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Developmental children

Yang Wu, Guanyong Su, Song Tang, Wei Liu, Zhiyuan Ma, Xinmei Zheng, Hongling Liu, Hongxia Yu
Tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), a substitute for brominated flame retardants (FRs) that have been phased out of use, is frequently detected in aqueous environments. However, previous studies on its endocrine disrupting effects have mainly focused on terrestrial mammals. Here, to comprehensively evaluate the potential adverse effects of TCEP on aquatic vertebrates, zebrafish was used as a model to examine developmental phenotypes. The underlying mechanisms of toxicity of TCEP were further explored using in silico and in vivo approaches...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Sarah Raz, Jamie C Piercy, Andrew M Heitzer, Brittany N Peters, Julie Bapp Newman, Angela K DeBastos, Noa Ofen, Beau Batton, Daniel G Batton
OBJECTIVES: A limited body of research is available on the relationships between multiplicity of birth and neuropsychological functioning in preterm children who were conceived in the age of assisted reproductive technology and served by the modern neonatal intensive care unit. Our chief objective was to evaluate whether, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and perinatal complications, twin birth accounted for a unique portion of developmental outcome variance in children born at-risk in the surfactant era...
October 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Frances C Lewis, Robert A Reeve, Katherine A Johnson
Attention is critical for everyday functioning. Posner and Petersen's model of attention describes three neural networks involved in attention control-the alerting network for arousal, the orienting network for selecting sensory input and reorienting attention, and the executive network for the regulatory control of attention. No longitudinal research has examined relative change in these networks in children. A modified version of the attention network task (ANT) was used to examine changes in the three attention networks, three times over 12 months, in 114 6-, 8- and 10-year-olds...
October 24, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Karissa Leduc, Shanna Williams, Carlos Gomez-Garibello, Victoria Talwar
In this study, preschool-aged children's lie-telling behaviour was examined in relation to mental state understanding and executive functioning. Sixty-seven children aged between 25 and 43 months (Mage in months  = 34.80, SD = 4.39) participated in a temptation resistance paradigm (TRP). Children completed emerging ToM tasks measuring the following mental states: (1) diverse beliefs, (2) diverse desires, and (3) knowledge access. Children also completed measures of inhibitory control and working memory...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Katie A McLaughlin, Margaret A Sheridan
Children who have experienced environmental adversity-such as abuse, neglect, or poverty-are more likely to develop physical and mental health problems, perform poorly at school, and have difficulties in social relationships than children who have not encountered adversity. What is less clear is how and why adverse early experiences exert such a profound influence on children's development. Identifying developmental processes that are disrupted by adverse early environments is the key to developing better intervention strategies for children who have experienced adversity...
August 2016: Current Directions in Psychological Science
Yi Mou, Yaoran Li, Mary K Hoard, Lara D Nugent, Felicia W Chu, Jeffrey N Rouder, David C Geary
The conceptual insight that fractions represent magnitudes is a critical yet daunting step in children's mathematical development, and the knowledge of fraction magnitudes influences children's later mathematics learning including algebra. In this study, longitudinal data were analyzed to identify the mathematical knowledge and domain-general competencies that predicted 8(th) and 9(th) graders' (n=122) knowledge of fraction magnitudes and its cross-grade gains. Performance on the fraction magnitude measures predicted 9(th) grade algebra achievement...
July 2016: Cognitive Development
Sara T Baker, Alan M Leslie, C R Gallistel, Bruce M Hood
Although learning and development reflect changes situated in an individual brain, most discussions of behavioral change are based on the evidence of group averages. Our reliance on group-averaged data creates a dilemma. On the one hand, we need to use traditional inferential statistics. On the other hand, group averages are highly ambiguous when we need to understand change in the individual; the average pattern of change may characterize all, some, or none of the individuals in the group. Here we present a new method for statistically characterizing developmental change in each individual child we study...
October 20, 2016: Cognitive Psychology
Sunyoung Park, Andrew B C Nevin, Fernando Cardozo-Pelaez, Diana I Lurie
Pb exposure is associated with cognitive deficits including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and alters auditory temporal processing in humans and animals. Serotonin has been implicated in auditory temporal processing and previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that developmental Pb decreases expression of serotonin (5-HT) in the adult murine lateral superior olive (LSO). During development, certain non-serotonergic sensory neurons, including auditory LSO neurons, transiently take up 5-HT through the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT)...
October 19, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Brett Keller, Andrew Faciano, Adey Tsega, Jacqueline Ehrlich
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors and describe outcomes for children newly identified with blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥45 µg/dL in New York City (NYC) during 2004-2010 to promote timely identification as well as inform clinical practice and public health policy. STUDY DESIGN: Inclusion criteria were residence in NYC and an elevated confirmatory venous test within 2 weeks of the initial BLL ≥45 µg/dL. Data collected during case coordination of these children were linked with blood testing data and home inspection reports...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Paresh Zanzmera, Ramshekhar N Menon, Kalyani Karkare, Himanshu Soni, Sujit Jagtap, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article was to study the electroclinical characteristics and seizure outcome of children with epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA). METHOD: In this descriptive cohort study, we reviewed clinical records of patients who met the criteria for EMA. Each patient's demographic data, birth/developmental history, seizure semiology/pattern, antiepileptic drugs (AED), clinical examination, video-electroencephalography (VEEG), and neuroimaging data were reviewed...
October 19, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Emel Sari Gokten, Nagihan Saday Duman, Nusret Soylu, Mehmet Erdem Uzun
It is known that children with mental and developmental problems are at risk of abuse and neglect. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most frequent neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine whether children diagnosed with ADHD are under more risk in terms of child abuse and neglect compared to controls. In this case-control study, 104 children, who applied to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit of Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital between January and June 2015, were diagnosed with ADHD, and had no other psychiatric comorbidity except for disruptive behavior disorders, and 104 healthy children were compared...
October 19, 2016: Child Abuse & Neglect
N Karsan, P Prabhakar, P J Goadsby
BACKGROUND: The premonitory stage of migraine attacks, when symptomatology outside of pain can manifest hours to days before the onset of the headache, is well recognised. Such symptoms have been reported in adults in a number of studies, and have value in predicting an impending headache. These symptoms have not been extensively studied in children. We aimed to characterise which, if any, of these symptoms are reported in children seen within a Specialist Headache Service. METHODS: We reviewed clinic letters from the initial consultation of children and adolescents seen within the Specialist Headache Service at Great Ormond Street Hospital between 1999 and 2015 with migraine in whom we had prospectively assessed clinical phenotype data...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Jaana Alakortes, Susanna Kovaniemi, Alice S Carter, Risto Bloigu, Irma K Moilanen, Hanna E Ebeling
Growing evidence supports the existence of clinically significant social-emotional/behavioral (SEB) problems among as young as 1-year-old infants. However, a substantial proportion of early SEB problems remain unidentified during contacts with child healthcare professionals. In this study, child healthcare nurse (CHCN; N = 1008) and parental (N = 518) reports about SEB worries were gathered, along with the maternal and paternal Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) ratings, for 12-month-old infants randomly recruited through Finnish child health centers...
October 21, 2016: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Christopher A Flessner, Yolanda E Murphy, Elle Brennan, Alexandra D'Auria
Developmental models of pediatric anxiety posit multiple, maladaptive parenting behaviors as potential risk factors. Despite this, a standardized means of assessing multiple of these practices (i.e., anxiogenic parenting) in a comprehensive and efficient manner are lacking. In Study 1531 parents of children 7-17 years old completed an online survey via Amazon Mechanical Turk. In Study 2, a separate community sample (N = 109; 9-17 years old) was recruited and completed a comprehensive assessment battery as part of a larger study...
October 21, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Manisha Balwani, Preeti Singh, Anju Seth, Ekta Malik Debnath, Hetanshi Naik, Dana Doheny, Brenden Chen, Makiko Yasuda, Robert J Desnick
Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant inborn error of heme metabolism, typically presents in adulthood, most often in women in the reproductive age group. There are limited reports on the clinical presentation in children, and in contrast to the adults, most of the reported pediatric cases are male. While acute abdominal pain is the most common presenting symptom in children, seizures are commonly seen and may precede the diagnosis of AIP. As an example, we report a 9year old developmentally normal pre-pubertal boy who presented with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation followed by hyponatremia, seizures, weakness and neuropathy...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Nadia A Akawi, Salma Ben-Salem, Jozef Hertecant, Anne John, Thachillath Pramathan, Praseetha Kizhakkedath, Bassam R Ali, Lihadh Al-Gazali
BACKGROUND: The group of ELAC2-related encephalomyopathies is a recent addition to the rapidly growing heterogeneous mitochondrial disorders. RESULTS: We describe a highly inbred consanguineous Pakistani family with multiple affected children in 2 branches exhibiting moderately severe global developmental delay. Using homozygosity mapping, we mapped the phenotype in this family to a single locus on chromosome 17. In addition, whole-exome sequencing identified a homozygous splicing mutation (c...
October 21, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
S Lühl, H Bode, W Schlötzer, M Bartsakoulia, R Horvath, A Abicht, M Stenzel, J Kirschner, S C Grünert
BACKGROUND: Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6 (PCH6) is a mitochondrial disease caused by mutations in the RARS2 gene. RARS2 encodes mitochondrial arginyl transfer RNA synthetase, an enzyme involved in mitochondrial protein translation. A total of 27 patients from 14 families have been reported so far. Characteristic clinical features comprise neonatal lactic acidosis, severe encephalopathy, intractable seizures, feeding problems and profound developmental delay. Most patients show typical neuroradiologic abnormalities including cerebellar hypoplasia and progressive pontocerebellar atrophy...
October 21, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Bruno Facon, David Magis
Purpose: An item analysis of Bishop's (1983) Test for Reception of Grammar (TROG) in its French version (F-TROG; Lecocq, 1996) was conducted to determine whether the difficulty of items is similar for participants with or without intellectual disability (ID). Method: In Study 1, responses to the 92 F-TROG items by 55 participants with Down syndrome (DS), 55 with ID of undifferentiated etiology (UND), and 55 typical children (TYP) matched on their F-TROG total score were compared using the transformed item difficulties method, a statistical approach designed to detect differential item functioning (DIF) between groups...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Tzu-I Lee, Tsu-Hsin Howe, Hao-Ling Chen, Tien-Ni Wang
This study investigates handwriting characteristics and potential predictors of handwriting legibility among typically developing elementary school children in Taiwan. Predictors of handwriting legibility included visual-motor integration (VMI), visual perception (VP), eye-hand coordination (EHC), and biomechanical characteristics of handwriting. A total of 118 children were recruited from an elementary school in Taipei, Taiwan. A computerized program then assessed their handwriting legibility. The biomechanics of handwriting were assessed using a digitizing writing tablet...
November 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
K Malkiewicz, E Malkiewicz, K A Eaton, E Widström
Poland is one of the largest European countries in terms of area and population. The country's economic situation does not allow for the allocation of sufficient public funds for healthcare in general and oral healthcare in particular. The health policy of the state focuses primarily on prophylaxis and treatment of diseases, directly threatening the health and lives of the inhabitants. Currently, expenditure on oral health accounts for only 2.7% of the public funds allocated to healthcare. In this context, providing oral care financed from public funds at an appropriate level constitutes a challenge for state institutions, centres providing medical and dental services and private practices...
October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
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