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Small airway disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345955/smoking-dependent-distal-to-proximal-repatterning-of-the-adult-human-small-airway-epithelium
#1
Jing Yang, Wu-Lin Zuo, Tomoya Fukui, IonWa Chao, Kazunori Gomi, Busub Lee, Michelle R Staudt, Robert J Kaner, Yael Strulovici-Barel, Jacqueline Salit, Ronald G Crystal, Renat Shaykhiev
RATIONALE: Small airways are the primary site of pathologic changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the major smoking-induced lung disorder. OBJECTIVES: Based on the concept of proximal-distal patterning that determines regional specialization of the airway epithelium during lung development, we hypothesized that a similar program operates in the adult human lung being altered by smoking leading to decreased regional identity of the small airway epithelium (SAE)...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344354/hdac1-3-inhibitor-ms-275-enhances-il10-expression-in-raw264-7-macrophages-and-reduces-cigarette-smoke-induced-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#2
Niek G J Leus, Thea van den Bosch, Petra E van der Wouden, Kim Krist, Maria E Ourailidou, Nikolaos Eleftheriadis, Loes E M Kistemaker, Sophie Bos, Rutger A F Gjaltema, Solomon A Mekonnen, Rainer Bischoff, Reinoud Gosens, Hidde J Haisma, Frank J Dekker
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes a major health burden. Studying underlying molecular mechanisms could lead to new therapeutic targets. Macrophages are orchestrators of COPD, by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. This process relies on transcription factors such as NF-κB, among others. NF-κB is regulated by lysine acetylation; a post-translational modification installed by histone acetyltransferases and removed by histone deacetylases (HDACs). We hypothesized that small molecule HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) targeting class I HDACs members that can regulate NF-κB could attenuate inflammatory responses in COPD via modulation of the NF-κB signaling output...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335732/lung-function-associated-gene-integrator-complex-subunit-12-regulates-protein-synthesis-pathways
#3
Alexander K Kheirallah, Cornelia H de Moor, Alen Faiz, Ian Sayers, Ian P Hall
BACKGROUND: Genetic studies of human lung function and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease have identified a highly significant and reproducible signal on 4q24. It remains unclear which of the two candidate genes within this locus may regulate lung function: GSTCD, a gene with unknown function, and/or INTS12, a member of the Integrator Complex which is currently thought to mediate 3'end processing of small nuclear RNAs. RESULTS: We found that, in lung tissue, 4q24 polymorphisms associated with lung function correlate with INTS12 but not neighbouring GSTCD expression...
March 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328157/lack-of-small-colony-variants-of-staphylococcus-aureus-from-lower-respiratory-tract-specimens
#4
Rosemary Carzino, Emily Hart, Philip Sutton, Louise King, Sarath Ranganathan
BACKGROUND: Small-colony variants (SCVs) of Staphylococcus aureus are associated with worse lung disease in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF), exhibit a higher resistance to antibiotics and co-colonize more commonly with Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to the normal phenotype. The prevalence of SCVs in lower airway specimens from children with CF is largely unknown. METHODS: Each visible morphotype of S. aureus was subcultured onto horse blood agar (HBA) to enable identification of SCVs...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326668/profiling-cellular-and-inflammatory-changes-in-the-airway-wall-of-mild-to-moderate-copd
#5
Mathew S Eapen, Kielan McAlinden, Daniel Tan, Steven Weston, Chris Ward, Hans K Muller, Eugene H Walters, Sukhwinder S Sohal
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to enumerate total cells and the number of inflammatory cell differentials in large airways (LAs) versus small airways (SAs) of mild-moderate COPD, and against appropriate controls. METHODS: For LA, we used endobronchial biopsies and for SA resected lung tissues. Immunostaining was enumerated (cells per mm(2) ) for macrophages, neutrophils, CD4 and CD8 T cells in the lamina propria (LP) up to 150 µM deep for LA and full wall thickness for SA...
March 22, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323735/covered-balloon-expanding-stents-in-airway-stenosis
#6
Adnan Majid, Fayez Kheir, Jey Chung, Daniel Alape, Bryan Husta, Scott Oh, Erik Folch
BACKGROUND: The balloon-expanding stents are widely available but rarely described for use within the tracheobronchial tree. This report describes our experience with these stents in airway stenosis particularly as a lobar salvage therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of all records in which the balloon-expanding stents were used at a tertiary medical center. Ages, sex, location of stenosis, etiology of stenosis, stent size, duration of stent placement and associated interventions for airway stenosis were recorded...
April 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322440/psychological-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-anxiety-disorders-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#7
REVIEW
Zafar A Usmani, Kristin V Carson, Karen Heslop, Adrian J Esterman, Anthony De Soyza, Brian J Smith
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (commonly referred to as chronic bronchitis and emphysema) is a chronic lung condition characterised by the inflammation of airways and irreversible destruction of pulmonary tissue leading to progressively worsening dyspnoea. It is a leading international cause of disability and death in adults. Evidence suggests that there is an increased prevalence of anxiety disorders in people with COPD. The severity of anxiety has been shown to correlate with the severity of COPD, however anxiety can occur with all stages of COPD severity...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300726/a-computational-comparison-of-the-multiple-breath-washout-and-forced-oscillation-technique-as-markers-of-bronchoconstriction
#8
Brody H Foy, David Kay
Many types of lung disease lead to constriction of airways within the conducting zone, causing increases in airway resistance and ventilation heterogeneity (VH). The multiple-breath washout (MBW) and forced oscillation technique (FOT) are two clinical measures of small airway bronchoconstriction. Within this study computational modelling of the MBW and FOT was applied to the analysis of thousands of bronchoconstriction scenarios in the conducting zone of the lungs. The simulations show that MBW indices primarily respond to the severity of constriction, while FOT indices may be able to distinguish between constrictions at differing airway depths...
March 12, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300553/neutrophil-elastase-inhibitor-sivelestat-ameliorates-gefitinib-naphthalene-induced-acute-pneumonitis-in-mice
#9
Hironori Mikumo, Toyoshi Yanagihara, Naoki Hamada, Eiji Harada, Saiko Ogata-Suetsugu, Chika Ikeda-Harada, Masako Arimura-Omori, Kunihiro Suzuki, Testuya Yokoyama, Yoichi Nakanishi
Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), is an effective therapeutic agent for non-small cell lung cancer with EGFR mutations. It can cause severe acute pneumonitis in some patients. We previously demonstrated that mice with naphthalene-induced airway epithelial injury developed severe gefitinib-induced pneumonitis and that neutrophils played important roles in the development of the disease. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the neutrophil elastase inhibitor sivelestat on gefitinib-induced pneumonitis in mice...
April 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298960/lung-volume-reduction-coils-as-a-novel-bronchoscopic-treatment-for-emphysema
#10
Timothy A Connolly
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite regular advances in pharmacology, there remains great potential for addressing structural deficiencies, especially in emphysema. The loss of alveolar attachments to small bronchial tubes results in diffuse loss of elastic recoil and airway collapse during exhalation. This appears physiologically as hyperinflation of lung volumes with flattened diaphragms and significantly elevated residual volumes (RV) on pulmonary function testing (predicted RV > 175%)...
October 2016: Methodist DeBakey Cardiovascular Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295526/pharmacological-treatments-in-asthma-affected-horses-a-pair-wise-and-network-meta-analysis
#11
L Calzetta, P Roncada, D di Cave, L Bonizzi, A Urbani, E Pistocchini, P Rogliani, M G Matera
BACKGROUND: Equine asthma is a disease characterised by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation following exposure of susceptible horses to specific airborne agents. Although clinical remission can be achieved in a low-airborne dust environment, repeated exacerbations may lead to irreversible airway remodelling. The available data on the pharmacotherapy of equine asthma results from several small studies, and no head-to-head clinical trials have been conducted among the available medications...
March 10, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288272/interventions-to-improve-inhaler-technique-for-people-with-asthma
#12
REVIEW
Rebecca Normansell, Kayleigh M Kew, Alexander G Mathioudakis
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic disease worldwide. Inhalers are often prescribed to help control asthma symptoms, improve quality of life and reduce the risk of exacerbations or flare-ups. However, evidence suggests that many people with asthma do not use their inhaler correctly. It is therefore important to evaluate whether interventions aimed specifically at improving technique are effective and safe, and whether use of these interventions translates into improved clinical outcomes...
March 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279811/selective-expansion-of-human-regulatory-t-cells-in-nasal-polyps-and-not-adjacent-tissue-microenvironments-in-individual-patients-exposed-to-steroids
#13
Justin A Edward, Mrinmoy Sanyal, Wei Le, Ethan Soudry, Vijay R Ramakrishnan, Dawn T Bravo, Alan L Nguyen, David Zarabanda, Todd T Kingdom, Peter H Hwang, C Garrison Fathman, Jayakar V Nayak
Severe forms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), a common upper airway inflammatory disorder, are associated with nasal polyps (NPs). NP disease is ameliorated by glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, whose cellular effects are poorly understood. We therefore assessed the influence of GC therapy on NPs in CRS patients, focusing on regulatory T (Treg) cells. Treg cell populations were analyzed by flow cytometry in NPs and control tissues from GC-treated CRS patients and controls. After GC exposure, selective expansion of Treg cells was seen within NPs, and not blood or adjacent ethmoid tissues...
March 6, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274525/epithelial-and-endothelial-cell-plasticity-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#14
REVIEW
Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is mainly caused by smoking and presents with shortness of breath that is progressive and irreversible. It is a worldwide health problem and the fourth most common cause of chronic disability and mortality (even in developed countries). It is a complex disease involving both the airway and lung parenchyma. Small-airway fibrosis is the main contributor to physiological airway dysfunction in COPD. One potential mechanism contributing to small-airway fibrosis is epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
March 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273093/waterpipe-smoking-induces-epigenetic-changes-in-the-small-airway-epithelium
#15
Matthew S Walters, Jacqueline Salit, Jin Hyun Ju, Michelle R Staudt, Robert J Kaner, Allison M Rogalski, Teniola B Sodeinde, Riyaad Rahim, Yael Strulovici-Barel, Jason G Mezey, Ahmad M Almulla, Hisham Sattar, Mai Mahmoud, Ronald G Crystal
Waterpipe (also called hookah, shisha, or narghile) smoking is a common form of tobacco use in the Middle East. Its use is becoming more prevalent in Western societies, especially among young adults as an alternative form of tobacco use to traditional cigarettes. While the risk to cigarette smoking is well documented, the risk to waterpipe smoking is not well defined with limited information on its health impact at the epidemiologic, clinical and biologic levels with respect to lung disease. Based on the knowledge that airway epithelial cell DNA methylation is modified in response to cigarette smoke and in cigarette smoking-related lung diseases, we assessed the impact of light-use waterpipe smoking on DNA methylation of the small airway epithelium (SAE) and whether changes in methylation were linked to the transcriptional output of the cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262277/-the-interactions-between-microorganisms-and-the-small-airways-a-paediatric-focus
#16
REVIEW
J de Blic, J Brouard, A Vabret, A Deschildre
The spectrum of respiratory viruses is expanding and emerging diseases have been described regularly over the last fifteen years. The origin of these emerging respiratory viruses may be zoonotic (by crossing species barrier, after changes to RNA viruses such as avian influenza virus type A or coronaviruses), or related to the use of new identification techniques (metapneumovirus, bocavirus). The relationship between bronchiolitis and asthma is now better understood thanks to prospective follow up of birth cohorts...
February 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258938/ventilation-distribution-and-small-airway-function-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis
#17
B R A Silva, R Rufino, C H Costa, V S Vilela, R A Levy, A J Lopes
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of traditional pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in managing systemic sclerosis (SSc), many patients with pulmonary disease diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) present with normal PFTs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the nitrogen single-breath washout (N2SBW) test in diagnosing SSc and to correlate N2SBW parameters with the PFT indexes used in the follow-up of these patients, clinical data, and CT findings. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which 52 consecutive SSc patients were subjected to spirometry, body plethysmography, analysis of the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), analysis of respiratory muscle strength, N2SBW testing, and CT analysis...
March 1, 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258742/current-and-future-approaches-to-large-airways-imaging-in-adults-and-children
#18
REVIEW
T Semple, A Calder, C M Owens, S Padley
"Large airways disease" is a catch-all phrase encompassing a wide variety of pathology affecting the trachea, main, lobar, segmental, and proximal sub-segmental bronchi. Relevant pathologies can be divided into focal or diffuse processes and many conditions have classic appearances on computed tomography (CT). We provide a review of the imaging specifics of a wide range of large airway pathologies in adult, childhood, and fetal life with examples of common and rare pathologies ranging from well-known entities such as cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis to rarities such as Williams-Campbell, primary ciliary dyskinesia, and congenital high-airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248548/lung-function-in-south-african-adolescents-infected-perinatally-with-hiv-and-treated-long-term-with-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Leah Nyawira Githinji, Diane M Gray, Sipho Hlengwa, Landon Myer, Heather J Zar
RATIONALE: Lung disease is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in HIV-infected adolescents, but there is limited information on the spectrum of lung function impairment in adolescents on antiretroviral therapy. OBJECTIVES: To investigate lung function in HIV-infected adolescents on antiretroviral therapy in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort. METHODS: A total of 515 South African adolescents aged 9 to 14 years, stable on antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months, underwent baseline lung function testing...
March 1, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243798/respiratory-symptoms-are-poor-predictors-of-concomitant-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-patients-with-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#20
Victor Strevens Bolmgren, Peter Olsson, Per Wollmer, Roger Hesselstrand, Thomas Mandl
Involvement of the respiratory system, in particular dry airways and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is common in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). As respiratory symptoms are also common in pSS patients and may have different etiologies, we wanted to evaluate the amount and impact of respiratory symptoms in out-patients with pSS and to assess if such symptoms are related to concomitant COPD. The St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was used to assess respiratory symptoms...
February 27, 2017: Rheumatology International
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