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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231580/pediatric-hangman-s-fracture-a-comprehensive-review
#1
Michael Montalbano, Christian Fisahn, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, Jens R Chapman, R Shane Tubbs
PURPOSE: Over 170 years ago, traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis or hangman's fracture was described. Most descriptions of this entity have focused on adult presentations. METHODS: We review the literature on pediatric cases of hangman's fracture emphasizing the embryological as well as presentation aspects. RESULTS: The majority of cervical spine fractures in children occur at C1 and C2 vertebrae. A normal anterolisthesis of C2 can be seen in younger children and can mimic the anterolisthesis seen after traumatic spondylolisthesis...
February 24, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230829/genetic-effects-in-children-exposed-in-prenatal-period-to-ionizing-radiation-after-the-chornobyl-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#2
Ye I Stepanova, V Yu Vdovenko, Zh A Misharina, V I Kolos, L P Mischenko
AIM: To study the genetic effects in children exposed to radiation in utero as a result of the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident accounting the total radiation doses and equivalent radiation doses to the red bone marrow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Incidence of minor developmental anomalies was studied in children exposed to radiation in utero (study group) and in the control group (1144 subjects surveyed in total). Cytogenetic tests using the method of differential G-banding of chromosomes were conducted in 60 children of both study and control groups (10-12-year-olds) and repeatedly in 39 adolescents (15-17-year-olds)...
December 2016: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230406/test-retest-reliability-of-the-facial-expression-labeling-task
#3
Jennifer L Cecilione, Lance M Rappaport, Brad Verhulst, Dever M Carney, R J R Blair, Melissa A Brotman, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema
Recognizing others' emotional expressions is vital for socioemotional development; impairments in this ability occur in several psychiatric disorders. Further study is needed to map the development of this ability and to evaluate its components as potential transdiagnostic endophenotypes. Before doing so, however, research is required to substantiate the test-retest reliability of scores of the face emotion identification tasks linked to developmental psychopathology. The current study estimated test-retest reliability of scores of one such task, the facial expression labeling task (FELT) among a sample of twin children (N = 157; ages 9-14)...
February 23, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230403/development-of-essentialist-thinking-about-religion-categories-in-northern-ireland-and-the-united-states
#4
Kirsty Smyth, Aidan Feeney, R Cole Eidson, John D Coley
Social essentialism, the belief that members of certain social categories share unobservable properties, licenses expectations that those categories are natural and a good basis for inference. A challenge for cognitive developmental theory is to give an account of how children come to develop essentialist beliefs about socially important categories. Previous evidence from Israel suggests that kindergarteners selectively engage in essentialist reasoning about culturally salient (ethnicity) categories, and that this is attenuated among children in integrated schools...
March 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229555/developmental-changes-in-the-whole-number-bias
#5
David W Braithwaite, Robert S Siegler
Many students' knowledge of fractions is adversely affected by whole number bias, the tendency to focus on the separate whole number components (numerator and denominator) of a fraction rather than on the fraction's magnitude (ratio of numerator to denominator). Although whole number bias appears early in the fraction learning process and under speeded conditions persists into adulthood, even among mathematicians, little is known about its development. Performance with equivalent fractions indicated that between fourth and eighth grade, whole number bias decreased, and reliance on fraction magnitudes increased...
February 22, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229395/transcranial-magnetic-and-direct-current-stimulation-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Mustafa Q Hameed, Sameer C Dhamne, Roman Gersner, Harper L Kaye, Lindsay M Oberman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alexander Rotenberg
Promising results in adult neurologic and psychiatric disorders are driving active research into transcranial brain stimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in childhood and adolescent syndromes. TMS has realistic utility as an experimental tool tested in a range of pediatric neuropathologies such as perinatal stroke, depression, Tourette syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). tDCS has also been tested as a treatment for a number of pediatric neurologic conditions, including ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227679/wildcard-a-wearable-virtual-reality-storytelling-tool-for-children-with-intellectual-developmental-disability
#7
Mirko Gelsomini, Franca Garzotto, Daniele Montesano, Daniele Occhiuto, Mirko Gelsomini, Franca Garzotto, Daniele Montesano, Daniele Occhiuto, Daniele Montesano, Franca Garzotto, Mirko Gelsomini, Daniele Occhiuto
Our research aims at supporting existing therapies for children with intellectual and developmental disorders (IDD). The personal and social autonomy is the desired end state to be achieved to enable a smooth integration in the real world. We developed and tested a framework for storytelling and learning activities that exploits an immersive virtual reality viewer to interact with target users. We co-designed our system with experts from the medical sector, identifying features that allow patients to stay focused on exercises to perform...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226183/development-of-an-acceptable-and-feasible-self-management-group-for-children-young-people-and-families-living-with-type-1-diabetes
#8
R A Cai, R I G Holt, L Casdagli, R M Viner, R Thompson, K Barnard, D Christie
AIMS: This study developed an acceptable and feasible self-management intervention that addresses the self-identified needs of children and young people with Type 1 diabetes and their parents. METHODS: Phase 1 reviewed previous interventions and interviewed the clinical team, young people and families. Phase 2 ran three age-matched focus groups with 11 families of children aged 8-16 years. Feedback was used to modify the workshop. Phase 3 evaluated feasibility of delivery, as well as the effects on metabolic control, quality of life and fear of hypoglycaemia, measured at baseline and 1-3 months post intervention...
February 22, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224095/culturally-adapted-pictorial-screening-tool-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-new-approach
#9
Hemamali Perera, Kamal Chandima Jeewandara, Sudarshi Seneviratne, Chandima Guruge
AIM: To assess the performance of a newly designed, culturally adapted screening tool for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Items for the screening tool were modeled from already documented checklists and diagnostic criteria for ASD. Each item in text was paired with a photograph that illustrated the written content, which was in the 2 main local languages. The final product had 21 items and was named the pictorial autism assessment schedule (PAAS). Performance of PAAS was tested on a clinical sample of 18-48 mo old children, diagnosis naïve, presenting with developmental deficits...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223958/children-and-adults-both-learn-motor-sequences-quickly-but-do-so-differently
#10
Yue Du, Nadia C Valentini, Min J Kim, Jill Whitall, Jane E Clark
Both children and adults can learn motor sequences quickly in one learning session, yet little is known about potential age-related processes that underlie this fast sequence acquisition. Here, we examined the progressive performance changes in a one-session modified serial reaction time task in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults. We found that rapid sequence learning, as reflected by reaction time (RT), was comparable between groups. The learning was expressed through two behavioral processes: online progressive changes in RT while the task was performed in a continuous manner and offline changes in RT that emerged following a short rest...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222332/acquisition-of-vowel-articulation-in-childhood-investigated-by-acoustic-to-articulatory-inversion
#11
Hiroki Oohashi, Hama Watanabe, Gentaro Taga
While the acoustical features of speech sounds in children have been extensively studied, limited information is available as to their articulation during speech production. Instead of directly measuring articulatory movements, this study used an acoustic-to-articulatory inversion model with scalable vocal tract size to estimate developmental changes in articulatory state during vowel production. Using a pseudo-inverse Jacobian matrix of a model mapping seven articulatory parameters to acoustic ones, the formant frequencies of each vowel produced by three Japanese children over time at ages between 6 and 60 months were transformed into articulatory parameters...
February 18, 2017: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221731/identifying-a-conceptual-shift-in-child-and-adolescent-reported-treatment-decision-making-having-a-say-as-i-need-at-this-time
#12
Katherine Patterson Kelly, Catriona Mowbray, Kimberly Pyke-Grimm, Pamela S Hinds
BACKGROUND: Professional organizations and governments recommend child and adolescent involvement in cancer treatment decision making (TDM) despite minimal evidence that children prefer involvement, how best to include them, and the result of doing so. PROCEDURE: Using descriptive qualitative research methods, we interviewed 20 children ages 9-17 years about their TDM preferences and experiences. We shifted our conceptualizations as findings emerged about how children with cancer viewed their decisional experiences...
April 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221363/premature-primary-tooth-eruption-in-cognitive-motor-delayed-adnp-mutated-children
#13
I Gozes, A Van Dijck, G Hacohen-Kleiman, I Grigg, G Karmon, E Giladi, M Eger, Y Gabet, M Pasmanik-Chor, E Cappuyns, O Elpeleg, R F Kooy, S Bedrosian-Sermone
A major flaw in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) management is late diagnosis. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is a most frequent de novo mutated ASD-related gene. Functionally, ADNP protects nerve cells against electrical blockade. In mice, complete Adnp deficiency results in dysregulation of over 400 genes and failure to form a brain. Adnp haploinsufficiency results in cognitive and social deficiencies coupled to sex- and age-dependent deficits in the key microtubule and ion channel pathways...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221066/the-power-and-the-pain-of-adolescents-digital-communication-cyber-victimization-and-the-perils-of-lurking
#14
Marion K Underwood, Samuel E Ehrenreich
Many adolescents are heavily engaged with social media and text messaging (George & Odgers, 2015; Lenhart, 2015), yet few psychologists have studied what digital communication means for adolescents' relationships and adjustment. This article proposes that psychologists should embrace the careful study of adolescents' digital communication. We discuss theoretical frameworks for understanding adolescents' involvement with social media, present less widely recognized perils of intense involvement with social media, and highlight positive features of digital communication...
February 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220490/biological-embedding-of-perinatal-social-relationships-in-infant-stress-reactivity
#15
Jenna C Thomas, Nicole Letourneau, Crystal I Bryce, Tavis S Campbell, Gerald F Giesbrecht
Whereas significant advances have been made in understanding how exposure to early adversity "gets under the skin" of children to result in long term changes in developmental outcomes, the processes by which positive social relationships become biologically embedded remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to understand the pathways by which maternal and infant social environments become biologically embedded in infant cortisol reactivity. Two hundred seventy-two pregnant women and their infants were prospectively assessed during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum...
February 21, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220477/parent-child-learning-interactions-a-review-of-the-literature-on-scaffolding
#16
Roni Mermelshtine
BACKGROUND: Scaffolding can be observed during learning-based interactions, when interventions by parents are adjusted according to children's observed abilities, with the main goal of enabling the child to work independently (Wood et al., 1976, Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 17, 89). Such contingent instruction behaviours occur from infancy, and are said to be relevant for children's development of executive function, language acquisition, and cognitive and academic abilities...
February 21, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220358/potential-risk-factors-for-the-development-of-self-injurious-behavior-among-infants-at-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Adele F Dimian, Kelly N Botteron, Stephen R Dager, Jed T Elison, Annette M Estes, John R Pruett, Robert T Schultz, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Joseph Piven, Jason J Wolff
Prevalence of self-injurious behavior (SIB) is as high as 50% among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Identification of risk factors for the development of SIB is critical to early intervention and prevention. However, there is little empirical research utilizing a prospective design to identify early risk factors for SIB. The purpose of this study was to evaluate behavioral characteristics predicting SIB at age 2 years among 235 infants at high familial risk for ASD. Logistic regression results indicated that presence of SIB or proto-SIB and lower developmental functioning at age 12 months significantly predicted SIB at 24 months...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220305/homeobox-wnt-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-signaling-is-augmented-during-alveogenesis-in-mice-lacking-superoxide-dismutase-3-extracellular
#18
Tania A Thimraj, Rahel L Birru, Ankita Mitra, Holger Schulz, George D Leikauf, Koustav Ganguly
Superoxide dismutase 3, extracellular (SOD3) polymorphisms have been implicated in reduced pulmonary function development and altered risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We previously reported that gene-targeted Sod3-/- mice have impaired lung function and human SOD3 variants are associated with reduced pulmonary function in children. Reduced lung SOD3 levels were reported in mice with lower lung function with the greatest difference occurring during alveogenesis phase [postnatal (P) days 14-28]...
February 20, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219681/the-developmental-relationship-between-central-dopaminergic-level-and-response-inhibition-from-late-childhood-to-young-adulthood
#19
Ting Zhang, Qin Zhang, Cuicui Wang, Antao Chen
Dopamine (DA) is known to modulate response inhibition (RI). In contrast to the abundant adult studies, only few developmental studies have focused on this topic. Moreover, the mechanism underlying the modulation of RI by the DA system from childhood to adulthood remains unclear. We aimed to assess whether the relationship between DA and RI during late childhood and young adulthood is similar. Accordingly, DA function was measured using the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR), whereas RI ability was tested using the Go/Nogo task...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218489/development-of-cortical-motor-circuits-between-childhood-and-adulthood-a-navigated-tms-hdeeg-study
#20
Sara Määttä, Mervi Könönen, Elisa Kallioniemi, Timo Lakka, Niina Lintu, Virpi Lindi, Florinda Ferreri, David Ponzo, Laura Säisänen
Motor functions improve during childhood and adolescence, but little is still known about the development of cortical motor circuits during early life. To elucidate the neurophysiological hallmarks of motor cortex development, we investigated the differences in motor cortical excitability and connectivity between healthy children, adolescents, and adults by means of navigated suprathreshold motor cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with high-density electroencephalography (EEG). We demonstrated that with development, the excitability of the motor system increases, the TMS-evoked EEG waveform increases in complexity, the magnitude of induced activation decreases, and signal spreading increases...
February 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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