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Optogenetics and behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642284/excitation-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-triggers-immediate-transition-from-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-to-wakefulness-in-mice
#1
Shota Kodani, Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient situations usually trigger arousal along with autonomic and neuroendocrine reactions. To examine whether the extended amygdala plays a role in sleep/wakefulness regulation, we examined the effects of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (GABA(BNST) neurons). Acute optogenetic excitation of these cells during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep resulted in immediate state transition to wakefulness, while stimulation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed no effect on sleep/wakefulness states in male mice...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630111/investigation-of-seizure-susceptibility-in-a-drosophila-model-of-human-epilepsy-with-optogenetic-stimulation
#2
Arunesh Saras, Veronica V Wu, Harlan J Brawer, Mark A Tanouye
We examined seizure-susceptibility in a Drosophila model of human epilepsy using optogenetic stimulation of ReaChR opsin. Photostimulation of the seizure-sensitive mutant para(bss1) causes behavioral paralysis that resembles paralysis caused by mechanical stimulation, in many aspects. Electrophysiology shows that photostimulation evokes abnormal seizure-like neuronal firing in para(bss1) followed by a quiescent period resembling synaptic failure and apparently responsible for paralysis. The pattern of neuronal activity concludes with seizure-like activity just prior to recovery (recovery)...
June 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628197/vesicular-acetylcholine-transporter-vacht-overexpression-induces-major-modifications-of-striatal-cholinergic-interneuron-morphology-and-function
#3
Helena Janickova, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado, Salah El Mestikawy, VĂ©ronique Bernard
Striatal cholinergic interneurons (CIN) are pivotal for the regulation of the striatal network. Acetylcholine (ACh) released by CIN is centrally involved in reward behavior as well as locomotor or cognitive functions. Recently, BAC transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) protein under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter (ChAT-ChR2) and displaying almost 50 extra copies of the VAChT gene were used to dissect cholinergic circuit connectivity and function using optogenetic approaches...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628101/dynamic-illumination-of-spatially-restricted-or-large-brain-volumes-via-a-single-tapered-optical-fiber
#4
Ferruccio Pisanello, Gil Mandelbaum, Marco Pisanello, Ian A Oldenburg, Leonardo Sileo, Jeffrey E Markowitz, Ralph E Peterson, Andrea Della Patria, Trevor M Haynes, Mohamed S Emara, Barbara Spagnolo, Sandeep Robert Datta, Massimo De Vittorio, Bernardo L Sabatini
Optogenetics promises precise spatiotemporal control of neural processes using light. However, the spatial extent of illumination within the brain is difficult to control and cannot be adjusted using standard fiber optics. We demonstrate that optical fibers with tapered tips can be used to illuminate either spatially restricted or large brain volumes. Remotely adjusting the light input angle to the fiber varies the light-emitting portion of the taper over several millimeters without movement of the implant...
June 19, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625486/a-corticothalamic-circuit-for-dynamic-switching-between-feature-detection-and-discrimination
#5
Wei Guo, Amanda R Clause, Asa Barth-Maron, Daniel B Polley
Sensory processing must be sensitive enough to encode faint signals near the noise floor but selective enough to differentiate between similar stimuli. Here we describe a layer 6 corticothalamic (L6 CT) circuit in the mouse auditory forebrain that alternately biases sound processing toward hypersensitivity and improved behavioral sound detection or dampened excitability and enhanced sound discrimination. Optogenetic activation of L6 CT neurons could increase or decrease the gain and tuning precision in the thalamus and all layers of the cortical column, depending on the timing between L6 CT activation and sensory stimulation...
June 14, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604684/sensory-integration-and-neuromodulatory-feedback-facilitate-drosophila-mechanonociceptive-behavior
#6
Chun Hu, Meike Petersen, Nina Hoyer, Bettina Spitzweck, Federico Tenedini, Denan Wang, Alisa Gruschka, Lara S Burchardt, Emanuela Szpotowicz, Michaela Schweizer, Ananya R Guntur, Chung-Hui Yang, Peter Soba
Nociception is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to encode and process harmful environmental stimuli. Like most animals, Drosophila melanogaster larvae respond to a variety of nociceptive stimuli, including noxious touch and temperature, with stereotyped escape responses through activation of multimodal nociceptors. How behavioral responses to these different modalities are processed and integrated by the downstream network remains poorly understood. By combining trans-synaptic labeling, ultrastructural analysis, calcium imaging, optogenetics and behavioral analyses, we uncovered a circuit specific for mechanonociception but not thermonociception...
June 12, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603489/corticostriatal-regulation-of-acute-pain
#7
Erik Martinez, Harvey H Lin, Haocheng Zhou, Jahrane Dale, Kevin Liu, Jing Wang
The mechanisms for acute pain regulation in the brain are not well understood. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) provides top-down control of emotional processes, and it projects to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This corticostriatal projection forms an important regulatory pathway within the brain's reward system. Recently, this projection has been suggested to control both sensory and affective phenotypes specifically associated with chronic pain. As this projection is also known to play a role in the transition from acute to chronic pain, we hypothesized that this corticostriatal circuit can also exert a modulatory function in the acute pain state...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602690/dorsal-raphe-dopamine-neurons-modulate-arousal-and-promote-wakefulness-by-salient-stimuli
#8
Jounhong Ryan Cho, Jennifer B Treweek, J Elliott Robinson, Cheng Xiao, Lindsay R Bremner, Alon Greenbaum, Viviana Gradinaru
Ventral midbrain dopamine (DA) is unambiguously involved in motivation and behavioral arousal, yet the contributions of other DA populations to these processes are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the dorsal raphe nucleus DA neurons are critical modulators of behavioral arousal and sleep-wake patterning. Using simultaneous fiber photometry and polysomnography, we observed time-delineated dorsal raphe nucleus dopaminergic (DRN(DA)) activity upon exposure to arousal-evoking salient cues, irrespective of their hedonic valence...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592174/at-light-speed-advances-in-optogenetic-systems-for-regulating-cell-signaling-and-behavior
#9
Nicole A Repina, Alyssa Rosenbloom, Abhirup Mukherjee, David V Schaffer, Ravi S Kane
Cells are bombarded by extrinsic signals that dynamically change in time and space. Such dynamic variations can exert profound effects on behaviors, including cellular signaling, organismal development, stem cell differentiation, normal tissue function, and disease processes such as cancer. Although classical genetic tools are well suited to introduce binary perturbations, new approaches have been necessary to investigate how dynamic signal variation may regulate cell behavior. This fundamental question is increasingly being addressed with optogenetics, a field focused on engineering and harnessing light-sensitive proteins to interface with cellular signaling pathways...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575309/nonhuman-primate-studies-to-advance-vision-science-and-prevent-blindness
#10
Michael J Mustari
Most primate behavior is dependent on high acuity vision. Optimal visual performance in primates depends heavily upon frontally placed eyes, retinal specializations, and binocular vision. To see an object clearly its image must be placed on or near the fovea of each eye. The oculomotor system is responsible for maintaining precise eye alignment during fixation and generating eye movements to track moving targets. The visual system of nonhuman primates has a similar anatomical organization and functional capability to that of humans...
May 31, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562670/increased-threshold-of-short-latency-motor-evoked-potentials-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-channelrhodopsin-2
#11
Wei Wu, Wenhui Xiong, Ping Zhang, Lifang Chen, Jianqiao Fang, Christopher Shields, Xiao-Ming Xu, Xiaoming Jin
Transgenic mice that express channelrhodopsin-2 or its variants provide a powerful tool for optogenetic study of the nervous system. Previous studies have established that introducing such exogenous genes usually does not alter anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral properties of neurons in these mice. However, in a line of Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mice (line 9, Jackson lab), we found that short-latency motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation had a longer latency and much lower amplitude than that of wild type mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555077/the-dendritic-spine-morphogenic-effects-of-repeated-cocaine-use-occur-through-the-regulation-of-serum-response-factor-signaling
#12
M E Cahill, D M Walker, A M Gancarz, Z J Wang, C K Lardner, R C Bagot, R L Neve, D M Dietz, E J Nestler
The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a primary brain reward region composed predominantly of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In response to early withdrawal from repeated cocaine administration, de novo dendritic spine formation occurs in NAc MSNs. Much evidence indicates that this new spine formation facilitates the rewarding properties of cocaine. Early withdrawal from repeated cocaine also produces dramatic alterations in the transcriptome of NAc MSNs, but how such alterations influence cocaine's effects on dendritic spine formation remain unclear...
May 30, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553944/the-cellular-mechanism-for-water-detection-in-the-mammalian-taste-system
#13
Dhruv Zocchi, Gunther Wennemuth, Yuki Oka
Initiation of drinking behavior relies on both internal state and peripheral water detection. While central neural circuits regulating thirst have been well studied, it is still unclear how mammals recognize external water. Here we show that acid-sensing taste receptor cells (TRCs) that were previously suggested as the sour taste sensors also mediate taste responses to water. Genetic silencing of these TRCs abolished water-evoked responses in taste nerves. Optogenetic self-stimulation of acid-sensing TRCs in thirsty animals induced robust drinking responses toward light even without water...
May 29, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553579/optogenetics-tools-and-applications-in-neurobiology
#14
REVIEW
Parisa Mahmoudi, Hadi Veladi, Firooz G Pakdel
Comprehension of the brain function can be helpful for therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. The brain consists of various types of neuron sets, which organize in three-dimensional complex networks and form neural circuits underlying different behaviors. The circuits act based on the patterns that encode the brain functions. Recognition of the neural patterns requires methods to manipulate the neurons. Electrical stimulation may be the most common method. However, it has significant drawbacks including failure to identify specific neurons in experiments...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553206/a-toolbox-for-optophysiological-experiments-in-freely-moving-rats
#15
Stefanie Hardung, Mansour Alyahyay, David Eriksson, Ilka Diester
Simultaneous recordings and manipulations of neural circuits that control the behavior of animals is one of the key techniques in modern neuroscience. Rapid advances in optogenetics have led to a variety of probes combining multichannel readout and optogenetic write in. Given the complexity of the brain, it comes as no surprise that the choice of the device is constrained by several factors such as the animal model, the structure and location of the brain area of interest, as well as the behavioral read out...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552825/viral-strategies-for-targeting-cortical-circuits-that-control-cocaine-taking-and-cocaine-seeking-in-rodents
#16
REVIEW
Aaron F Garcia, Kanichi G Nakata, Susan M Ferguson
Addiction to cocaine is a chronic disease characterized by persistent drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors, and a high likelihood of relapse. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has long been implicated in the development of cocaine addiction, and relapse. However, the PFC is a heterogeneous structure, and understanding the role of PFC subdivisions, cell types and afferent/efferent connections is critical for gaining a comprehensive picture of the contribution of the PFC in addiction-related behaviors. Here we provide an update on the role of the PFC in cocaine addiction from recent work that used viral-mediated optogenetic and chemogenetic tools to study the role of the PFC in drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior in rodents...
May 25, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539613/optogenetic-excitation-of-cholinergic-inputs-to-hippocampus-primes-future-contextual-fear-associations
#17
Sarah Hersman, Jesse Cushman, Noah Lemelson, Kate Wassum, Shahrdad Lotfipour, Michael S Fanselow
Learning about context is essential for appropriate behavioral strategies, but important contingencies may not arise during initial learning. A variant of contextual fear conditioning, context pre-exposure facilitation, allows us to directly test the relationship between novelty-induced acetylcholine release and later contextual associability. We demonstrate that optogenetically-enhanced acetylcholine during initial contextual exploration leads to stronger fear after subsequent pairing with shock, suggesting that novelty-induced acetylcholine release primes future contextual associations...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539416/the-extinction-of-cocaine-seeking-requires-a-window-of-infralimbic-pyramidal-neuron-activity-after-unreinforced-lever-presses
#18
Andrea L Gutman, Kelle E Nett, Caitlin V Cosme, Wensday R Worth, Subhash C Gupta, John A Wemmie, Ryan T LaLumiere
The infralimbic cortex (IL) mediates the extinction learning and active suppression of cocaine-seeking behavior. However, the precise temporal relationship among IL activity, lever pressing, and extinction learning is unclear. To address this issue, we employed activity-guided optogenetics in male Sprague-Dawley rats to optically silence IL pyramidal neurons for 20 s immediately following unreinforced lever presses during early extinction training after cocaine self-administration. Optical inhibition of the IL increased active lever pressing during shortened extinction sessions but did not alter the retention of the extinction learning as assessed in ensuing extinction sessions with no optical inhibition...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538173/cortico-accumbens-regulation-of-approach-avoidance-behavior-is-modified-by-experience-and-chronic-pain
#19
Neil Schwartz, Catriona Miller, Howard L Fields
Although optimizing decisions between drives to avoid pain and to obtain reward are critical for survival, understanding the neuronal circuit activity that regulates choice during approach-avoidance conflicts is limited. Here, we recorded neuronal activity in the infralimbic (IL) cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc) during an approach-avoidance task. In this task, disruption of approach by a pain-predictive cue (PPC-avoidance) is extinguished by experience and reinstated in a model of chronic pain. In the IL-NAc circuit, the activity of distinct subpopulations of neurons predicts the extent of PPC-avoidance observed...
May 23, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523568/role-of-dopamine-projections-from-ventral-tegmental-area-to-nucleus-accumbens-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-reinforcement-behaviors-assessed-using-optogenetic-manipulation
#20
Xiao Han, Man-Yi Jing, Tai-Yun Zhao, Ning Wu, Rui Song, Jin Li
Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are predicted to play important roles in reward. In pharmacological studies, the rewarding effects of methamphetamine are mediated by DA neurons localized in the VTA. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC) are the main projections from the VTA. However, the role of these projections remains unclear, particularly the mPFC projections. In the present study, DAT-Cre transgenic mice received an injection of adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) or control vector into the VTA resulting in the selective expression of these opsins in DA neurons...
May 19, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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