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Optogenetics and behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229861/appetite-suppressive-role-of-medial-septal-glutamatergic-neurons
#1
Patrick Sweeney, Changhong Li, Yunlei Yang
Feeding behavior is controlled by diverse neurons and neural circuits primarily concentrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain in mammals. In this study, by using chemo/optogenetic techniques along with feeding assays, we investigate how neurons within the medial septal complex (MSc), a brain area implicated in emotion and cognition, contribute to food intake. We find that chemo/optogenetic activation of MSc glutamatergic neurons profoundly reduces food intake during both light and dark periods of the rodent light cycle...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222692/advances-in-understanding-hilar-mossy-cells-of-the-dentate-gyrus
#2
REVIEW
Helen E Scharfman
Hilar mossy cells (MCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG) distinguish the DG from other hippocampal subfields (CA1-3) because there are two glutamatergic cell types in the DG rather than one. Thus, in the DG, the main cell types include glutamatergic granule cells (GCs) and MCs, whereas in CA1-3, the only glutamatergic cell type is the pyramidal cell. In contrast to GCs, MCs are different in morphology, intrinsic electrophysiological properties, afferent input and axonal projections, so their function is likely to be very different from GCs...
December 8, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222469/hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-are-necessary-for-discrimination-of-social-stimuli
#3
Tara Raam, Kathleen M McAvoy, Antoine Besnard, Alexa Veenema, Amar Sahay
Oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) signaling in neural circuits mediating discrimination of social stimuli and affiliation or avoidance behavior is thought to guide social recognition. Remarkably, the physiological functions of Oxtrs in the hippocampus are not known. Here we demonstrate using genetic and pharmacological approaches that Oxtrs in the anterior dentate gyrus (aDG) and anterior CA2/CA3 (aCA2/CA3) of mice are necessary for discrimination of social, but not non-social, stimuli. Further, Oxtrs in aCA2/CA3 neurons recruit a population-based coding mechanism to mediate social stimuli discrimination...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216450/endocannabinoid-actions-on-cortical-terminals-orchestrate-local-modulation-of-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#4
Yolanda Mateo, Kari A Johnson, Dan P Covey, Brady K Atwood, Hui-Ling Wang, Shiliang Zhang, Iness Gildish, Roger Cachope, Luigi Bellocchio, Manuel Guzmán, Marisela Morales, Joseph F Cheer, David M Lovinger
Dopamine (DA) transmission mediates numerous aspects of behavior. Although DA release is strongly linked to firing of DA neurons, recent developments indicate the importance of presynaptic modulation at striatal dopaminergic terminals. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system regulates DA release and is a canonical gatekeeper of goal-directed behavior. Here we report that extracellular DA increases induced by selective optogenetic activation of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are inhibited by CB1 agonists and eCBs...
December 6, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215787/miniaturized-battery-free-optofluidic-systems-with-potential-for-wireless-pharmacology-and-optogenetics
#5
Kyung Nim Noh, Sung Il Park, Raza Qazi, Zhanan Zou, Aaron D Mickle, Jose G Grajales-Reyes, Kyung-In Jang, Robert W Gereau, Jianliang Xiao, John A Rogers, Jae-Woong Jeong
Combination of optogenetics and pharmacology represents a unique approach to dissect neural circuitry with high specificity and versatility. However, conventional tools available to perform these experiments, such as optical fibers and metal cannula, are limited due to their tethered operation and lack of biomechanical compatibility. To address these issues, a miniaturized, battery-free, soft optofluidic system that can provide wireless drug delivery and optical stimulation for spatiotemporal control of the targeted neural circuit in freely behaving animals is reported...
December 7, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199075/nigrotectal-stimulation-stops-interval-timing-in-mice
#6
Koji Toda, Nicholas A Lusk, Glenn D R Watson, Namsoo Kim, Dongye Lu, Haofang E Li, Warren H Meck, Henry H Yin
Considerable evidence implicates the basal ganglia in interval timing, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using a novel behavioral task, we demonstrate that head-fixed mice can be trained to show the key features of timing behavior within a few sessions. Single-trial analysis of licking behavior reveals stepping dynamics with variable onset times, which is responsible for the canonical Gaussian distribution of timing behavior. Moreover, the duration of licking bouts decreased as mice became sated, showing a strong motivational modulation of licking bout initiation and termination...
November 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190499/crosstalk-between-developing-vasculature-and-optogenetically-engineered-skeletal-muscle-improves-muscle-contraction-and-angiogenesis
#7
Tatsuya Osaki, Vivek Sivathanu, Roger D Kamm
Capillary networks surrounding skeletal muscle play an important role in not only supplying oxygen and nutrients but also in regulating the myogenesis and repair of skeletal muscle tissues. Herein, we model the early stages of 3D vascularized muscle fiber formation in vitro using a sequential molding technique to investigate interactions between angiogenesis of endothelial cells and myogenesis of skeletal muscle cells. Channelrhodopsin-2 C2C12 muscle fiber bundles and 3D vascular structures (600 μm diameter) were formed at 500 μm intervals in a collagen gel...
November 25, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188513/optogenetic-retinal-gene-therapy-with-the-light-gated-gpcr-vertebrate-rhodopsin
#8
Benjamin M Gaub, Michael H Berry, Meike Visel, Amy Holt, Ehud Y Isacoff, John G Flannery
In retinal disease, despite the loss of light sensitivity as photoreceptors die, many retinal interneurons survive in a physiologically and metabolically functional state for long periods. This provides an opportunity for treatment by genetically adding a light sensitive function to these cells. Optogenetic therapies are in development, but, to date, they have suffered from low light sensitivity and narrow dynamic response range of microbial opsins. Expression of light-sensitive G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as vertebrate rhodopsin , can increase sensitivity by signal amplification , as shown by several groups...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184209/a-craniofacial-specific-monosynaptic-circuit-enables-heightened-affective-pain
#9
Erica Rodriguez, Katsuyasu Sakurai, Jennie Xu, Yong Chen, Koji Toda, Shengli Zhao, Bao-Xia Han, David Ryu, Henry Yin, Wolfgang Liedtke, Fan Wang
Humans often rank craniofacial pain as more severe than body pain. Evidence suggests that a stimulus of the same intensity induces stronger pain in the face than in the body. However, the underlying neural circuitry for the differential processing of facial versus bodily pain remains unknown. Interestingly, the lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBL), a critical node in the affective pain circuit, is activated more strongly by noxious stimulation of the face than of the hindpaw. Using a novel activity-dependent technology called CANE developed in our laboratory, we identified and selectively labeled noxious-stimulus-activated PBL neurons and performed comprehensive anatomical input-output mapping...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180290/estradiol-and-the-control-of-feeding-behavior
#10
H M Rivera, T L Stincic
This review lays out the evidence for the role of E2 in homeostatic and hedonic feeding across several species. While significant effort has been expended on homeostatic feeding research, more studies for hedonic feeding need to be conducted (i.e. are there increases in meal size and enhanced motivation to natural food rewards). By identifying the underlying neural circuitry involved, one can better delineate the mechanisms by which E2 influences feeding behavior. By utilizing more selective neural targeting techniques, such as optogenetics, significant progress can be made toward this goal...
November 24, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170645/drugs-interfering-with-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-their-effects-on-place-navigation
#11
REVIEW
Jan Svoboda, Anna Popelikova, Ales Stuchlik
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have been found to regulate many diverse functions, ranging from motivation and feeding to spatial navigation, an important and widely studied type of cognitive behavior. Systemic administration of non-selective antagonists of mAChRs, such as scopolamine or atropine, have been found to have adverse effects on a vast majority of place navigation tasks. However, many of these results may be potentially confounded by disruptions of functions other than spatial learning and memory...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168214/transdermal-light-neuromodulation-optogenetics-in-the-murine-urinary-tract
#12
Shannon L Wallace, Robert S Kelley, Shailja Mehta, Giannina Descalzi, John A Fantl, Charles Ascher-Walsh
BACKGROUND: Optogenetics is a biologic technique that uses light to control living neurons, which have been genetically modified to express light-sensitive ion-channels. OBJECTIVES: Using an adenovirus to modify the sciatic nerves of mice, we aim to demonstrate peripheral neuromodulation of bladder pain using transdermal light. STUDY DESIGN: This pilot study is divided into: A) Confirmation and Application and B) Behavioral Step. A) Six mice were injected with AAV6-hSyn-ChR2(H134R)-eYFP virus into their sciatic nerves...
November 23, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163066/from-structure-to-behavior-in-basolateral-amygdala-hippocampus-circuits
#13
REVIEW
Ying Yang, Jian-Zhi Wang
Emotion influences various cognitive processes, including learning and memory. The amygdala is specialized for input and processing of emotion, while the hippocampus is essential for declarative or episodic memory. During emotional reactions, these two brain regions interact to translate the emotion into particular outcomes. Here, we briefly introduce the anatomy and functions of amygdala and hippocampus, and then present behavioral, electrophysiological, optogenetic and biochemical evidence from recent studies to illustrate how amygdala and hippocampus work synergistically to form long-term memory...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161383/basal-forebrain-gating-by-somatostatin-neurons-drives-prefrontal-cortical-activity
#14
Nelson Espinosa, Alejandra Alonso, Cristian Morales, Pedro Espinosa, Andrés E Chávez, Pablo Fuentealba
The basal forebrain provides modulatory input to the cortex regulating brain states and cognitive processing. Somatostatin-expressing neurons constitute a heterogeneous GABAergic population known to functionally inhibit basal forebrain cortically projecting cells thus favoring sleep and cortical synchronization. However, it remains unclear if somatostatin cells can regulate population activity patterns in the basal forebrain and modulate cortical dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that somatostatin neurons regulate the corticopetal synaptic output of the basal forebrain impinging on cortical activity and behavior...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158847/photoactive-poly-3-hexylthiophene-nanoweb-for-optoelectrical-stimulation-to-enhance-neurogenesis-of-human-stem-cells
#15
Kisuk Yang, Jin Young Oh, Jong Seung Lee, Yoonhee Jin, Gyeong-Eon Chang, Soo Sang Chae, Eunji Cheong, Hong Koo Baik, Seung-Woo Cho
Optoelectrical manipulation has recently gained attention for cellular engineering; however, few material platforms can be used to efficiently regulate stem cell behaviors via optoelectrical stimulation. In this study, we developed nanoweb substrates composed of photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to enhance the neurogenesis of human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) through photo-induced electrical stimulation. METHODS: The photoactive nanoweb substrates were fabricated by self-assembled one-dimensional (1D) P3HT nanostructures (nanofibrils and nanorods)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154127/lateral-orbitofrontal-inactivation-dissociates-devaluation-sensitive-behavior-and-economic-choice
#16
Matthew P H Gardner, Jessica S Conroy, Michael H Shaham, Clay V Styer, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
How do we choose between goods that have different subjective values, like apples and oranges? Neuroeconomics proposes that this is done by reducing complex goods to a single unitary value to allow comparison. This value is computed "on the fly" from the underlying model of the goods space, allowing decisions to meet current needs. This is termed "model-based" behavior to distinguish it from pre-determined, habitual, or "model-free" behavior. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) supports model-based behavior in rats and primates, but whether the OFC is necessary for economic choice is less clear...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151577/orexin-modulates-behavioral-fear-expression-through-the-locus-coeruleus
#17
Shingo Soya, Tohru M Takahashi, Thomas J McHugh, Takashi Maejima, Stefan Herlitze, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient information activates orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, leading to increase in sympathetic outflow and vigilance level. How this circuit alters animals' behavior remains unknown. Here we report that noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (NA(LC) neurons) projecting to the lateral amygdala (LA) receive synaptic input from orexin neurons. Pharmacogenetic/optogenetic silencing of this circuit as well as acute blockade of the orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) decreases conditioned fear responses...
November 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149606/chronic-stress-alters-striosome-circuit-dynamics-leading-to-aberrant-decision-making
#18
Alexander Friedman, Daigo Homma, Bernard Bloem, Leif G Gibb, Ken-Ichi Amemori, Dan Hu, Sebastien Delcasso, Timothy F Truong, Joyce Yang, Adam S Hood, Katrina A Mikofalvy, Dirk W Beck, Norah Nguyen, Erik D Nelson, Sebastian E Toro Arana, Ruth H Vorder Bruegge, Ki A Goosens, Ann M Graybiel
Effective evaluation of costs and benefits is a core survival capacity that in humans is considered as optimal, "rational" decision-making. This capacity is vulnerable in neuropsychiatric disorders and in the aftermath of chronic stress, in which aberrant choices and high-risk behaviors occur. We report that chronic stress exposure in rodents produces abnormal evaluation of costs and benefits resembling non-optimal decision-making in which choices of high-cost/high-reward options are sharply increased...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146466/causal-mapping-of-emotion-networks-in-the-human-brain-framework-and-initial-findings
#19
Julien Dubois, Hiroyuki Oya, J Michael Tyszka, Matthew Howard, Frederick Eberhardt, Ralph Adolphs
Emotions involve many cortical and subcortical regions, prominently including the amygdala. It remains unknown how these multiple network components interact, and it remains unknown how they cause the behavioral, autonomic, and experiential effects of emotions. Here we describe a framework for combining a novel technique, concurrent electrical stimulation with fMRI (es-fMRI), together with a novel analysis, inferring causal structure from fMRI data (causal discovery). We outline a research program for investigating human emotion with these new tools, and provide initial findings from two large resting-state datasets as well as case studies in neurosurgical patients with electrical stimulation of the amygdala...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142298/shaping-bacterial-population-behavior-through-computer-interfaced-control-of-individual-cells
#20
Remy Chait, Jakob Ruess, Tobias Bergmiller, Gašper Tkačik, Călin C Guet
Bacteria in groups vary individually, and interact with other bacteria and the environment to produce population-level patterns of gene expression. Investigating such behavior in detail requires measuring and controlling populations at the single-cell level alongside precisely specified interactions and environmental characteristics. Here we present an automated, programmable platform that combines image-based gene expression and growth measurements with on-line optogenetic expression control for hundreds of individual Escherichia coli cells over days, in a dynamically adjustable environment...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
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