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Small airway disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035132/hybrid-lipid-polymer-nanoparticles-for-pulmonary-delivery-of-sirna-development-and-fate-upon-in-vitro-deposition-on-the-human-epithelial-airway-barrier
#1
Ivana d'Angelo, Gabriella Costabile, Estelle Durantie, Paola Brocca, Valeria Rondelli, Annapina Russo, Giulia Russo, Agnese Miro, Fabiana Quaglia, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Francesca Ungaro
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the downregulation of genes involved in the pathogenesis of severe lung diseases through local siRNA delivery appears an interesting therapeutic approach. In this study, we propose novel hybrid lipid-polymer nanoparticles (hNPs) consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as siRNA inhalation system. METHODS: A panel of DPPC/PLGA hNPs was prepared by emulsion/solvent diffusion and fully characterized...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032316/fiber-reinforced-silicone-for-tracheobronchial-stents-an-experimental-study
#2
Samanta Bianchi Vearick, Kétner Bendo Demétrio, Rogério Gastal Xavier, Alexandre Heitor Moreschi, André Frotta Muller, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Luis Alberto Loureiro Dos Santos
A trachea is a tubular structure composed of smooth muscle that is reinforced with cartilage rings. Some diseases can cause sagging in smooth muscle and cartilaginous tissue. The end result is reduction (narrowing) of the trachea diameter. A solution to this problem is the use of tracheal stents, which are small tubular devices made of silicone. One is inserted into the trachea to prevent or correct its constriction. The purpose of tracheal stent use is to maintain cartilage support that would otherwise be lost in the airway...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029057/patient-specific-modelling-of-regional-tobramycin-concentration-levels-in-airways-of-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-can-we-dose-once-daily
#3
Aukje C Bos, Johan W Mouton, Mireille van Westreenen, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Hettie M Janssens, Harm A W M Tiddens
Background: Inhaled tobramycin is important in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( Pa ) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, despite its use it fails to attenuate the clinical progression of CF lung disease. The bactericidal efficacy of tobramycin is known to be concentration-dependent and hence changing the dosing regimen from a twice-daily (q12h) inhalation to a once-daily (q24h) inhaled double dose could improve treatment outcomes. Objectives: To predict local concentrations of nebulized tobramycin in the airways of patients with CF, delivered with the small airway-targeting Akita ® system or standard PARI-LC ® Plus system, with different inspiratory flow profiles...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026127/controlled-delivery-and-minimally-invasive-imaging-of-stem-cells-in-the-lung
#4
Jinho Kim, Brandon Guenthart, John D O'Neill, N Valerio Dorrello, Matthew Bacchetta, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic
Intratracheal delivery of stem cells into injured or diseased lungs can provide a variety of therapeutic and immunomodulatory effects for the treatment of acute lung injury and chronic lung disease. While the efficacy of this approach depends on delivering the proper cell dosage into the target region of the airway, tracking and analysis of the cells have been challenging, largely due to the limited understanding of cell transport and lack of suitable cell monitoring techniques. We report on the transport and deposition of intratracheally delivered stem cells as well as strategies to modulate the number of cells (e...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025711/toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-have-opposing-roles-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cigarette-smoke-induced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Tatt Jhong Haw, Malcolm R Starkey, Stelios Pavlidis, Michael Fricker, Anya L Arthurs, Prema Mono Nair, Gang Liu, Irwan Hanish, Richard Y Kim, Paul S Foster, Jay C Horvat, Ian M Adcock, Philip M Hansbro
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of morbidity and death and imposes major socioeconomic burdens globally. It is a progressive and disabling condition that severely impairs breathing and lung function. There is a lack of effective treatments for COPD, which is a direct consequence of the poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in driving the pathogenesis of the disease. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 are implicated in chronic respiratory diseases, including COPD, asthma and pulmonary fibrosis...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984368/autogenic-drainage-for-airway-clearance-in-cystic-fibrosis
#6
REVIEW
Pamela McCormack, Paul Burnham, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Autogenic drainage is an airway clearance technique that was developed by Jean Chevaillier in 1967. The technique is characterised by breathing control using expiratory airflow to mobilise secretions from smaller to larger airways. Secretions are cleared independently by adjusting the depth and speed of respiration in a sequence of controlled breathing techniques during exhalation. The technique requires training, concentration and effort from the individual. It is important to systematically review the evidence demonstrating that autogenic drainage is an effective intervention for people with cystic fibrosis...
October 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971976/recent-advances-in-our-understanding-of-the-mechanisms-of-late-lung-development-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#7
David Emanuel Surate Solaligue, José Alberto Rodríguez-Castillo, Katrin Ahlbrecht, Rory E Morty
The objective of lung development is to generate an organ of gas exchange that provides both a thin gas diffusion barrier and a large gas diffusion surface area, which concomitantly generates a steep gas-diffusion concentration gradient. As such, the lung is perfectly structured to undertake the function of gas exchange: a large number of small alveoli provide extensive surface area within the limited volume of the lung, and a delicate alveolo-capillary barrier brings circulating blood into close proximity to the inspired air...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959443/effects-of-combination-therapy-indacaterol-glycopyrronium-versus-tiotropium-on-moderate-to-severe-copd-evaluation-of-impulse-oscillometry-and-exacerbation-rate
#8
Antonio Molino, Francesca Simioli, Anna Agnese Stanziola, Mauro Mormile, Maria Martino, Maria D'Amato
BACKGROUND: Small airways are considered the major site of airflow limitation in COPD. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a forced oscillation technique, which provides passive measurement of lung mechanics. It can differentiate small airway from large airway obstruction and is more sensitive than spirometry for peripheral airway disease. In this study the efficacy of the combination of Indacaterol/Glycopirronium (IND/GLY) versus Tiotropium on airway resistance (R5, R20, R5-20), lung reactance (X) and resonant frequency in moderate to severe COPD patients has been evaluated...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950821/modelling-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-animals-arguments-for-the-preterm-rabbit-model
#9
Thomas Salaets, Andre Gie, Bieke Tack, Jan Deprest, Jaan Toelen
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a frequent and disabling consequence of preterm birth, despite the recent advances in neonatal intensive care. There is a need to further improve outcomes and many novel therapeutic or preventive strategies are therefore investigated in animal models. We discuss in this review the aspects of human BPD pathophysiology and phenotype, which ideally should be mimicked by an animal model for this disease. Prematurity remains the common denominator in the heterogeneous spectrum of human BPD, and preterm animal models thus have a clear translational advantage...
September 26, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946686/using-structural-equation-modeling-to-assess-the-links-between-tobacco-smoke-exposure-volatile-organic-compounds-and-respiratory-function-for-adolescents-aged-6-to-18-in-the-united-states
#10
Bonnie E Shook-Sa, Ding-Geng Chen, Haibo Zhou
Asthma is an inflammatory airway disease that affects 22 million Americans in the United States. Research has found associations between impaired respiratory function, including asthma and increased symptoms among asthmatics, and common indoor air pollutants, including tobacco smoke exposure and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, findings linking VOC exposure and asthma are inconsistent and studies are of mixed quality due to design limitations, challenges measuring VOC exposure, small sample sizes, and suboptimal statistical methodologies...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933516/anti-il5-therapies-for-asthma
#11
REVIEW
Hugo A Farne, Amanda Wilson, Colin Powell, Lynne Bax, Stephen J Milan
BACKGROUND: This review is the first update of a previously published review in The Cochrane Library (Issue 7, 2015). Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is the main cytokine involved in the activation of eosinophils, which cause airway inflammation and are a classic feature of asthma. Monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-5 or its receptor (IL-5R) have been developed, with recent studies suggesting that they reduce asthma exacerbations, improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and lung function...
September 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926522/bos-is-associated-with-increased-cytotoxic-proinflammatory-cd8-t-nkt-like-and-nk-cells-in-the-small-airways
#12
Greg Hodge, Sandra Hodge, Aeneas Yeo, Phan Nguyen, Emily Hopkins, Chien-Li Holmes-Liew, Paul N Reynolds, Mark Holmes
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression therapy after lung transplantation fails to prevent bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in many patients, primarily a disease of the small airways. We have reported that BOS is associated with a lack of suppression of cytotoxic mediators, and proinflammatory cytokines, in peripheral blood T, NKT-like (particularly CD8+) and NK cells. We also showed a loss of glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) in proinflammatory lymphocytes after transplant. It is unknown whether these proinflammatory lymphocytes target the small and/or large airways in BOS...
October 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922692/phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitors-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#13
REVIEW
Jimmy Chong, Bonnie Leung, Phillippa Poole
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with cough, sputum production or dyspnoea and a reduction in lung function, quality of life and life expectancy. Apart from smoking cessation, there are no other treatments that slow lung function decline. Roflumilast and cilomilast are oral phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors proposed to reduce the airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction seen in COPD. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011 and updated in 2013...
September 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918422/the-modern-art-of-reading-computed-tomography-images-of-the-lungs-quantitative-ct
#14
Felix J F Herth, Miranda Kirby, Jered Sieren, Jonas Herth, Joshua Schirm, Susan Wood, Maren Schuhmann
Lung diseases are increasing in prevalence and overall burden worldwide. To stem the tide, more and more national and international guidelines are recommending the use of various diagnostic algorithms that are disease specific. There is growing consensus among the respiratory community that although patient histories and lung function testing are the minimum required for clinical examinations, these tests alone are not sufficient for disease characterization. Therefore, the use of computed tomography (CT) imaging is increasing used in clinical decision making for lung diseases...
September 16, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906034/small-airway-disease-a-different-phenotype-of-early-stage-copd-associated-with-biomass-smoke-exposure
#15
Dongxing Zhao, Yumin Zhou, Changbin Jiang, Zhuxiang Zhao, Fang He, Pixin Ran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic exposure to biomass smoke (BS) can significantly compromise pulmonary function and lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To determine whether BS exposure induces a unique phenotype of COPD from an early stage, with different physiopathological features compared with COPD associated with smoking (cigarette-smoke (CS) COPD), we assessed the physiopathology of early COPD associated with BS exposure (BS COPD) by incorporating spirometry, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging, bronchoscopy and pathological examinations...
September 14, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905527/small-airway-disease-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
REVIEW
Dave Singh
Small airway disease (SAD) has been recognized for many years as a central feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Histopathology studies have shown that the narrowing and destruction of small airways in COPD combined with inflammatory cell infiltration in the submucosa increases the severity of the disease. SAD is present in the early stages of COPD and becomes more widespread over time as the disease progresses to more severe COPD. The development of inhalers containing extra-fine particles allows the small airways to be pharmacologically targeted...
October 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895883/the-effects-of-resveratrol-on-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#17
Xiao-Li Wang, Ting Li, Ji-Hong Li, Shu-Ying Miao, Xian-Zhong Xiao
Oxidative stress and inflammation are hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The study aimed to investigate the effects of resveratrol in a rat model with COPD on the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation via the activation of Sirtuin1 (SIRTl) and proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, COPD group and resveratrol intervention group...
September 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894838/recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis-rrp-time-for-a-reckoning
#18
Peter Kin Cho Goon, Lars-Uwe Scholtz, Holger Sudhoff
OBJECTIVES: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare disease, but one with severe morbidity and occasional mortality. The aetiological agent is human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV types 6 and 11 account for over 90% of all cases. In the active phase of the disease, patients require multiple hospital admissions for surgical removal or ablation of these benign tumors, which are likely to obstruct the airways if left unchecked. Long-term sequelae include scarring of the vocal cords, change in voice timbre, or even muteness if a tracheostomy is required...
August 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878137/cf-airway-smooth-muscle-transcriptome-reveals-a-role-for-pyk2
#19
Daniel P Cook, Ryan J Adam, Keyan Zarei, Benjamin Deonovic, Mallory R Stroik, Nicholas D Gansemer, David K Meyerholz, Kin Fai Au, David A Stoltz
Abnormal airway smooth muscle function can contribute to cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease. We previously found that airway smooth muscle from newborn CF pigs had increased basal tone, an increased bronchodilator response, and abnormal calcium handling. Since CF pigs lack airway infection and inflammation at birth, these findings suggest intrinsic airway smooth muscle dysfunction in CF. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CFTR loss in airway smooth muscle would produce a distinct set of changes in the airway smooth muscle transcriptome that we could use to develop novel therapeutic targets...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877936/alterations-in-bronchial-airway-mirna-expression-for-lung-cancer-detection
#20
Ana B Pavel, Joshua D Campbell, Gang Liu, David Elashoff, Steven Dubinett, Kate Smith, Duncan Whitney, Marc E Lenburg, Avrum Spira
We have previously shown that gene expression alterations in normal-appearing bronchial epithelial cells can serve as a lung cancer detection biomarker in smokers. Given that miRNAs regulate airway gene expression responses to smoking, we evaluated whether miRNA expression is also altered in the bronchial epithelium of smokers with lung cancer. Using epithelial brushings from the mainstem bronchus of patients undergoing bronchoscopy for suspected lung cancer (as part of the AEGIS-1/2 clinical trials), we profiled miRNA expression via small-RNA sequencing from 347 current and former smokers for which gene expression data were also available...
September 6, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
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