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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640441/adipose-tissue-derived-omentin-1-function-and-regulation
#1
Takuya Watanabe, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Yui Takahashi, Miho Kojima, Rena Watanabe
Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626064/monitoring-c3ar-expression-using-a-floxed-tdtomato-c3ar-reporter-knock-in-mouse
#2
Katharina M Quell, Christian M Karsten, Anna Kordowski, Larissa Nogueira Almeida, Daria Briukhovetska, Anna V Wiese, Jing Sun, Fanny Ender, Konstantina Antoniou, Torsten Schröder, Inken Schmudde, Johann L Berger, Peter König, Tillman Vollbrandt, Yves Laumonnier, Jörg Köhl
C3a exerts multiple biologic functions through activation of its cognate C3a receptor. C3(-/-) and C3aR(-/-) mice have been instrumental in defining important roles of the C3a/C3aR axis in the regulation of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, allergic asthma, autoimmune nephritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surprisingly little is known about C3aR expression and function in immune and stromal cells. To close this gap, we generated a floxed tandem-dye Tomato (tdTomato)-C3aR reporter knock-in mouse, which we used to monitor C3aR expression in cells residing in the lung, airways, lamina propria (LP) of the small intestine, brain, visceral adipose tissue, bone marrow (BM), spleen, and the circulation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617814/risk-of-pneumonia-in-obstructive-lung-disease-a-real-life-study-comparing-extra-fine-and-fine-particle-inhaled-corticosteroids
#3
Samatha Sonnappa, Richard Martin, Elliot Israel, Dirkje Postma, Wim van Aalderen, Annie Burden, Omar S Usmani, David B Price
BACKGROUND: Regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with obstructive lung diseases has been associated with a higher risk of pneumonia, particularly in COPD. The risk of pneumonia has not been previously evaluated in relation to ICS particle size and dose used. METHODS: Historical cohort, UK database study of 23,013 patients with obstructive lung disease aged 12-80 years prescribed extra-fine or fine-particle ICS. The endpoints assessed during the outcome year were diagnosis of pneumonia, acute exacerbations and acute respiratory events in relation to ICS dose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603413/identifying-the-heterogeneity-of-copd-by-v-p-spect-a-new-tool-for-improving-the-diagnosis-of-parenchymal-defects-and-grading-the-severity-of-small-airways-disease
#4
M Bajc, Y Chen, J Wang, X Y Li, W M Shen, C Z Wang, H Huang, A Lindqvist, X Y He
INTRODUCTION: Airway obstruction and possible concomitant pulmonary diseases in COPD cannot be identified conventionally with any single diagnostic tool. We aimed to diagnose and grade COPD severity and identify pulmonary comorbidities associated with COPD with ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/P SPECT) using Technegas as the functional ventilation imaging agent. METHODS: 94 COPD patients (aged 43-86 years, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages I-IV) were examined with V/P SPECT and spirometry...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603412/in-vitro-dose-comparison-of-respimat-%C3%A2-inhaler-with-dry-powder-inhalers-for-copd-maintenance-therapy
#5
Anna-Maria Ciciliani, Peter Langguth, Herbert Wachtel
BACKGROUND: Combining in vitro mouth-throat deposition measurements, cascade impactor data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, four different inhalers were compared which are indicated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment. METHODS: The Respimat inhaler, the Breezhaler, the Genuair, and the Ellipta were coupled to the idealized Alberta throat model. The modeled dose to the lung (mDTL) was collected downstream of the Alberta throat model using either a filter or a next generation impactor (NGI)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601047/role-of-epigenetics-in-the-pathogenesis-of-asthma
#6
Zahra Alizadeh, Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian Adcock, Mostafa Moin
Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous and chronic airway inflammatory disease with different clinical phenotypes caused by diverse triggers and pathophysiological mechanisms. Asthma heritability has been established in many genetic studies but it is evident that only genetic elements are not responsible for the development of asthma. Increasing rate of asthma incidence during past decades has implicated the role of epigenetics in development of asthma. Environmental factors perform as initiator signals through epigenetic mechanisms...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596268/application-of-euclidean-distance-mapping-for-assessment-of-basement-membrane-thickness-distribution-in-asthma
#7
Leila B Mostaco-Guidolin, Soheil M Hajimohammadi, Dragos Mihai Vasilescu, Tillie-Louise Hackett
Abnormal thickening of the airway basement membrane is one of the hallmarks of airway remodeling in asthma. Current protocols for measuring the basement membrane involve the use of stained tissue sections and measurements of the basement membrane thickness at certain intervals, followed by the calculation of the geometric mean thickness for each airway. This report describes an automated, unbiased approach which uses colour segmentation to identify structures of interest on stained sections and euclidean distance mapping to measure the thickness distribution of airway structures...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592874/ct-based-local-distribution-metric-improves-characterization-of-copd
#8
Benjamin A Hoff, Esther Pompe, Stefanie Galbán, Dirkje S Postma, Jan-Willem J Lammers, Nick H T Ten Hacken, Leo Koenderman, Timothy D Johnson, Stijn E Verleden, Pim A de Jong, Firdaus A A Mohamed Hoesein, Maarten van den Berge, Brian D Ross, Craig J Galbán
Parametric response mapping (PRM) of paired CT lung images has been shown to improve the phenotyping of COPD by allowing for the visualization and quantification of non-emphysematous air trapping component, referred to as functional small airways disease (fSAD). Although promising, large variability in the standard method for analyzing PRM(fSAD) has been observed. We postulate that representing the 3D PRM(fSAD) data as a single scalar quantity (relative volume of PRM(fSAD)) oversimplifies the original 3D data, limiting its potential to detect the subtle progression of COPD as well as varying subtypes...
June 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592030/-follicular-bronchiolitis-report-of-3-cases-and-literature-review
#9
J Dai, H R Cai, Y Li, F Q Meng, J Q Wu
Objective: To improve understanding of the characteristics of follicular bronchiolitis(FB). Methods: The clinical data of 3 patients with FB confirmed by thoracoscopic lung biopsy were retrospectively analyzed. A literature search was performed with "follicular bronchiolitis" as the key word in China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, Wanfang and PubMed, Ovid Database. The time interval was from January 1947 to December 2015. Related articles of FB were retrieved and the clinical, radiographic characteristics and prognosis were analyzed...
June 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583618/new-anti-eosinophil-drugs-for-asthma-and-copd-targeting-the-trait
#10
REVIEW
Elisabeth H Bel, Anneke Ten Brinke
Asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease (COPD) are prevalent chronic inflammatory airway diseases that are responsible for a large global disease burden. Both diseases are complex and heterogeneous, and are increasingly recognized as overlapping syndromes that may share similar pathophysiologic mechanisms and treatable traits. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is considered the most influential treatable trait of chronic airway disease, and over the last decade several monoclonal antibodies and small molecule therapies have been developed to target this trait...
June 2, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580587/heme-oxygenase-1-directly-binds-stat3-to-control-the-generation-of-pathogenic-th17-cells-during-neutrophilic-airway-inflammation
#11
Xiaoliang Lin, Jiajia Lv, Jie Lv, Caixia Di, Yanjie Zhang, Tong Zhou, Junling Liu, Zhenwei Xia
BACKGROUND: Specific JAK/STAT pathways play a critical role in the functional differentiation of distinct Th subsets. Previously, we showed that HO-1, a stress-inducible protein, inhibits Th17 cell differentiation and alleviates neutrophilic airway inflammation, but the responsible molecular basis remains unclear. METHODS: We employed Th17-skewing differentiation and NEA mouse models to study the role of HO-1 regulating IL-6-STAT3-RORγt/SOCS3 signaling pathway to control Th17 cell-mediated neutrophilic airway inflammation...
June 5, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579768/clinical-characteristics-of-copd-patients-with-tidal-expiratory-flow-limitation
#12
James Dean, Umme Kolsum, Paul Hitchen, Vandana Gupta, Dave Singh
We have used impulse oscillometry to identify COPD patients with tidal expiratory flow limitation (EFL), which is a measurement related to small airway disease. We report that 37.4% of COPD patients had EFL; these patients had multiple clinical characteristics of more severe disease including lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second values, greater hyperinflation, reduced exercise performance, and increased small airway impairment. We highlight that EFL can be used to identify a subgroup of COPD patients with distinct characteristics associated with small airway disease...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560433/overexpression-of-glp-1-receptors-suppresses-proliferation-and-cytokine-release-by-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-of-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-via-activation-of-abca1
#13
Yan-Hong Sun, Lan He, Ming-Yu Yan, Rui-Qian Zhao, Bin Li, Feng Wang, Ying Yang, Hua-Peng Yu
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP‑1) is an important insulin secretagogue that possesses anti‑inflammatory effects. GLP‑1 receptor (GLP‑1R) agonists have been demonstrated to serve a pivotal role in the treatment of obstructive lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the specific function and underlying mechanisms of GLP‑1R in COPD remain uncertain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the action and underlying mechanisms of GLP‑1R in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells from COPD patients...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550740/multi-resolution-classification-of-exhaled-aerosol-images-to-detect-obstructive-lung-diseases-in-small-airways
#14
Jinxiang Xi, Weizhong Zhao, Jiayao Eddie Yuan, Biwei Cao, Linlin Zhao
Exhaled aerosol patterns have been used to detect obstructive respiratory diseases in the upper airways. Signals from small airway diseases are weak and may not manifest themselves in the exhaled aerosol patterns. Therefore, it will be more challenging to detect abnormalities in small airways. The objective of this study is to develop a simulation-based classification model that can accurately classify small airway diseases. The model performance was evaluated in five obstructed models that are located in lung bifurcations G7-9...
May 20, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548877/role-of-osgin1-in-mediating-smoking-induced-autophagy-in-the-human-airway-epithelium
#15
Guoqing Wang, Haixia Zhou, Yael Strulovici-Barel, Mohammed Al-Hijji, Xuemei Ou, Jacqueline Salit, Matthew S Walters, Michelle R Staudt, Robert J Kaner, Ronald G Crystal
Enhanced macroautophagy/autophagy is recognized as a component of the pathogenesis of smoking-induced airway disease. Based on the knowledge that enhanced autophagy is linked to oxidative stress and the DNA damage response, both of which are linked to smoking, we used microarray analysis of the airway epithelium to identify smoking upregulated genes known to respond to oxidative stress and the DNA damage response. This analysis identified OSGIN1 (oxidative stress induced growth inhibitor 1) as significantly upregulated by smoking, in both the large and small airway epithelium, an observation confirmed by an independent small airway microarray cohort, TaqMan PCR of large and small airway samples and RNA-Seq of small airway samples...
May 26, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540808/exposure-to-febrile-range-hyperthermia-potentiates-wnt-signalling-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-gene-expression-in-lung-epithelium
#16
Ratnakar Potla, Mohan E Tulapurkar, Irina G Luzina, Sergei P Atamas, Ishwar S Singh, Jeffrey D Hasday
BACKGROUND: As environmental and body temperatures vary, lung epithelial cells experience temperatures significantly different from normal core temperature. Our previous studies in human lung epithelium showed that: (i) heat shock accelerates wound healing and activates profibrotic gene expression through heat shock factor-1 (HSF1); (ii) HSF1 is activated at febrile temperatures (38-41 °C) and (iii) hypothermia (32 °C) activates and hyperthermia (39.5 °C) reduces expression of a subset of miRNAs that target protein kinase-Cα (PKCα) and enhance proliferation...
April 26, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539439/contribution-of-human-lung-parenchyma-and-leukocyte-influx-to-oxidative-stress-and-immune-mediated-pathology-following-nipah-infection
#17
Olivier Escaffre, Tais B Saito, Terry L Juelich, Tetsuro Ikegami, Jennifer K Smith, David D Perez, Colm Atkins, Corri B Levine, Matthew B Huante, Rebecca J Nusbaum, Janice J Endsley, Alexander N Freiberg, Barry Rockx
Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic emerging paramyxovirus that can cause a fatal respiratory illness or encephalitis in humans. Despite many efforts, the molecular mechanisms of NiV-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remain unclear. We previously showed that NiV replicates to high titers in human lung grafts in NOD scid gamma mice, resulting in a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, these mice can undergo human immune system reconstitution by the Bone marrow, Liver, and Thymus (BLT) reconstitution method, in addition to lung tissue engraftment, giving altogether a realistic model to study human respiratory viral infections...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536739/histological-diagnoses-of-military-personnel-undergoing-lung-biopsy-after-deployment-to-southwest-asia
#18
Cristian S Madar, Michael R Lewin-Smith, Teri J Franks, Russell A Harley, John S Klaric, Michael J Morris
INTRODUCTION: The current understanding of associations between lung disease and military deployment to Southwest Asia, including Iraq and Afghanistan, is both controversial and limited. We sought to clarify the relation between military deployment and biopsy-proven lung disease. METHODS: Retrospective data were analyzed for military personnel with non-neoplastic lung biopsies evaluated at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology or Joint Pathology Center (January 2005 to December 2012)...
May 23, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536707/neutrophilic-inflammation-in-the-immune-responses-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-lessons-from-animal-models
#19
REVIEW
Gang Huang, Xu-Chen Xu, Jie-Sen Zhou, Zhou-Yang Li, Hai-Pin Chen, Yong Wang, Wen Li, Hua-Hao Shen, Zhi-Hua Chen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality worldwide, which is characterized by chronic bronchitis, destruction of small airways, and enlargement/disorganization of alveoli. It is generally accepted that the neutrophilic airway inflammation observed in the lungs of COPD patients is intrinsically linked to the tissue destruction and alveolar airspace enlargement, leading to disease progression. Animal models play an important role in studying the underlying mechanisms of COPD as they address questions involving integrated whole body responses...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511478/recognition-of-small-airways-obstruction-in-asthma-and-copd-the-road-less-travelled
#20
REVIEW
Desh Deepak, Akhila Prasad, Swapndeep Singh Atwal, Kshitij Agarwal
The small airways, once regarded as the silent zone in the air conducting system of the lungs are now known to be one of the initial sites of involvement in diseases like asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Identification of the involvement of distal airways in these diseases is often difficult to assess, clinically as well as by conventional pulmonary function tests and therefore, usually remains undiscovered in early stages. Early recognition of their involvement in asthma and COPD and timely management may reduce long term morbidity in these conditions...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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