayed presentation of traumatic encephalocele is extremely uncommon and represents the first case in the Western literature, who had a successful postoperative outcome...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216315/landmarks-in-existing-tissue-at-wounds-are-utilized-to-generate-pattern-in-regenerating-tissue
#11
Isaac M Oderberg, Dayan J Li, M Lucila Scimone, Michael A Gaviño, Peter W Reddien
Regeneration in many organisms involves the formation of a blastema, which differentiates and organizes into the appropriate missing tissues. How blastema pattern is generated and integrated with pre-existing tissues is a central question in the field of regeneration. Planarians are free-living flatworms capable of rapidly regenerating from small body fragments [1]. A cell cluster at the anterior tip of planarian head blastemas (the anterior pole) is required for anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) blastema patterning [2-4]...
February 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215852/lingual-nerve-measurements-in-cadaveric-dissections-clinical-applications
#12
Somsak Sittitavornwong, Michael Babston, Douglas Denson, Steven Zehren, Jonathan Friend
PURPOSE: Lingual nerve (LN) injury is quite prevalent despite its long-known anatomic course. The purpose of this study was to accurately predict the LN pathway by identifying and measuring close anatomic landmarks; these measurements should help lessen the incidence of LN injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: LN dissection was carried out on 15 halved cadaver skulls (total, 28 specimens). RESULTS: On average, the LN position was approximately 7 mm below the alveolar crest at the distal end of the mandibular second molar, 5...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207657/3-tesla-kinematic-mri-of-the-cervical-spine-for-evaluation-of-adjacent-level-disease-after-monosegmental-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-arthroplasty-results-of-2-year-follow-up
#13
Steffen K Fleck, Soenke Langner, Christian Rosenstengel, Rebecca Kessler, Marc Matthes, Jan-Uwe Müller, Inga Langner, Sascha Marx, Henry W S Schroeder
STUDY DESIGN: We prospectively evaluated adjacent disc levels after anterior cervical discectomy and arthroplasty (ACDA) using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and plain functional radiographs. OBJECTIVE: ACDA is an established treatment for degenerative cervical disc disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of kinematic MRI for assessing the range of motion (ROM) before and after ACDA compared with plain functional radiographs and to evaluate adjacent degenerative disc disease (aDDD) at mid-term follow-up...
February 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206991/a-jurassic-stem-pleurodire-sheds-light-on-the-functional-origin-of-neck-retraction-in-turtles
#14
Jérémy Anquetin, Haiyan Tong, Julien Claude
Modern turtles are composed of two monophyletic groups, notably diagnosed by divergent neck retraction mechanisms. Pleurodires (side-necked turtles) bend their neck sideways and protect their head under the anterior margin of the carapace. Cryptodires (hidden-necked turtles) withdraw their neck and head in the vertical plane between the shoulder girdles. These two mechanisms of neck retraction appeared independently in the two lineages and are usually assumed to have evolved for protective reasons. Here we describe the neck of Platychelys oberndorferi, a Late Jurassic early stem pleurodire, and find remarkable convergent morphological and functional similarities with modern cryptodires...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205280/within-and-between-session-reproducibility-of-gaba-measurements-with-mr-spectroscopy
#15
Maiken K Brix, Lars Ersland, Kenneth Hugdahl, Gerard E Dwyer, Renate Grüner, Ralph Noeske, Mona K Beyer, Alexander R Craven
PURPOSE: The reproducibility of the MEGA-PRESS (MEshcher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) MR spectroscopy sequence for the measurement of gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA) is addressed, focusing on optimizing the number of repetitions at two voxel locations in the human brain and associated possibilities in analysis tools. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two 20-min MEGA-PRESS acquisitions were run (echo time = 68 ms, repetition time = 1800 ms, repetitions = 328): one from a 21 mL volume in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and one from a 22 mL volume in the left Broca's area in 21 healthy male volunteers (age 32 years ± 6[SD])...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203388/on-the-development-of-the-chondrocranium-and-the-histological-anatomy-of-the-head-in-perinatal-stages-of-marsupial-mammals
#16
REVIEW
Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, Analía M Forasiepi
An overview of the literature on the chondrocranium of marsupial mammals reveals a relative conservatism in shape and structures. We document the histological cranial anatomy of individuals representing Monodelphis domestica, Dromiciops gliroides, Perameles sp. and Macropus eugenii. The marsupial chondrocranium is generally characterized by the great breadth of the lamina basalis, absence of pila metoptica and large otic capsules. Its most anterior portion (cupula nasi anterior) is robust, and anterior to it there are well-developed tactile sensory structures, functionally important in the neonate...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203163/is-the-deep-inspiration-breath-hold-technique-superior-to-the-free-breathing-technique-in-cardiac-and-lung-sparing-while-treating-both-left-sided-post-mastectomy-chest-wall-and-supraclavicular-regions
#17
Anupama Darapu, Rajesh Balakrishnan, Patricia Sebastian, Mohamathu Rafic Kather Hussain, Paul Ravindran, Subhashini John
AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of the deep inspirational breath-hold (DIBH) technique and its dosimetric advantages over the free breathing (FB) technique in cardiac (heart and left anterior descending artery [LAD]) and ipsilateral lung sparing in left-sided post-mastectomy field-in-field conformal radiotherapy. DIBH is highly reproducible, and this study aims to find out its dosimetric benefits over FB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen left-sided mastectomy patients were immobilized using breast boards with both arms positioned above the head...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202381/sphenoid-sinus-carcinoid-tumour-causing-ectopic-acth-syndrome
#18
Sanjaya Perera, Ahmad Taha
A thirty-eight year old patient presented with a gradual increase in weight and Cushingoid facies of two years duration. He also had orbital congestion, with puffy eyelids and corkscrew conjunctival vessels, associated with painful eye movements. An endocrine evaluation revealed raised cortisol and ACTH. Head imaging was performed which showed an enhancing tumour arising from the sphenoid sinus, with osseous erosion of the sphenoid sinus, extending to the nasopharynx, sellar and a small amount extending intracranially...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198771/correlation-between-facial-nerve-axonal-load-and-age-and-its-relevance-to-facial-reanimation
#19
Austin Hembd, Purushottam Nagarkar, Justin Perez, Andrew Gassman, Philip Tolley, Joan Reisch, Charles L White, Shai Rozen
PURPOSE: Two-stage facial reanimation procedures with a cross-facial nerve graft often have unsatisfactory results in the older patient. Although the cause of result variability is likely multifactorial, some studies suggest that increased donor nerve axonal load improves function of a free muscle transfer after a cross-facial nerve graft. This study attempts to characterize the relationship between age and facial nerve axonal load. METHODS: 63 fresh, cadaveric heads were dissected to expose the facial nerve...
February 13, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198531/superficial-brachial-artery-a-possible-cause-for-idiopathic-median-nerve-entrapment-neuropathy
#20
Pilani Nkomozepi, Nkosi Xhakaza, Elaine Swanepoel
Nerve entrapment syndromes occur because of anatomic constraints at specific locations in both upper and lower limbs. Anatomical locations prone to nerve entrapment syndromes include sites where a nerve courses through fibro-osseous or fibromuscular tunnels or penetrates a muscle. The median nerve (MN) can be entrapped by the ligament of Struthers; thickened biceps aponeurosis; between the superficial and deep heads of the pronator teres muscle and by a thickened proximal edge of flexor digitorum superficialis muscle...
February 15, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
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