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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729471/hypoxic-vascular-response-and-ventilation-perfusion-matching-in-end-stage-copd-may-depend-on-p22phox
#1
Chandran Nagaraj, Christoph Tabeling, Bence M Nagy, Pritesh P Jain, Leigh M Marsh, Rita Papp, Michael Pienn, Martin Witzenrath, Bahil Ghanim, Walter Klepetko, E Kenneth Weir, Stefan Heschl, Grazyna Kwapiszewska, Andrea Olschewski, Horst Olschewski
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease in which the amount of emphysema and airway disease may be very different between individuals, even in end-stage disease. Emphysema formation may be linked to the involvement of the small pulmonary vessels. The NAPDH oxidase (Nox) family is emerging as a key disease-related factor in vascular diseases, but currently its role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary remodelling in COPD remains unclear.Here we investigate the role of p22phox, a regulatory subunit of Nox, in COPD lungs, hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodelling and pulmonary hypertension...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719106/altered-pulmonary-gas-transfer-capacity-and-capillary-blood-volume-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#2
Marie Verstraete, Marie-Luce Choukroun, Valerie Siao-Him Fa, Michael Fayon, Laurent Rebouissoux, Raphael Enaud, Thierry Lamireau
OBJECTIVES: To describe diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and its components, that is, membrane diffusing capacity (DmCO) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) in children with Crohn's disease (CD), and to investigate the correlation between these parameters and disease activity. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: The most common lung function abnormalities are a reduced pulmonary DLCO and small airways disorders which are in many instances, clinically silent. No valid explanations have been proposed regarding the modifications in gas transfer capacity in active CD...
August 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715092/the-origins-of-oral-medicine-in-the-hippocratic-collected-works
#3
REVIEW
Helen Askitopoulou, Vasileia Nyktari, Alexandra Papaioannou, Georgios Stefanakis, Elina Konsolaki
The collected works of Hippocrates describe for the first time in a systematic way a large number of oral diseases, such as ulcers, inflammations, abscesses and tumours from the epiglottis, mouth, tongue, palate, uvula and the sublingual area. Several of these case reports are remarkable for the accurate observation of clinical symptoms and signs, the aetiology, the pathogenesis and their therapeutic approach in relation to prognosis. The Hippocratic authors report cases of 'aphthae' as part of a polysystemic disease, described many centuries later by Behçet and Adamantiades, while they associate features of splenomegaly from endemic malaria with gingivitis ('ulitis')...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707983/signs-of-gas-trapping-in-normal-lung-density-regions-in-smokers
#4
Sandeep Bodduluri, Joseph M Reinhardt, Eric A Hoffman, John D Newell, Hrudaya Nath, Mark T Dransfield, Surya P Bhatt
RATIONALE: A substantial proportion of subjects without overt airflow obstruction have significant respiratory morbidity and structural abnormalities on computed tomography (CT). Whether regions of the lung that appear normal using traditional CT criteria have mild disease is not known. OBJECTIVE: To identity subthreshold structural disease in normal appearing lung regions in smokers. METHODS: We analyzed 8034 subjects with complete inspiratory and expiratory CT data participating in COPDGene including 103 lifetime non-smokers...
July 14, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692348/the-g-allele-of-mmp12-82-a%C3%A2-%C3%A2-g-promoter-polymorphism-as-a-protective-factor-for-copd-in-bulgarian-population
#5
Tanya Tacheva, Dimo Dimov, Elina Aleksandrova, Monika Bialecka, Maya Gulubova, Tatyana Vlaykova
Chronic inflammation and remodelling of the small airways are features related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the current study, we aimed to explore the possible role of MMP12 -82 A > G (rs2276109) promoter polymorphism in the development of COPD in a population from Bulgaria (167 patients with COPD and 119 control individuals). The genotype and allele distributions differed significantly between COPD patients and controls (p = .010 and p = .043, respectively, χ(2) test)...
July 10, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682006/air-trapping-in-early-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease-does-ct-tell-the-full-story
#6
Tim Rosenow, Kathryn Ramsey, Lidija Turkovic, Conor P Murray, L Clara Mok, Graham L Hall, Stephen M Stick
INTRODUCTION: Mosaic attenuation on expiratory chest computed tomography (CT) is common in early life cystic fibrosis (CF) and often referred to as "air trapping". It is presumed to be localized hyperinflation due to small airway obstruction. In order to test this assumption, we compared air trapping extent to lung volumes measured on CT in young children with CF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children aged below 7 years undergoing inspiratory/expiratory CT were recruited from the Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis cohort...
July 6, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668356/frequency-of-exacerbations-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-an-analysis-of-the-spiromics-cohort
#7
MeiLan K Han, Pedro M Quibrera, Elizabeth E Carretta, R Graham Barr, Eugene R Bleecker, Russell P Bowler, Christopher B Cooper, Alejandro Comellas, David J Couper, Jeffrey L Curtis, Gerard Criner, Mark T Dransfield, Nadia N Hansel, Eric A Hoffman, Richard E Kanner, Jerry A Krishnan, Carlos H Martinez, Cheryl B Pirozzi, Wanda K O'Neal, Stephen Rennard, Donald P Tashkin, Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Prescott Woodruff, Robert Paine, Fernando J Martinez
BACKGROUND: Present treatment strategies to stratify exacerbation risk in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rely on a history of two or more events in the previous year. We aimed to understand year to year variability in exacerbations and factors associated with consistent exacerbations over time. METHODS: In this longitudinal, prospective analysis of exacerbations in the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort, we analysed patients aged 40-80 years with COPD for whom 3 years of prospective data were available, identified through various means including care at academic and non-academic medical centres, word of mouth, and existing patient registries...
June 28, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661199/respiratory-microbiota-and-lower-respiratory-tract-disease
#8
Miguel Lanaspa, Quique Bassat, Marcia Melo Medeiros, Camen Muñoz-Almagro
The respiratory airways harbor a complex succession of ecological niches with distinct but related bacterial communities. Particular challenges of respiratory microbiome research have led to limited scientific output compared to other human microbiomes. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of the bacterial respiratory microbiome, with a particular focus on associations between the respiratory microbiome and lower respiratory tract conditions. Expert commentary: There is growing evidence that the respiratory microbiome is associated with lower respiratory infectious diseases and related conditions...
June 29, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657201/comparison-of-low-and-ultra-low-dose-computed-tomography-protocols-for-quantitative-lung-and-airway-assessment
#9
Emily Hammond, Chelsea Sloan, John D Newell, Jered P Sieren, Melissa Saylor, Craig Vidal, Shayna Hogue, Frank De Stefano, Alexa Sieren, Eric A Hoffman, Jessica C Sieren
PURPOSE: Quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures are increasingly being developed and used to characterize lung disease. With recent advances in CT technologies, we sought to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of lung imaging at low and ultra-low radiation doses with the use of iterative reconstruction (IR), tube current modulation (TCM), and spectral shaping. METHODS: We investigated the effect of five independent CT protocols reconstructed with IR on quantitative airway measures and global lung measures using an in-vivo large animal model as a human subject surrogate...
June 28, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652535/clinical-application-of-ghrelin-for-chronic-respiratory-failure
#10
Nobuhiro Matsumoto, Hironobu Tsubouchi, Yoshifumi Imazu, Yasuji Arimura, Shigehisa Yanagi, Hirotoshi Iiboshi, Masamitsu Nakazato
Chronic respiratory failure, which is often caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic lower respiratory tract infection, or interstitial pneumonia, often leads to cachexia with disease progression. Patients who have chronic respiratory failure with cachexia exhibit increased morbidity. Although cachectic status is an important clinical problem, there are no effective therapies for cachexia. Ghrelin has various effects, including increasing food intake, attenuating sympathetic nerve activity, inhibiting inflammation, increasing cardiac output, and controlling fat utilization...
2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651906/lung-clearance-index-is-sensitive-to-small-airway-disease-in-pediatric-lung-transplant-recipients
#11
Julia E Kao, Jacquelyn M Zirbes, Carol K Conrad, Carlos E Milla
BACKGROUND: The principal obstacle to long-term survival after lung transplant is chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), which primarily affects the small airways. After transplant, patients are monitored with spirometry, which is a generally insensitive detector of small airways obstruction. The lung clearance index (LCI) is a measure obtained during multiple breath washout (MBW) maneuvers. We hypothesized that among lung allograft recipients, LCI would detect small airways disease not detected with spirometry...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649293/small-airways-disease-and-severe-asthma
#12
REVIEW
Tara F Carr, Roula Altisheh, Myron Zitt
The small airways of the lungs are commonly affected in pediatric and adult asthma. Small airways disease has been related to asthma control, severity, and risk of exacerbation. Diagnosis of small airways disease can be best made through evaluation of surgical lung specimens. Noninvasive techniques including spirometry, plethysmography, nitrogen washout, impulse oscillometry, and cross-sectional imaging have been utilized to assess and infer the extent of small airways disease in asthma and can be used longitudinally to assess response to treatment...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640441/adipose-tissue-derived-omentin-1-function-and-regulation
#13
Takuya Watanabe, Kaho Watanabe-Kominato, Yui Takahashi, Miho Kojima, Rena Watanabe
Omentin-1, also known as intelectin-1, is a recently identified novel adipocytokine of 313 amino acids, which is expressed in visceral (omental and epicardial) fat as well as mesothelial cells, vascular cells, airway goblet cells, small intestine, colon, ovary, and plasma. The level of omentin-1 expression in (pre)adipocytes is decreased by glucose/insulin and stimulated by fibroblast growth factor-21 and dexamethasone. Several lines of experimental evidence have shown that omentin-1 plays crucial roles in the maintenance of body metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, and cardiovascular protective effects via AMP-activated protein kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, JNK, and p38) signaling...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634955/human-lung-small-airway-on-a-chip-protocol
#14
Kambez H Benam, Marc Mazur, Youngjae Choe, Thomas C Ferrante, Richard Novak, Donald E Ingber
Organs-on-chips are microfluidic cell culture devices created using microchip manufacturing techniques that contain hollow microchannels lined by living cells, which recreate specialized tissue-tissue interfaces, physical microenvironments, and vascular perfusion necessary to recapitulate organ-level physiology in vitro. Here we describe a protocol for fabrication, culture, and operation of a human lung "small airway-on-a-chip," which contains a differentiated, mucociliary bronchiolar epithelium exposed to air and an underlying microvascular endothelium that experiences fluid flow...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626064/monitoring-c3ar-expression-using-a-floxed-tdtomato-c3ar-reporter-knock-in-mouse
#15
Katharina M Quell, Christian M Karsten, Anna Kordowski, Larissa Nogueira Almeida, Daria Briukhovetska, Anna V Wiese, Jing Sun, Fanny Ender, Konstantina Antoniou, Torsten Schröder, Inken Schmudde, Johann L Berger, Peter König, Tillman Vollbrandt, Yves Laumonnier, Jörg Köhl
C3a exerts multiple biologic functions through activation of its cognate C3a receptor. C3(-/-) and C3aR(-/-) mice have been instrumental in defining important roles of the C3a/C3aR axis in the regulation of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, allergic asthma, autoimmune nephritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Surprisingly little is known about C3aR expression and function in immune and stromal cells. To close this gap, we generated a floxed tandem-dye Tomato (tdTomato)-C3aR reporter knock-in mouse, which we used to monitor C3aR expression in cells residing in the lung, airways, lamina propria (LP) of the small intestine, brain, visceral adipose tissue, bone marrow (BM), spleen, and the circulation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617814/risk-of-pneumonia-in-obstructive-lung-disease-a-real-life-study-comparing-extra-fine-and-fine-particle-inhaled-corticosteroids
#16
Samatha Sonnappa, Richard Martin, Elliot Israel, Dirkje Postma, Wim van Aalderen, Annie Burden, Omar S Usmani, David B Price
BACKGROUND: Regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with obstructive lung diseases has been associated with a higher risk of pneumonia, particularly in COPD. The risk of pneumonia has not been previously evaluated in relation to ICS particle size and dose used. METHODS: Historical cohort, UK database study of 23,013 patients with obstructive lung disease aged 12-80 years prescribed extra-fine or fine-particle ICS. The endpoints assessed during the outcome year were diagnosis of pneumonia, acute exacerbations and acute respiratory events in relation to ICS dose...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603413/identifying-the-heterogeneity-of-copd-by-v-p-spect-a-new-tool-for-improving-the-diagnosis-of-parenchymal-defects-and-grading-the-severity-of-small-airways-disease
#17
M Bajc, Y Chen, J Wang, X Y Li, W M Shen, C Z Wang, H Huang, A Lindqvist, X Y He
INTRODUCTION: Airway obstruction and possible concomitant pulmonary diseases in COPD cannot be identified conventionally with any single diagnostic tool. We aimed to diagnose and grade COPD severity and identify pulmonary comorbidities associated with COPD with ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/P SPECT) using Technegas as the functional ventilation imaging agent. METHODS: 94 COPD patients (aged 43-86 years, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages I-IV) were examined with V/P SPECT and spirometry...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603412/in-vitro-dose-comparison-of-respimat-%C3%A2-inhaler-with-dry-powder-inhalers-for-copd-maintenance-therapy
#18
Anna-Maria Ciciliani, Peter Langguth, Herbert Wachtel
BACKGROUND: Combining in vitro mouth-throat deposition measurements, cascade impactor data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, four different inhalers were compared which are indicated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment. METHODS: The Respimat inhaler, the Breezhaler, the Genuair, and the Ellipta were coupled to the idealized Alberta throat model. The modeled dose to the lung (mDTL) was collected downstream of the Alberta throat model using either a filter or a next generation impactor (NGI)...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601047/role-of-epigenetics-in-the-pathogenesis-of-asthma
#19
Zahra Alizadeh, Esmaeil Mortaz, Ian Adcock, Mostafa Moin
Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous and chronic airway inflammatory disease with different clinical phenotypes caused by diverse triggers and pathophysiological mechanisms. Asthma heritability has been established in many genetic studies but it is evident that only genetic elements are not responsible for the development of asthma. Increasing rate of asthma incidence during past decades has implicated the role of epigenetics in development of asthma. Environmental factors perform as initiator signals through epigenetic mechanisms...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596268/application-of-euclidean-distance-mapping-for-assessment-of-basement-membrane-thickness-distribution-in-asthma
#20
Leila B Mostaco-Guidolin, Soheil M Hajimohammadi, Dragos Mihai Vasilescu, Tillie-Louise Hackett
Abnormal thickening of the airway basement membrane is one of the hallmarks of airway remodeling in asthma. Current protocols for measuring the basement membrane involve the use of stained tissue sections and measurements of the basement membrane thickness at certain intervals, followed by the calculation of the geometric mean thickness for each airway. This report describes an automated, unbiased approach which uses colour segmentation to identify structures of interest on stained sections and euclidean distance mapping to measure the thickness distribution of airway structures...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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