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Small airway disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676644/air-pollution-exposure-with-fine-dust-responses-in-the-pulmonary-vasculature-and-the-right-heart
#1
Nedim Durmus, Gabriele Grunig
Detrimental effects of air pollution with fine dust (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, or PM2.5 ) on the systemic circulation and the left heart have been studied intensely during the past decade. In comparison, knowledge regarding the effects of exposure to air pollution with PM2.5 on the pulmonary vasculature and the right heart lags far behind. A report on severe lung disease and right heart failure in coal miners was published nearly 170 years ago. However, today, we still do not have a clear picture of how the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary circulation or the right heart should be viewed from a clinical, mechanistic biological, therapeutic, or economic angle...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676632/deployment-related-lung-disease-is-associated-with-abnormal-ventilation-on-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-and-with-increased-lung-clearance-index-score
#2
Silpa D Krefft, Eva B Gottschall, Jennifer J Smith, Matthew Strand, Cecile Rose
RATIONALE: An unknown number of post-9/11 military deployers to Iraq and Afghanistan have returned with respiratory symptoms and may be at risk for deployment-related distal lung disease, detected only on surgical lung biopsy. We hypothesized that cardiopulmonary exercise testing and lung clearance index scores would differ significantly between deployers with and without biopsy-proven deployment-related distal lung disease. OBJECTIVES: To assess if there are differences in cardiopulmonary exercise testing and lung clearance index scores between deployers with and without biopsy-proven deployment-related distal lung disease...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676068/trpv1-blocking-alleviates-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-a-chronic-asthma-murine-model
#3
Joon Young Choi, Hwa Young Lee, Jung Hur, Kyung Hoon Kim, Ji Young Kang, Chin Kook Rhee, Sook Young Lee
PURPOSE: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and remodeling. There is emerging interest in the involvement of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel in the pathophysiology of asthma. This study examined whether TRPV1 antagonism alleviates asthma features in a murine model of chronic asthma. METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged by ovalbumin to develop chronic asthma...
May 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670919/dysregulated-functions-of-lung-macrophage-populations-in-copd
#4
REVIEW
Theodore S Kapellos, Kevin Bassler, Anna C Aschenbrenner, Wataru Fujii, Joachim L Schultze
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a diverse respiratory disease characterised by bronchiolitis, small airway obstruction, and emphysema. Innate immune cells play a pivotal role in the disease's progression, and in particular, lung macrophages exploit their prevalence and strategic localisation to orchestrate immune responses. To date, alveolar and interstitial resident macrophages as well as blood monocytes have been described in the lungs of patients with COPD contributing to disease pathology by changes in their functional repertoire...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652758/is-inspiratory-muscle-weakness-a-determinant-of-endurance-exercise-tolerance-during-niv-supported-exercise-in-patients-with-copd
#5
Rodrigo Koch, Gabriel Victor Guimarães Rapello, Paulo de Tarso Müller
PURPOSE: Previous research has reported that inspiratory muscle weakness is critical to decreased exercise tolerance and exercise tolerance improves with 10 cmH2O pressure support ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of proportional assist ventilation (PAV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) compared with sham on exercise tolerance in patients with and without inspiratory muscle weakness...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652577/lung-cancers-associated-with-cystic-airspaces-underrecognized-features-of-early-disease
#6
Sarah Sheard, Joanna Moser, Charlie Sayer, Konstantinos Stefanidis, Anand Devaraj, Ioannis Vlahos
Early lung cancers associated with cystic airspaces are increasingly being recognized as a cause of delayed diagnoses-owing to data gathered from screening trials and encounters in routine clinical practice as more patients undergo serial imaging. Several morphologic subtypes of cancers associated with cystic airspaces exist and can exhibit variable patterns of progression as the solid elements of the tumor grow. Current understanding of the pathogenesis of these malignancies is limited, and the numbers of cases reported in the literature are small...
April 13, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644902/interleukin-il-36-gamma-induces-mucin-5ac-oligomeric-mucus-gel-forming-expression-via-il-36-receptor-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-and-2-and-p38-nuclear-factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer-of-activated-b-cells-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#7
Chang Hoon Bae, Yoon Seok Choi, Hyung Gyun Na, Si-Youn Song, Yong-Dae Kim
BACKGROUND: Mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming (MUC5AC) expression is significantly increased in allergic and inflammatory airway diseases. Interleukin (IL) 36 gamma is predominantly expressed in airway epithelial cells and plays an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-36 gamma is induced by many inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and bacterial and viral infections. However, the association between IL-36 gamma and mucin secretion in human airway epithelial cells has not yet been fully investigated...
March 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627118/alveolar-and-bronchial-nitric-oxide-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-asthma-copd-overlap
#8
Bernardino Alcázar-Navarrete, Francisca Castellano Miñán, Pablo Santiago Díaz, Oliveiro Ruiz Rodríguez, Pedro J Romero Palacios
INTRODUCTION: Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO ) measurements differentiate COPD phenotypes from asthma-COPD overlap (ACO). To date, no study has been conducted to determine whether alveolar and bronchial components differ in this group of patients. METHODS: This was an observational cross-sectional study recruiting ambulatory COPD patients. FENO was measured, differentiating alveolar (CANO ) from bronchial (JawNO ) components using a multiple-flow technique. CANO and JawNO values were compared between eosinophilic COPD patients (defined as ≥ 300 eosinophils/μL in peripheral blood test, or ≥ 2% eosinophils or ≥ 3% eosinophils), and a linear regression analysis was performed to determine clinical and biological variables related to these measurements...
April 4, 2018: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626716/pharmacological-mechanisms-leading-to-synergy-in-fixed-dose-dual-bronchodilator-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Luigino Calzetta, Maria Gabriella Matera, Mario Cazzola
Long-acting β2 adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) in combination with long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) can elicit functional and clinical benefits in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). LABA/LAMA combinations synergistically relax human isolated airways at the level of the medium and small bronchi. LABAs and LAMAs both modulate the bronchial tone via different pathways localized at the level of presynaptic parasympathetic fibers and airway smooth muscle cells. The exact nature of the interactions between these pathways is not completely understood, but there is cross-talk at many levels in airway smooth muscle cells that is also regulated by the activity of calcium-activated potassium channels and protein tyrosine kinases...
April 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626633/serum-lipoproteins-are-not-associated-with-the-severity-of-asthma
#10
Federica Scaduto, Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Alida Benfante, Dragana Nikolic, Giuseppe Montalto, Manfredi Rizzo, Nicola Scichilone
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the bronchi with a complicated and largely unknown pathogenesis. In this context, an emerging role is attributed to the apolipoproteins which serve as structural components of plasma lipoproteins. Low density lipoproteins (LDL) may be involved in the inflammatory pathways of the asthmatic airways; in particular, small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles were associated with increased oxidative susceptibility compared to medium and large sized LDL...
April 4, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620002/assessment-of-dermal-uptake-of-diphenylmethane-4-4-diisocyanate-using-tape-stripping-and-biological-monitoring
#11
Haneen Hamada, Ingrid Liljelind, Magnus Bruze, Malin Engfeldt, Marléne Isaksson, Bo Jönsson, Håkan Tinnerberg, Christian Lindh, Sara Axelsson, Erik Zimerson
Very little is known about the dermal uptake of isocyanates, and dermal exposure to isocyanates has been discussed as a factor involved in the induction of respiratory diseases. To investigate the dermal uptake of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (4,4'-MDI). Four volunteers were dermally exposed to 10, 25, 49 and 50 mg 4,4'-MDI, respectively, for eight hours. The exposed areas were tape stripped. Urine and blood were biologically monitored for 48 hours. Tape strips, plasma, and urine were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616282/a-large-lung-gene-expression-study-identifying-il1b-as-a-novel-player-in-airway-inflammation-in-copd-airway-epithelial-cells
#12
Gao Yi, Min Liang, Ming Li, Xiangming Fang, Jifang Liu, Yuxiong Lai, Jitao Chen, Wenxia Yao, Xiao Feng, La Hu, Chunyi Lin, Xinke Zhou, Zhaoyu Liu
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic and progressive lung disease characterized by a mixture of small airway disease and lung tissue parenchymal destruction. Abnormal inflammatory responses to cigarette smoking and other noxious particles are generally thought to be responsible for causing of COPD. Since airway inflammation is a key factor in COPD progress, it is crucial to unravel its underlying molecular mechanisms. Unbiased analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles in lung small airway epithelial cells provides a powerful tool to investigate this...
April 3, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611767/impulse-oscillometry-and-nitrogen-washout-test-in-the-assessment-of-small-airway-dysfunction-in-asthma-correlation-with-quantitative-computed-tomography
#13
Leonello Fuso, Giuseppe Macis, Carola Condoluci, Martina Sbarra, Chiara Contu, Emanuele G Conte, Giulia Angeletti, Paolo Montuschi
OBJECTIVE: Small airway dysfunction (SAD) and airway remodeling influence the disease control and progression in asthma. We investigated whether impulse oscillometry (IOS) and single breath nitrogen washout (SBN2 W) could be reliable tests in evaluating SAD and airway remodeling by correlating their data with radiological parameters derived from quantitative chest multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging. METHODS: Lung function tests were performed before and after bronchodilator...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604272/resistin-upregulates-muc5ac-b-mucin-gene-expression-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#14
Soyoung Kwak, Yong-Dae Kim, Hyung Gyun Na, Chang Hoon Bae, Si-Youn Song, Yoon Seok Choi
Adipokines, a group of proteins including leptin, visfatin, resistin, and adiponectin, are produced by adipocytes. Among adipokines, resistin is implicated in insulin resistance and inflammatory response modulation. Mucus hypersecretion has been greatly linked to airway diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rhinosinusitis. Increasing evidence has indicated that adipokines, such as leptin and visfatin, play important regulatory roles in various biological processes involved in mucus secretion...
March 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593031/central-role-of-the-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-the-scgb1a1-expressing-epithelium-in-mediating-respiratory-syncytial-virus-induced-airway-inflammation
#15
Bing Tian, Jun Yang, Yingxin Zhao, Teodora Ivanciuc, Hong Sun, Maki Wakamiya, Roberto P Garofalo, Allan R Brasier
Lower respiratory tract infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) produces profound inflammation. Despite an understanding of the role of adaptive immunity in RSV infection, the identity of the major sentinel cells initially triggering inflammation is controversial. Here we evaluate the role of nonciliated secretoglobin ( Scgb1a1 )-expressing bronchiolar epithelial cells in RSV infection. Knock-in mice expressing a tamoxifen (TMX)-inducible Cre recombinase (CreERTM ) from the Scgb1a1 locus were crossed with mice that harbor a RelA conditional allele ( RelAfl ), with loxP sites flanking exons 5-8 of the Rel homology domain...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573509/multiple-breath-washout-a-new-and-promising-lung-function-test-for-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#16
Sylvia Nyilas, Theresa Schreder, Florian Singer, Alexander Poellinger, Thomas Kurt Geiser, Philipp Latzin, Manuela Funke
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating progressive lung disease affecting the parenchyma. Nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2 -MBW) is a lung function test that measures ventilation inhomogeneity, a biomarker of small airway disease. We assessed clinical properties of N2 -MBW in IPF. METHODS: In this prospective cohort pilot study, 25 IPF patients and 25 healthy controls were assessed at baseline and 10 patients at median 6...
March 24, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572268/a-transcription-factor-network-represses-cftr-gene-expression-in-airway-epithelial-cells
#17
Michael J Mutolo, Shih-Hsing Leir, Sara L Fossum, James A Browne, Ann Harris
Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR ) gene cause the inherited disorder cystic fibrosis (CF). Lung disease is the major cause of CF morbidity, though CFTR expression levels are substantially lower in the airway epithelium than in pancreatic duct and intestinal epithelia, which also show compromised function in CF. Recently developed small molecule therapeutics for CF are highly successful for one specific CFTR mutation and may have a positive impact on others. However, the low abundance of CFTR transcripts in the airway limits the opportunity for drugs to correct the defective substrate...
March 23, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569499/topically-administered-hyaluronic-acid-in-the-upper-airway-a-narrative-review
#18
Lorenzo Pignataro, Paola Marchisio, Tullio Ibba, Sara Torretta
Hyaluronic acid plays a role in controlling inflammatory airway processes and mucociliary clearance, and it is also involved in tissue healing and remodelling. Some studies have tested the effectiveness of topically administered hyaluronic acid in patients with upper airway diseases with positive preliminary results. This article describes the use of topically administered hyaluronic acid in patients with otolaryngological disorders. Pertinent studies published between January 2000 and October 2016 were selected by means of a MEDLINE search using the following terms: 'hyaluronic acid' and 'otolaryngology', 'otitis', 'pharyngitis', 'tonsillitis', 'rhinitis', 'rhinosinusitis' and 'nose'...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569246/expansion-of-airway-basal-epithelial-cells-from-primary-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-tumors
#19
Robert E Hynds, Assma Ben Aissa, Kate H C Gowers, Thomas B K Watkins, Leticia Bosshard-Carter, Andrew J Rowan, Selvaraju Veeriah, Gareth A Wilson, Sergio A Quezada, Charles Swanton, Sam M Janes
Pre-clinical non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) models are poorly representative of the considerable inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity of the disease in patients. Primary cell-based in vitro models of NSCLC are therefore desirable for novel therapy development and personalized cancer medicine. Methods have been described to generate rapidly proliferating epithelial cell cultures from multiple human epithelia using 3T3-J2 feeder cell culture in the presence of Y-27632, a RHO-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, in what are known as "conditional reprograming conditions" (CRC) or 3T3+Y...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559307/cough-frequency-during-treatment-associated-with-baseline-cavitary-volume-and-proximity-to-the-airway-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#20
Alvaro Proaño, David Bui, José W López, Nancy M Vu, Marjory A Bravard, Gwenyth O Lee, Brian H Tracey, Ziyue Xu, Germán Comina, Eduardo Ticona, Daniel J Mollura, Jon S Friedland, David A J Moore, Carlton A Evans, Philip Caligiuri, Robert H Gilman
BACKGROUND: Cough frequency, and its duration, is a lab-free biomarker that can be used in low-resource settings and has been associated with transmission and treatment response. Radiological characteristics associated with increased cough frequency may be important in understanding transmission. The relationship between cough frequency and cavitary lung disease has never been studied. METHODS: We analyzed 41 human immunodeficiency virus-negative adults with culture-confirmed, drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis throughout treatment...
March 17, 2018: Chest
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