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Small airway disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468936/copd-as-an-endothelial-disorder-endothelial-injury-linking-lesions-in-the-lungs-and-other-organs-2017-grover-conference-series
#1
Francesca Polverino, Bartolome R Celli, Caroline A Owen
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic expiratory airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible. COPD patients develop varying degrees of emphysema, small and large airway disease, and various co-morbidities. It has not been clear whether these co-morbidities share common underlying pathogenic processes with the pulmonary lesions. Early research into the pathogenesis of COPD focused on the contributions of injury to the extracellular matrix and pulmonary epithelial cells...
January 2018: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467201/small-airways-dysfunction-the-link-between-allergic-rhinitis-and-allergic-asthma
#2
Amaryllis Haccuria, Alain Van Muylem, Andrei Malinovschi, Vi Doan, Alain Michils
Abnormal airway reactivity and overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) occurring in small airways have been found in asthma. If the "one airway, one disease" concept is consistent, such dysfunctions should also be detected in the peripheral airways of patients suffering from allergic rhinitis.We investigated whether peripheral airway reactivity and NO overproduction could be documented in distal airways in patients with allergic rhinitis. Exhaled NO fraction ( F eNO ) and the slope (S) of phase III of the single-breath washout test (SBWT) of helium (He) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) were measured in 31 patients with allergic asthma, 23 allergic rhinitis patients and 24 controls, before and after sputum induction...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466041/histologic-investigation-of-airway-inflammation-in-postmortem-lung-samples-from-racehorses
#3
Fe Ter Woort, Jeff L Caswell, Luis G Arroyo, Laurent Viel
OBJECTIVE To describe histologic findings in the small airways during postmortem examination of actively racing horses and to quantify the degree of airway inflammation by use of a semiquantitative scoring system. SAMPLE Lung tissues obtained from 95 horses (Thoroughbreds, Standardbreds, and Quarter Horses) that had been actively racing or training. PROCEDURES 10 standardized lung sections were obtained during postmortem examination of 37 horses that had been actively racing or training, and 2 histologic sections of the caudodorsal lung lobes previously collected from each of 58 horses that died or were euthanized during racing or training were also obtained...
March 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461890/small-airway-disease-syndromes-piercing-the-quiet-zone
#4
Kenneth I Berger
The role for direct assessment of small airway function in subjects with respiratory symptoms but normal airflow by spirometry is discussed. Small airway disease syndrome is described in numerous disease states using a multidisciplinary approach. Data demonstrate that small airway disease is related to presence of respiratory symptoms, exposure to inhaled toxins, presence of local and systemic inflammation, and presence of histologic abnormalities within the distal lung. Investigation of immunological derangements associated with distal airway dysfunction in the setting of normal spirometry may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that are present at disease onset...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461883/structure-and-function-relationships-in-diseases-of-the-small-airways
#5
James C Hogg, Tillie-Louise Hackett
It is well known that particulate matter suspended in the earth's atmosphere generated by tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust, industrial processes, and forest fires has been identified as a major risk factor for chronic lung disease. Particulate matter can be divided into large, intermediate, and fine particulates. When inhaled, large particulates develop sufficient momentum to leave the flowing stream of inhaled air and deposit by impaction in the nose, mouth, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea, and central bronchi...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458746/stridor-combined-with-other-sleep-breathing-disorders-in-multiple-system-atrophy-a-tailored-treatment
#6
Saleheddine Rekik, Francis Martin, Pauline Dodet, Stefania Redolfi, Smaranda Leu-Semenescu, Jean-Christophe Corvol, David Grabli, Isabelle Arnulf
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of sleep breathing disorders in multiple systemic atrophy (MSA, combining Parkinsonism, cerebellar syndrome, and dysautonomia) and evaluate the benefit/tolerance of various modes of ventilation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 45 patients with MSA having undergone a videopolysomnography. Their sleep characteristics were compared to those of 45 patients with Parkinson's disease and 45 healthy controls, matched for age and sex...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458372/relationship-of-ct-quantified-emphysema-small-airways-disease-and-bronchial-wall-dimensions-with-physiological-inflammatory-and-infective-measures-in-copd
#7
Kristoffer Ostridge, Nicholas P Williams, Viktoriya Kim, Stephen Harden, Simon Bourne, Stuart C Clarke, Emmanuel Aris, Sonia Mesia-Vela, Jeanne-Marie Devaster, Andrew Tuck, Anthony Williams, Stephen Wootton, Karl J Staples, Tom M A Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: COPD is a complex, heterogeneous disease characterised by progressive development of airflow limitation. Spirometry provides little information about key aspects of pathology and is poorly related to clinical outcome, so other tools are required to investigate the disease. We sought to explore the relationships between quantitative CT analysis with functional, inflammatory and infective assessments of disease to identify the utility of imaging to stratify disease to better predict outcomes and disease response...
February 20, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457137/correcting-nonpathological-variation-in-longitudinal-parametric-response-maps-of-ct-scans-in-copd-subjects-spiromics
#8
Antonio Fernández-Baldera, Charles R Hatt, Susan Murray, Eric A Hoffman, Ella A Kazerooni, Fernando J Martinez, MeiLan K Han, Craig J Galbán
Small airways disease (SAD) is one of the leading causes of airflow limitations in patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Parametric response mapping (PRM) of computed tomography (CT) scans allows for the quantification of this previously invisible COPD component. Although PRM is being investigated as a diagnostic tool for COPD, variability in the longitudinal measurements of SAD by PRM has been reported. Here, we show a method for correcting longitudinal PRM data because of non-pathological variations in serial CT scans...
September 2017: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447055/advanced-microengineered-lung-models-for-translational-drug-discovery
#9
Brian F Niemeyer, Peng Zhao, Rubin M Tuder, Kambez H Benam
Lung diseases impose a significant socioeconomic burden and are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Moreover, respiratory medicine, unlike several other therapeutic areas, faces a disappointingly low number of new approved therapies. This is partly due to lack of reliable in vitro or in vivo models that can reproduce organ-level complexity and pathophysiological responses of human lung. Here, we examine new opportunities in application of recently emerged organ-on-chip technology to model human lung alveolus and small airway in preclinical drug development and biomarker discovery...
February 1, 2018: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446321/pulmonary-il-1%C3%AE-expression-in-early-life-causes-permanent-changes-in-lung-structure-and-function-in-adulthood
#10
Anna Hogmalm, Maija Bry, Kristina Bry
Chorioamnionitis, mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, and postnatal infection promote inflammation in the newborn lung. The long-term consequences of pulmonary inflammation during infancy have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of inflammation during the late saccular to alveolar stages of lung development on lung structure and function in adulthood. To induce IL-1β expression in the pulmonary epithelium of mice with a tetracycline-inducible human IL-1β transgene, doxycycline was administered via intraperitoneal injections to bitransgenic pups and their littermate controls on postnatal days (PN) 0, 0...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444912/analysis-of-airway-pathology-in-copd-using-a-combination-of-computed-tomography-micro-computed-tomography-and-histology
#11
Naoya Tanabe, Dragoş M Vasilescu, Miranda Kirby, Harvey O Coxson, Stijn E Verleden, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Daisuke Kinose, Yasutaka Nakano, Peter D Paré, James C Hogg
The small conducting airways are the major site of obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study examined small airway pathology using a novel combination of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT), micro-computed tomography (microCT) and histology.Airway branches visible on specimen MDCT were counted and the dimensions of the third- to fifth-generation airways were computed, while the terminal bronchioles (designated TB), preterminal bronchioles (TB-1) and pre-preterminal bronchioles (TB-2) were examined with microCT and histology in eight explanted lungs with end-stage COPD and seven unused donor lungs that served as controls...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438818/small-and-large-airway-reactions-to-osmotic-stimuli-in-asthma-and-chronic-idiopathic-cough
#12
Ewa-Lena Johansson, Ewa Ternesten-Hasséus, Per Gustafsson, Teet Pullerits, Monica Arvidsson, Eva Millqvist
BACKGROUND: Chronic cough is a common symptom and related to several pulmonary, airway and heart diseases. When all likely medical explanations for the coughing are excluded, there remains a large group of patients with chronic coughing, which is mostly a cough reflex easily triggered by environmental irritants and noxious stimuli. The main aim of this study was to improve the diagnostic ability to differentiate chronic idiopathic cough (CIC) from asthma. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with CIC, 16 patients with mild asthma and 21 control participants were included...
February 10, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432712/expiratory-flow-limitation-during-mechanical-ventilation
#13
REVIEW
Detajin Junhasavasdikul, Irene Telias, Domenico Luca Grieco, Lu Chen, Cinta Millan Gutierrez, Thomas Piraino, Laurent Brochard
Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is present when the flow cannot rise despite an increase of the expiratory driving pressure. The mechanisms of EFL are debated but are thought to be related to the collapsibility of small airways. In mechanically ventilated patients, EFL can exist during tidal ventilation, representing an extreme situation where lung volume cannot decrease whatever the expiratory driving forces. It is a key factor for the generation of auto- or intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP or PEEPi) and requires specific management such as positioning and adjustment of external PEEP...
February 9, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428733/mice-overexpressing-latent-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-develop-lung-emphysema-after-short-term-exposure-to-cigarette-smoke-extract
#14
Masahiro Onishi, Tetsu Kobayashi, Corina N D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Hajime Fujimoto, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi Chelakkot-Govindalayathil, Yoshinori Takahashi, Taro Yasuma, Kota Nishihama, Masaaki Toda, Yoshiyuki Takei, Osamu Taguchi, Esteban C Gabazza
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is the major growing cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and it is going to become the third most common cause of death by 2020. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is pathologically characterized by lung emphysema and small airway inflammation. Animal models are very important to get insights into the disease pathogenesis but current models of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease take a long time to develop. The need of a new model is compelling. In the present study we focus on the role of matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hypothesized that lung overexpression of latent matrix metalloproteinases-2 would allow the development of emphysema after short-term exposure to cigarette smoke extract inhalation...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427981/environmental-causes-of-asthma
#15
Donald W Cockcroft
Environmental factors which cause asthma are those that induce airway inflammation with eosinophils (more common) or neutrophils along with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The most common of these (indeed the most common cause of asthma) are IgE-mediated inhalant allergen exposures. Allergen-induced AHR and inflammation are both associated with the allergen-induced late asthmatic response (LAR). Although allergens were previously recognized only as causes of symptoms and bronchoconstriction in asthmatics, we now appreciate them as causes of the fundamental pathophysiologic features of asthma...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426724/factors-affecting-the-outcome-of-adenoidectomy-in-children-treated-for-chronic-otitis-media-with-effusion
#16
Sarantis Blioskas, Petros Karkos, George Psillas, Stamatia Dova, Marios Stavrakas, Konstantinos Markou
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort was to determine potential risk factors, concerning the effectiveness of adenoidectomy in the treatment of chronic otitis media with effusion in children. METHODS: Ninety six children with chronic otitis media with effusion treated with adenoidectomy were enrolled in this study. A thorough medical history was taken, including family history of otologic disease, parental smoking habits and breast feeding history. Radiographic palatal airway size was measured preoperatively, whereas the presence of allergy was also investigated...
February 6, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423947/the-effects-of-a-ccr3-inhibitor-axp1275-on-allergen-induced-airway-responses-in-adults-with-mild-to-moderate-atopic-asthma
#17
G M Gauvreau, J M FitzGerald, L P Boulet, R M Watson, L Hui, H Villineuve, T X Scime, A R Schlatman, C Obminski, J Kum, S Boehme, T W Ly, K B Bacon, P M O'Byrne
BACKGROUND: CCR3 is the cognate receptor for major human eosinophil chemoattractants from the eotaxin family of proteins that are elevated in asthma and correlate with disease severity. OBJECTIVE: This proof-of-mechanism study examined the effect of AXP1275, an oral, small-molecule inhibitor of CCR3, on airway responses to inhaled allergen challenge. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects with mild atopic asthma and documented early and late asthmatic responses to an inhaled aeroallergen completed a randomized double-blind crossover study to compare early and late allergen-induced asthmatic responses, methacholine PC20 , blood and sputum eosinophils, and exhaled nitric oxide after 2 weeks of treatment with once-daily doses of AXP1275 (50 mg) or placebo...
February 9, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411860/self-management-for-bronchiectasis
#18
REVIEW
Carol Kelly, Seamus Grundy, Dave Lynes, David Jw Evans, Sharada Gudur, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a long term respiratory condition with an increasing rate of diagnosis. It is associated with persistent symptoms, repeated infective exacerbations, and reduced quality of life, imposing a burden on individuals and healthcare systems. The main aims of therapeutic management are to reduce exacerbations and improve quality of life. Self-management interventions are potentially important for empowering people with bronchiectasis to manage their condition more effectively and to seek care in a timely manner...
February 7, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406779/at-the-root-defining-and-halting-progression-of-early-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#19
Fernando J Martinez, MeiLan K Han, James P Allinson, R Graham Barr, Richard C Boucher, Peter Calverley, Bartolome R Celli, Stephanie A Christenson, Ronald G Crystal, Malin Fagerås, Christine M Freeman, Lars Groenke, Eric A Hoffman, Mehmet Kesimer, Konstantinos Kostikas, Robert Paine Iii, Shahin Rafii, Stephen I Rennard, Leopoldo N Segal, Renat Shaykhiev, Christopher Stevenson, Ruth Tal-Singer, Jørgen Vestbo, Prescott G Woodruff, Jeffrey L Curtis, Jadwiga A Wedzicha
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disorder with varying presentations and progression, but limited disease-modifying therapies. Trajectories of lung function decline in COPD differ significantly between individuals, with differences detectable in young adulthood. "Early disease" (initial manifestations in young individuals) should be distinguished from "late mild disease" (disease of mild severity in older individuals potentially present for decades). For research purposes, we propose an operational definition of early COPD: ever-smokers (≥10 pack-years) younger than 50 years with any of these abnormalities: (1) FEV1/FVC< lower limit of normal; (2) compatible CT abnormalities (airway abnormality and/or emphysema); or (3) FEV1 decline (≥60 mL/year)...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400694/all-plugged-up-noninvasive-mucus-score-to-assess-airway-dysfunction-in-asthma
#20
Steve N Georas
Asthma is remarkably heterogeneous, and there are multiple underlying inflammatory pathways and structural airway abnormalities that lead to symptomatic disease. Consequently, a current challenge in the field is to precisely characterize different types of asthma, with the goal of developing personalized approaches to therapy. In the current issue of the JCI, Dunican et al. developed a noninvasive way to assess airway dysfunction in asthma by measuring mucus accumulation using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and found that mucus plugging of small airways was remarkably common in subjects with severe asthma...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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