Read by QxMD icon Read

Optogenetics and behavior

Iryna Yavorska, Michael Wehr
Cortical inhibitory neurons exhibit remarkable diversity in their morphology, connectivity, and synaptic properties. Here, we review the function of somatostatin-expressing (SOM) inhibitory interneurons, focusing largely on sensory cortex. SOM neurons also comprise a number of subpopulations that can be distinguished by their morphology, input and output connectivity, laminar location, firing properties, and expression of molecular markers. Several of these classes of SOM neurons show unique dynamics and characteristics, such as facilitating synapses, specific axonal projections, intralaminar input, and top-down modulation, which suggest possible computational roles...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Stephan Steidl, Huiling Wang, Marco Ordonez, Shiliang Zhang, Marisela Morales
Converging evidence shows that ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons receive laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDTg) cholinergic and glutamatergic inputs. To test the behavioral consequences of selectively driving the two sources of excitatory LDTg input to the VTA, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) was expressed in LDTg cholinergic neurons of ChAT::Cre mice (ChAT-ChR2 mice) or in LDTg glutamatergic neurons of VGluT2::Cre mice (VGluT2-ChR2 mice). Mice were tested in a 3-chamber place preference apparatus where entry into a light-paired chamber resulted in VTA light stimulation of LDTg-cholinergic or LDTg-glutamatergic axons for the duration of a chamber stay...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Vikaas S Sohal
γ oscillations, which can be identified by rhythmic electrical signals ∼30-100 Hz, consist of interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons that result in rhythmic inhibition capable of entraining firing within local cortical circuits. Many possible mechanisms have been described through which γ oscillations could act on cortical circuits to modulate their responses to input, alter their patterns of activity, and/or enhance the efficacy of their outputs onto downstream targets. Recently, several studies have observed changes in behavior after optogenetically manipulating neocortical γ oscillations...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sebastian Hormigo, German Vega-Flores, Manuel A Castro-Alamancos
: Engrained avoidance behavior is highly adaptive when it keeps away harmful events and can be highly maladaptive when individuals elude harmless situations in anxiety disorders, but the neural circuits that mediate avoidance are poorly understood. Using DREADDs and optogenetics in mice, we show that the output of the basal ganglia through the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) controls active avoidance. SNr excitation blocks avoidance to a conditioned sensory stimulus while preserving the ability to escape the harmful event...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Kyuhyun Choi, Youngin Lee, Changwoo Lee, Seokheon Hong, Soonje Lee, Shin Jung Kang, Ki Soon Shin
The medial habenula (MHb) plays an important role in nicotine-related behaviors such as nicotine aversion and withdrawal. The MHb receives GABAergic input from the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB), yet the synaptic mechanism that regulates MHb activity is unclear. GABA (γ -aminobutyric acid) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter activating both GABAA receptors and GABAB receptors. Depending on intracellular chloride concentration, however, GABAA receptors also function in an excitatory manner...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Abhishek Sengupta, Antoine Chaffiol, Emilie Macé, Romain Caplette, Mélissa Desrosiers, Maruša Lampič, Valérie Forster, Olivier Marre, John Y Lin, José-Alain Sahel, Serge Picaud, Deniz Dalkara, Jens Duebel
Targeting the photosensitive ion channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) to the retinal circuitry downstream of photoreceptors holds promise in treating vision loss caused by retinal degeneration. However, the high intensity of blue light necessary to activate channelrhodopsin-2 exceeds the safety threshold of retinal illumination because of its strong potential to induce photochemical damage. In contrast, the damage potential of red-shifted light is vastly lower than that of blue light. Here, we show that a red-shifted channelrhodopsin (ReaChR), delivered by AAV injections in blind rd1 mice, enables restoration of light responses at the retinal, cortical, and behavioral levels, using orange light at intensities below the safety threshold for the human retina...
September 27, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Jianguang Ni, Thomas Wunderle, Christopher Murphy Lewis, Robert Desimone, Ilka Diester, Pascal Fries
Cognition requires the dynamic modulation of effective connectivity, i.e., the modulation of the postsynaptic neuronal response to a given input. If postsynaptic neurons are rhythmically active, this might entail rhythmic gain modulation, such that inputs synchronized to phases of high gain benefit from enhanced effective connectivity. We show that visually induced gamma-band activity in awake macaque area V4 rhythmically modulates responses to unpredictable stimulus events. This modulation exceeded a simple additive superposition of a constant response onto ongoing gamma-rhythmic firing, demonstrating the modulation of multiplicative gain...
October 5, 2016: Neuron
Xiaopeng Bi, Tian Xie, Bin Fan, Wasif Khan, Yue Guo, Wen Li
Optogenetics is a fast growing neuromodulation method, which can remotely manipulate the specific activities of genetically-targeted neural cells and associated biological behaviors with millisecond temporal precision through light illumination. Application of optogenetics in neuroscience studies has created an increased need for the development of light sources and the instruments for light delivery. This paper presents a micro-lens-coupled LED neural stimulator which includes a backside reflector and a frontside microlens for light collection and collimation...
September 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Patrick Sweeney, Yong Qi, Zhenping Xu, Yunlei Yang
Emerging evidence shows that hypothalamic astrocytes react to and counteract energy surfeit produced by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. However, the functional role of astrocytes in the control of energy states and the underlying molecular mechanism(s) during physiological conditions remain largely underexplored. In the present study, by taking advantage of spatiotemporally precise optogenetic approaches, real-time measurements of extracellular adenosine, and behavioral assays, we find that optogenetic stimulation of astrocytes localized in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) suppresses food intake in a frequency dependent manner with high frequency, but not low frequency, stimulation of astrocytes reducing food intake...
September 23, 2016: Glia
Isaac Zike, Tim Xu, Natalie Hong, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with unknown molecular underpinnings. Identification of genetic and non-genetic risk factors has largely been elusive, primarily because of a lack of power. In contrast, neuroimaging has consistently implicated the cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits in OCD. Pharmacological treatment studies also show specificity, with consistent response of OCD symptoms to chronic treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors; although most patients are left with residual impairment...
September 16, 2016: Neuroscience
Evan L Ardiel, Andrew C Giles, Alex J Yu, Theodore H Lindsay, Shawn R Lockery, Catharine H Rankin
Habituation is a highly conserved phenomenon that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Invertebrate model systems, like Caenorhabditis elegans, can be a powerful tool for investigating this fundamental process. Here we established a high-throughput learning assay that used real-time computer vision software for behavioral tracking and optogenetics for stimulation of the C. elegans polymodal nociceptor, ASH. Photoactivation of ASH with ChR2 elicited backward locomotion and repetitive stimulation altered aspects of the response in a manner consistent with habituation...
October 2016: Learning & Memory
Antonio Luchicchi, Ouissame Mnie-Filali, Huub Terra, Bastiaan Bruinsma, Sybren F de Kloet, Joshua Obermayer, Tim S Heistek, Roel de Haan, Christiaan P J de Kock, Karl Deisseroth, Tommy Pattij, Huibert D Mansvelder
Attending the sensory environment for cue detection is a cognitive operation that occurs on a time scale of seconds. The dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) contribute to separate aspects of attentional processing. Pyramidal neurons in different parts of the mPFC are active during cognitive behavior, yet whether this activity is causally underlying attentional processing is not known. We aimed to determine the precise temporal requirements for activation of the mPFC subregions during the seconds prior to cue detection...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Horst A Obenhaus, Andrei Rozov, Ilaria Bertocchi, Wannan Tang, Joachim Kirsch, Heinrich Betz, Rolf Sprengel
The causal interrogation of neuronal networks involved in specific behaviors requires the spatially and temporally controlled modulation of neuronal activity. For long-term manipulation of neuronal activity, chemogenetic tools provide a reasonable alternative to short-term optogenetic approaches. Here we show that virus mediated gene transfer of the ivermectin (IVM) activated glycine receptor mutant GlyRα1 (AG) can be used for the selective and reversible silencing of specific neuronal networks in mice. In the striatum, dorsal hippocampus, and olfactory bulb, GlyRα1 (AG) promoted IVM dependent effects in representative behavioral assays...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Yasser Aboelkassem, Stuart G Campbell
Optogenetic approaches allow cellular membrane potentials to be perturbed by light. When applied to muscle cells, mechanical events can be controlled through a process that could be termed 'Optomechanics'. Besides functioning as an optical on/off switch, we hypothesized that optomechanical control could include the ability to manipulate the strength and duration of contraction events. To explore this possibility, we constructed an electromechanical model of the human ventricular cardiomyocyte while adding a representation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), a light-activated channel commonly used in optogenetics...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Svetlana Pitts, Elizabeth Pelser, Julian Meeks, Dean Smith
In insects, pheromones function as triggers to elicit complex behavior programs, such as courtship and mating behavior. In most species, the neurons tuned to pheromones are localized in a specific subset of olfactory sensilla located on the antenna called trichoid sensilla. In Drosophila there are two classes of trichoid sensilla, at1 sensilla that contain the dendrites of a single neuron that is specifically tuned to the male-specific pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA), and at4 sensilla that contain three neurons with relatively poorly defined chemical specificity and function...
2016: PloS One
Chan Lek Tan, Elizabeth K Cooke, David E Leib, Yen-Chu Lin, Gwendolyn E Daly, Christopher A Zimmerman, Zachary A Knight
Thermoregulation is one of the most vital functions of the brain, but how temperature information is converted into homeostatic responses remains unknown. Here, we use an unbiased approach for activity-dependent RNA sequencing to identify warm-sensitive neurons (WSNs) within the preoptic hypothalamus that orchestrate the homeostatic response to heat. We show that these WSNs are molecularly defined by co-expression of the neuropeptides BDNF and PACAP. Optical recordings in awake, behaving mice reveal that these neurons are selectively activated by environmental warmth...
September 22, 2016: Cell
William R Stauffer, Armin Lak, Aimei Yang, Melodie Borel, Ole Paulsen, Edward S Boyden, Wolfram Schultz
Optogenetic studies in mice have revealed new relationships between well-defined neurons and brain functions. However, there are currently no means to achieve the same cell-type specificity in monkeys, which possess an expanded behavioral repertoire and closer anatomical homology to humans. Here, we present a resource for cell-type-specific channelrhodopsin expression in Rhesus monkeys and apply this technique to modulate dopamine activity and monkey choice behavior. These data show that two viral vectors label dopamine neurons with greater than 95% specificity...
September 8, 2016: Cell
Vijay Mohan K Namboodiri, Garret D Stuber
The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys.
September 8, 2016: Cell
Thomas W Faust, Maxime Assous, James M Tepper, Tibor Koós
UNLABELLED: Synchronous optogenetic activation of striatal cholinergic interneurons ex vivo produces a disynaptic inhibition of spiny projection neurons composed of biophysically distinct GABAAfast and GABAAslow components. This has been shown to be due, at least in part, to activation of nicotinic receptors on GABAergic NPY-neurogliaform interneurons that monosynaptically inhibit striatal spiny projection neurons. Recently, it has been proposed that a significant proportion of this inhibition is actually mediated by activation of presynaptic nicotinic receptors on nigrostriatal terminals that evoke GABA release from the terminals of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Laura M McGarry, Adam G Carter
UNLABELLED: Interactions between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulate emotional behaviors. However, a circuit-level understanding of functional connections between these brain regions remains incomplete. The BLA sends prominent glutamatergic projections to the PFC, but the overall influence of these inputs is predominantly inhibitory. Here we combine targeted recordings and optogenetics to examine the synaptic underpinnings of this inhibition in the mouse infralimbic PFC...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"