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Optogenetics and behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-co-transmission
#1
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
: The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077707/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#2
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. Although studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069762/orbitofrontal-cortex-neurons-respond-to-sound-and-activate-primary-auditory-cortex-neurons
#3
Daniel E Winkowski, Daniel A Nagode, Kevin J Donaldson, Pingbo Yin, Shihab A Shamma, Jonathan B Fritz, Patrick O Kanold
Sensory environments change over a wide dynamic range and sensory processing can change rapidly to facilitate stable perception. While rapid changes may occur throughout the sensory processing pathway, cortical changes are believed to profoundly influence perception. Prior stimulation studies showed that orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) can modify receptive fields and sensory coding in A1, but the engagement of OFC during listening and the pathways mediating OFC influences on A1 are unknown. We show in mice that OFC neurons respond to sounds consistent with a role of OFC in audition...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065711/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-male-pheromone-priming-and-optogenetic-inhibition-of-accessory-olfactory-bulb-forebrain-inputs-on-the-sexual-behavior-of-estrous-female-mice
#4
E A McCarthy, T Kunkhyen, W J Korzan, A Naik, A Maqsudlu, J A Cherry, M J Baum
Previous research has shown that repeated testing with a stimulus male is required for ovariectomized, hormone-primed female mice to become sexually receptive (show maximal lordosis quotients; LQs) and that drug-induced, epigenetic enhancement of estradiol receptor function accelerated the improvement in LQs otherwise shown by estrous females with repeated testing. We asked whether pre-exposure to male pheromones ('pheromone priming') would also accelerate the improvement in LQs with repeated tests and whether optogenetic inhibition of accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) projection neurons could inhibit lordosis in sexually experienced estrous female mice...
January 5, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055036/preparation-and-implementation-of-optofluidic-neural-probes-for-in-vivo-wireless-pharmacology-and-optogenetics
#5
Jordan G McCall, Raza Qazi, Gunchul Shin, Shuo Li, Muhammad Hamza Ikram, Kyung-In Jang, Yuhao Liu, Ream Al-Hasani, Michael R Bruchas, Jae-Woong Jeong, John A Rogers
This Protocol Extension describes the fabrication and technical procedures for implementing ultrathin, flexible optofluidic neural probe systems that provide targeted, wireless delivery of fluids and light into the brains of awake, freely behaving animals. As a Protocol Extension article, this article describes an adaptation of an existing Protocol that offers additional applications. This protocol serves as an extension of an existing Nature Protocol describing optoelectronic devices for studying intact neural systems...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053028/activation-of-pedunculopontine-glutamate-neurons-is-reinforcing
#6
Ji Hoon Yoo, Vivien Zell, Johnathan Wu, Cindy Punta, Nivedita Ramajayam, Xinyi Shen, Lauren Faget, Varoth Lilascharoen, Byung Kook Lim, Thomas S Hnasko
: Dopamine transmission from midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons underlies behavioral processes related to motivation and drug addiction. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is a brainstem nucleus containing glutamate-, acetylcholine-, and GABA-releasing neurons with connections to basal ganglia and limbic brain regions. Here we investigated the role of PPTg glutamate neurons in reinforcement, with an emphasis on their projections to VTA dopamine neurons. We used cell-type-specific anterograde tracing and optogenetic methods to selectively label and manipulate glutamate projections from PPTg neurons in mice...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053027/endogenously-released-neuropeptide-y-suppresses-hippocampal-short-term-facilitation-and-is-impaired-by-stress-induced-anxiety
#7
Qin Li, Aundrea F Bartley, Lynn E Dobrunz
: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has robust anxiolytic properties and is reduced in patients with anxiety disorders. However, the mechanisms by which NPY modulates circuit function to reduce anxiety behavior are not known. Anxiolytic effects of NPY are mediated in the CA1 region of hippocampus, and NPY injection into hippocampus alleviates anxiety symptoms in the predator scent stress model of stress-induced anxiety. The mechanisms that regulate NPY release, and its effects on CA1 synaptic function, are not fully understood...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041883/phase-locked-inhibition-but-not-excitation-underlies-hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-in-awake-mice-in%C3%A2-vivo
#8
Jian Gan, Shih-Ming Weng, Alejandro J Pernía-Andrade, Jozsef Csicsvari, Peter Jonas
Sharp wave-ripple (SWR) oscillations play a key role in memory consolidation during non-rapid eye movement sleep, immobility, and consummatory behavior. However, whether temporally modulated synaptic excitation or inhibition underlies the ripples is controversial. To address this question, we performed simultaneous recordings of excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and IPSCs) and local field potentials (LFPs) in the CA1 region of awake mice in vivo. During SWRs, inhibition dominated over excitation, with a peak conductance ratio of 4...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029094/visual-projection-neurons-in-the-drosophila-lobula-link-feature-detection-to-distinct-behavioral-programs
#9
Ming Wu, Aljoscha Nern, W Ryan Williamson, Mai M Morimoto, Michael B Reiser, Gwyneth M Card, Gerald M Rubin
Visual projection neurons (VPNs) provide an anatomical connection between early visual processing and higher brain regions. Here we characterize lobula columnar (LC) cells, a class of Drosophila VPNs that project to distinct central brain structures called optic glomeruli. We anatomically describe 22 different LC types and show that, for several types, optogenetic activation in freely moving flies evokes specific behaviors. The activation phenotypes of two LC types closely resemble natural avoidance behaviors triggered by a visual loom...
December 28, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012967/line-scanning-fmri-reveals-earlier-onset-of-optogenetically-evoked-bold-response-in-rat-somatosensory-cortex-as-compared-to-sensory-stimulation
#10
Franziska Albers, Florian Schmid, Lydia Wachsmuth, Cornelius Faber
The combination of optogenetic control and fMRI readout in the brain is increasingly used to assess neuronal networks and underlying signal processing. However, how exactly optogenetic activation or inhibition reproduces normal physiological input has not been fully unraveled. To assess details of temporal dynamics of the hemodynamic response, temporal resolution in rodent fMRI is often not sufficient. Recent advances in human fMRI using faster acquisition schemes cannot be easily translated to small animals due to smaller dimensions, fast physiological motion, and higher sensitivity to artefacts...
December 21, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003347/olfactory-bulb-deep-short-axon-cells-mediate-widespread-inhibition-of-tufted-cell-apical-dendrites
#11
Shawn D Burton, Greg LaRocca, Annie Liu, Claire E J Cheetham, Nathaniel N Urban
: In the main olfactory bulb (MOB), the first station of sensory processing in the olfactory system, GABAergic interneuron signaling shapes principal neuron activity to regulate olfaction. Lack of known selective markers for MOB interneurons has strongly impeded cell type-selective investigation of interneuron function, however. Here, we identify the first selective marker of glomerular layer-projecting deep short-axon cells (GL-dSACs) and systematically investigate the structure, abundance, intrinsic physiology, feedforward sensory input, neuromodulation, synaptic output, and functional role of GL-dSACs in the mouse MOB circuit...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991901/distinct-neural-mechanisms-for-the-control-of-thirst-and-salt-appetite-in-the-subfornical-organ
#12
Takashi Matsuda, Takeshi Y Hiyama, Fumio Niimura, Taiji Matsusaka, Akiyoshi Fukamizu, Kenta Kobayashi, Kazuto Kobayashi, Masaharu Noda
Body fluid conditions are continuously monitored in the brain to regulate thirst and salt-appetite sensations. Angiotensin II drives both thirst and salt appetite; however, the neural mechanisms underlying selective water- and/or salt-intake behaviors remain unknown. Using optogenetics, we show that thirst and salt appetite are driven by distinct groups of angiotensin II receptor type 1a-positive excitatory neurons in the subfornical organ. Neurons projecting to the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis control water intake, while those projecting to the ventral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis control salt intake...
December 19, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989675/optogenetic-stimulation-of-frontal-d1-neurons-compensates-for-impaired-temporal-control-of-action-in-dopamine-depleted-mice
#13
Young-Cho Kim, Sang-Woo Han, Stephanie L Alberico, Rafael N Ruggiero, Benjamin De Corte, Kuan-Hua Chen, Nandakumar S Narayanan
Disrupted mesocortical dopamine contributes to cognitive symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Past work has implicated medial frontal neurons expressing D1 dopamine receptors (D1DRs) in temporal processing. Here, we investigated whether these neurons can compensate for behavioral deficits resulting from midbrain dopamine dysfunction. We report three main results. First, both PD patients and mice with ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine depletion had attenuated delta activity (1-4 Hz) in the medial frontal cortex (MFC) during interval timing...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989460/touch-receptor-derived-sensory-information-alleviates-acute-pain-signaling-and-fine-tunes-nociceptive-reflex-coordination
#14
Alice Arcourt, Louise Gorham, Rahul Dhandapani, Vincenzo Prato, Francisco J Taberner, Hagen Wende, Vijayan Gangadharan, Carmen Birchmeier, Paul A Heppenstall, Stefan G Lechner
Painful mechanical stimuli activate multiple peripheral sensory afferent subtypes simultaneously, including nociceptors and low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Using an optogenetic approach, we demonstrate that LTMRs do not solely serve as touch receptors but also play an important role in acute pain signaling. We show that selective activation of neuropeptide Y receptor-2-expressing (Npy2r) myelinated A-fiber nociceptors evokes abnormally exacerbated pain, which is alleviated by concurrent activation of LTMRs in a frequency-dependent manner...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974203/serotonin-1b-receptors-regulate-prefrontal-function-by-gating-callosal-and-hippocampal-inputs
#15
Celia Kjaerby, Jegath Athilingam, Sarah E Robinson, Jillian Iafrati, Vikaas S Sohal
Both medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and serotonin play key roles in anxiety; however, specific mechanisms through which serotonin might act on the mPFC to modulate anxiety-related behavior remain unknown. Here, we use a combination of optogenetics and synaptic physiology to show that serotonin acts presynaptically via 5-HT1B receptors to selectively suppress inputs from the contralateral mPFC and ventral hippocampus (vHPC), while sparing those from mediodorsal thalamus. To elucidate how these actions could potentially regulate prefrontal circuit function, we infused a 5-HT1B agonist into the mPFC of freely behaving mice...
December 13, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974160/capturing-and-manipulating-activated-neuronal-ensembles-with-cane-delineates-a-hypothalamic-social-fear-circuit
#16
Katsuyasu Sakurai, Shengli Zhao, Jun Takatoh, Erica Rodriguez, Jinghao Lu, Andrew D Leavitt, Min Fu, Bao-Xia Han, Fan Wang
We developed a technology (capturing activated neuronal ensembles [CANE]) to label, manipulate, and transsynaptically trace neural circuits that are transiently activated in behavioral contexts with high efficiency and temporal precision. CANE consists of a knockin mouse and engineered viruses designed to specifically infect activated neurons. Using CANE, we selectively labeled neurons that were activated by either fearful or aggressive social encounters in a hypothalamic subnucleus previously known as a locus for aggression, and discovered that social-fear and aggression neurons are intermixed but largely distinct...
November 23, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931744/learning-from-one-s-mistakes-a-dual-role-for-the-rostromedial-tegmental-nucleus-in-the-encoding-and-expression-of-punished-reward-seeking
#17
Peter J Vento, Nathan W Burnham, Courtney S Rowley, Thomas C Jhou
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorders such as addiction and mania are marked by persistent reward seeking despite highly negative or aversive outcomes, but the neural mechanisms underlying this aberrant decision making are unknown. The recently identified rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) encodes a wide variety of aversive stimuli and sends robust inhibitory projections to midbrain dopamine neurons, leading to the hypothesis that the RMTg provides a brake to reward signaling in response to aversive costs...
October 21, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930324/dopamine-release-from-the-locus-coeruleus-to-the-dorsal-hippocampus-promotes-spatial-learning-and-memory
#18
Kimberly A Kempadoo, Eugene V Mosharov, Se Joon Choi, David Sulzer, Eric R Kandel
Dopamine neurotransmission in the dorsal hippocampus is critical for a range of functions from spatial learning and synaptic plasticity to the deficits underlying psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the presumed source of dopamine in the dorsal hippocampus. However, there is a surprising scarcity of VTA dopamine axons in the dorsal hippocampus despite the dense network of dopamine receptors. We have explored this apparent paradox using optogenetic, biochemical, and behavioral approaches and found that dopaminergic axons and subsequent dopamine release in the dorsal hippocampus originate from neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC)...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930323/long-range-projections-coordinate-distributed-brain-wide-neural-activity-with-a-specific-spatiotemporal-profile
#19
Alex T L Leong, Russell W Chan, Patrick P Gao, Ying-Shing Chan, Kevin K Tsia, Wing-Ho Yung, Ed X Wu
One challenge in contemporary neuroscience is to achieve an integrated understanding of the large-scale brain-wide interactions, particularly the spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity that give rise to functions and behavior. At present, little is known about the spatiotemporal properties of long-range neuronal networks. We examined brain-wide neural activity patterns elicited by stimulating ventral posteromedial (VPM) thalamo-cortical excitatory neurons through combined optogenetic stimulation and functional MRI (fMRI)...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924875/gabab-receptor-mediates-opposing-adaptations-of-gaba-release-from-two-types-of-prefrontal-interneurons-after-observational-fear
#20
Lei Liu, Wataru Ito, Alexei Morozov
The observational fear (OF) paradigm in rodents, in which the subject is exposed to a distressed conspecific, elicits contextual fear learning and enhances future passive avoidance learning, which may model certain behavioral traits resulting from traumatic experiences in humans. Because these behaviors affected by the OF, require dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), we searched for synaptic adaptations in dmPFC resulting from OF in mice by recording synaptic responses in dmPFC layer V pyramidal neurons elicited by repeated 5 Hz electrical stimulation of dmPFC layer I, or by optogenetic stimulation of specific interneurons ex vivo one day after OF...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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