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Optogenetics and behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326550/from-neuron-to-behavior-sensory-motor-coordination-of-zebrafish-turning-behavior
#1
REVIEW
Keiko Umeda, Wataru Shoji
Recent development of optogenetics brought non-invasive neural activation in living organisms. Transparent zebrafish larva is one of the suitable animal models for this technique, which enables us to investigate neural circuits for behaviors based on a whole individual nervous system. In this article we review our recent finding that suggests sensory-motor coordination in larval zebrafish escape behavior. When water vibration stimulates mechanosensory Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons, intra-spinal reflex circuit launches contralateral trunk muscle contraction that makes rapid body curvature for turning...
March 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320886/optogenetic-module-for-dichromatic-control-of-c-di-gmp-signaling
#2
Min-Hyung Ryu, Anastasia Fomicheva, Oleg V Moskvin, Mark Gomelsky
Many aspects of bacterial physiology and behavior including motility, surface attachment, and cell cycle, are controlled by the c-di-GMP-dependent signaling pathways on the scale of seconds-to-minutes. Interrogation of such processes in real time requires tools for introducing rapid and reversible changes in intracellular c-di-GMP levels. Inducing expression of genes encoding c-di-GMP synthetic (diguanylate cyclases) and degrading (c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase) enzymes by chemicals may not provide adequate temporal control...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318784/kinetics-of-endogenous-camkii-required-for-synaptic-plasticity-revealed-by-optogenetic-kinase-inhibitor
#3
Hideji Murakoshi, Myung Eun Shin, Paula Parra-Bueno, Erzsebet M Szatmari, Akihiro C E Shibata, Ryohei Yasuda
Elucidating temporal windows of signaling activity required for synaptic and behavioral plasticity is crucial for understanding molecular mechanisms underlying these phenomena. Here, we developed photoactivatable autocamtide inhibitory peptide 2 (paAIP2), a genetically encoded, light-inducible inhibitor of CaMKII activity. The photoactivation of paAIP2 in neurons for 1-2 min during the induction of LTP and structural LTP (sLTP) of dendritic spines inhibited these forms of plasticity in hippocampal slices of rodents...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301770/imaging-and-optically-manipulating-neuronal-ensembles
#4
Luis Carrillo-Reid, Weijian Yang, Jae-Eun Kang Miller, Darcy S Peterka, Rafael Yuste
The neural code that relates the firing of neurons to the generation of behavior and mental states must be implemented by spatiotemporal patterns of activity across neuronal populations. These patterns engage selective groups of neurons, called neuronal ensembles, which are emergent building blocks of neural circuits. We review optical and computational methods, based on two-photon calcium imaging and two-photon optogenetics, to detect, characterize, and manipulate neuronal ensembles in three dimensions. We review data using these methods in the mammalian cortex that demonstrate the existence of neuronal ensembles in the spontaneous and evoked cortical activity in vitro and in vivo...
March 15, 2017: Annual Review of Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297663/disrupting-glutamate-co-transmission-does-not-affect-acquisition-of-conditioned-behavior-reinforced-by-dopamine-neuron-activation
#5
Dong V Wang, Thomas Viereckel, Vivien Zell, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Carl J Broker, Aleksandr Talishinsky, Ji Hoon Yoo, Melissa H Galinato, Emma Arvidsson, Andrew J Kesner, Thomas S Hnasko, Åsa Wallén-Mackenzie, Satoshi Ikemoto
Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were previously found to express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) and to co-transmit glutamate in the ventral striatum (VStr). This capacity may play an important role in reinforcement learning. Although it is known that activation of the VTA-VStr dopamine system readily reinforces behavior, little is known about the role of glutamate co-transmission in such reinforcement. By combining electrode recording and optogenetics, we found that stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons in vivo evoked fast excitatory responses in many VStr neurons of adult mice...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289214/photocyclic-behavior-of-rhodopsin-induced-by-an-atypical-isomerization-mechanism
#6
Sahil Gulati, Beata Jastrzebska, Surajit Banerjee, Ángel L Placeres, Przemyslaw Miszta, Songqi Gao, Karl Gunderson, Gregory P Tochtrop, Sławomir Filipek, Kota Katayama, Philip D Kiser, Muneto Mogi, Phoebe L Stewart, Krzysztof Palczewski
Vertebrate rhodopsin (Rh) contains 11-cis-retinal as a chromophore to convert light energy into visual signals. On absorption of light, 11-cis-retinal is isomerized to all-trans-retinal, constituting a one-way reaction that activates transducin (Gt) followed by chromophore release. Here we report that bovine Rh, regenerated instead with a six-carbon-ring retinal chromophore featuring a C(11)=C(12) double bond locked in its cis conformation (Rh6mr), employs an atypical isomerization mechanism by converting 11-cis to an 11,13-dicis configuration for prolonged Gt activation...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285820/dynamic-nigrostriatal-dopamine-biases-action-selection
#7
Christopher D Howard, Hao Li, Claire E Geddes, Xin Jin
Dopamine is thought to play a critical role in reinforcement learning and goal-directed behavior, but its function in action selection remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that nigrostriatal dopamine biases ongoing action selection. When mice were trained to dynamically switch the action selected at different time points, changes in firing rate of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, as well as dopamine signaling in the dorsal striatum, were found to be associated with action selection. This dopamine profile is specific to behavioral choice, scalable with interval duration, and doesn't reflect reward prediction error, timing, or value as single factors alone...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279562/neural-circuit-mechanisms-underlying-emotional-regulation-of-homeostatic-feeding
#8
REVIEW
Patrick Sweeney, Yunlei Yang
The neural circuits controlling feeding and emotional behaviors are intricately and reciprocally connected. Recent technological developments, including cell type-specific optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches, allow functional characterization of genetically defined cell populations and neural circuits in feeding and emotional processes. Here we review recent studies that have utilized circuit-based manipulations to decipher the functional interactions between neural circuits controlling feeding and those controlling emotional processes...
March 6, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279349/navigating-the-neural-space-in-search-of-the-neural-code
#9
REVIEW
Mehrdad Jazayeri, Arash Afraz
The advent of powerful perturbation tools, such as optogenetics, has created new frontiers for probing causal dependencies in neural and behavioral states. These approaches have significantly enhanced the ability to characterize the contribution of different cells and circuits to neural function in health and disease. They have shifted the emphasis of research toward causal interrogations and increased the demand for more precise and powerful tools to control and manipulate neural activity. Here, we clarify the conditions under which measurements and perturbations support causal inferences...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273648/optogenetic-methods-in-drug-screening-technologies-and-applications
#10
REVIEW
Vivana Agus, Harald Janovjak
The optogenetic revolution enabled spatially-precise and temporally-precise control over protein function, signaling pathway activation, and animal behavior with tremendous success in the dissection of signaling networks and neural circuits. Very recently, optogenetic methods have been paired with optical reporters in novel drug screening platforms. In these all-optical platforms, light remotely activated ion channels and kinases thereby obviating the use of electrophysiology or reagents. Consequences were remarkable operational simplicity, throughput, and cost-effectiveness that culminated in the identification of new drug candidates...
March 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271037/cholinergic-neurons-in-the-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-regulate-food-intake
#11
Jae Hoon Jeong, Dong Kun Lee, Young-Hwan Jo
OBJECTIVE: Central cholinergic neural circuits play a role in the regulation of feeding behavior. The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) is considered the appetite-stimulating center and contains cholinergic neurons. Here, we study the role of DMH cholinergic neurons in the control of food intake. METHODS: To selectively stimulate DMH cholinergic neurons, we expressed stimulatory designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) and channelrhodopsins in DMH cholinergic neurons by injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors into the DMH of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-IRES-Cre mice...
March 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261066/ring-attractor-dynamics-emerge-from-a-spiking-model-of-the-entire-protocerebral-bridge
#12
Kyobi S Kakaria, Benjamin L de Bivort
Animal navigation is accomplished by a combination of landmark-following and dead reckoning based on estimates of self motion. Both of these approaches require the encoding of heading information, which can be represented as an allocentric or egocentric azimuthal angle. Recently, Ca(2+) correlates of landmark position and heading direction, in egocentric coordinates, were observed in the ellipsoid body (EB), a ring-shaped processing unit in the fly central complex (CX; Seelig and Jayaraman, 2015). These correlates displayed key dynamics of so-called ring attractors, namely: (1) responsiveness to the position of external stimuli; (2) persistence in the absence of external stimuli; (3) locking onto a single external stimulus when presented with two competitors; (4) stochastically switching between competitors with low probability; and (5) sliding or jumping between positions when an external stimulus moves...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260504/the-crf-family-of-neuropeptides-and-their-receptors-mediators-of-the-central-stress-response
#13
Nina Dedic, Alon Chen, Jan M Deussing
Dysregulated stress neurocircuits, caused by genetic and/or environmental changes, underlie the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the major physiological activator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and consequently a primary regulator of the mammalian stress response. Together with its three family members, urocortins (UCNs) 1, 2, and 3, CRF integrates the neuroendocrine, autonomic, metabolic and behavioral responses to stress by activating its cognate receptors CRFR1 and CRFR2...
March 1, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257849/viral-vector-strategies-for-investigating-midbrain-dopamine-circuits-underlying-motivated-behaviors
#14
REVIEW
Daniel F Cardozo Pinto, Stephan Lammel
Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons have received significant attention in brain research because of their central role in reward processing and their dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. Until recently, it has been thought that DA neurons form a homogeneous population whose primary function is the computation of reward prediction errors. However, through the implementation of viral vector strategies, an unexpected complexity and diversity has been revealed at the anatomical, molecular and functional level...
February 28, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244369/analysis-of-the-nk2-homeobox-gene-ceh-24-reveals-sublateral-motor-neuron-control-of-left-right-turning-during-sleep
#15
Henrik Bringmann, Juliane Schwarz
Sleep is a behavior that is found in all animals that have a nervous system and that have been studied carefully. In Caenorhabditis elegans larvae, sleep is associated with a turning behavior, called flipping, in which animals rotate 180{degree sign} about their longitudinal axis. However, the molecular and neural substrates of this enigmatic behavior are not known. Here, we identified the conserved NK-2 homeobox gene ceh-24 to be crucially required for flipping. ceh-24 is required for the formation of processes and for cholinergic function of sublateral motor neurons, which separately innervate the four body muscle quadrants...
February 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231470/rapid-integration-of-artificial-sensory-feedback-during-operant-conditioning-of-motor-cortex-neurons
#16
Mario Prsa, Gregorio L Galiñanes, Daniel Huber
Neuronal motor commands, whether generating real or neuroprosthetic movements, are shaped by ongoing sensory feedback from the displacement being produced. Here we asked if cortical stimulation could provide artificial feedback during operant conditioning of cortical neurons. Simultaneous two-photon imaging and real-time optogenetic stimulation were used to train mice to activate a single neuron in motor cortex (M1), while continuous feedback of its activity level was provided by proportionally stimulating somatosensory cortex...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230316/quantitative-cognitive-test-characterization-of-reconnectable-implantable-fiber-optic-neurointerfaces-for-optogenetic-neurostimulation
#17
I V Fedotov, O I Ivashkina, M S Pochechuev, M A Roshchina, K A Toropova, A B Fedotov, K V Anokhin, A M Zheltikov
Cognitive tests on representative groups of freely behaving transgenic mice are shown to enable a quantitative characterization of reconnectable implantable fiber-optic neurointerfaces for optogenetic neurostimulation. A systematic analysis of such tests provides a robust quantitative measure for the cognitive effects induced by fiber-optic neurostimulation, validating the performance of fiber-optic neurointerfaces for long-term optogenetic brain stimulations and showing no statistically significant artifacts in the behavior of transgenic mice due to interface implantation...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228583/food-responsiveness-regulates-episodic-behavioral-states-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Richard J McCloskey, Anthony D Fouad, Matthew A Churgin, Christopher Fang-Yen
Animals optimize survival and reproduction in part through control of behavioral states, which depend on the organism's internal and external environments. In the nematode C. elegans, a variety of behavioral states have been described, including roaming, dwelling, quiescence, and episodic swimming. These states have been considered in isolation, under varied experimental conditions, making it difficult to establish a unified picture of how they are regulated. Using long-term imaging, we examined C. elegans episodic behavioral states under varied mechanical and nutritional environments...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225716/divergent-functions-of-the-left-and-right-central-amygdala-in-visceral-nociception
#19
Katelyn E Sadler, Neal A McQuaid, Abigail C Cox, Marissa N Behun, Allison M Trouten, Benedict J Kolber
The left and right central amygdalae (CeA) are limbic regions involved in somatic and visceral pain processing. These 2 nuclei are asymmetrically involved in somatic pain modulation; pain-like responses on both sides of the body are preferentially driven by the right CeA, and in a reciprocal fashion, nociceptive somatic stimuli on both sides of the body predominantly alter molecular and physiological activities in the right CeA. Unknown, however, is whether this lateralization also exists in visceral pain processing and furthermore what function the left CeA has in modulating nociceptive information...
April 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223484/rhythmic-brain-stimulation-reduces-anxiety-related-behavior-in-a-mouse-model-based-on-meditation-training
#20
Aldis P Weible, Denise M Piscopo, Mary K Rothbart, Michael I Posner, Cristopher M Niell
Meditation training induces changes at both the behavioral and neural levels. A month of meditation training can reduce self-reported anxiety and other dimensions of negative affect. It also can change white matter as measured by diffusion tensor imaging and increase resting-state midline frontal theta activity. The current study tests the hypothesis that imposing rhythms in the mouse anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), by using optogenetics to induce oscillations in activity, can produce behavioral changes. Mice were randomly assigned to groups and were given twenty 30-min sessions of light pulses delivered at 1, 8, or 40 Hz over 4 wk or were assigned to a no-laser control condition...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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