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Optogenetics and behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691410/control-of-mechanical-pain-hypersensitivity-in-mice-through-ligand-targeted-photoablation-of-trkb-positive-sensory-neurons
#1
Rahul Dhandapani, Cynthia Mary Arokiaraj, Francisco J Taberner, Paola Pacifico, Sruthi Raja, Linda Nocchi, Carla Portulano, Federica Franciosa, Mariano Maffei, Ahmad Fawzi Hussain, Fernanda de Castro Reis, Luc Reymond, Emerald Perlas, Simone Garcovich, Stefan Barth, Kai Johnsson, Stefan G Lechner, Paul A Heppenstall
Mechanical allodynia is a major symptom of neuropathic pain whereby innocuous touch evokes severe pain. Here we identify a population of peripheral sensory neurons expressing TrkB that are both necessary and sufficient for producing pain from light touch after nerve injury in mice. Mice in which TrkB-Cre-expressing neurons are ablated are less sensitive to the lightest touch under basal conditions, and fail to develop mechanical allodynia in a model of neuropathic pain. Moreover, selective optogenetic activation of these neurons after nerve injury evokes marked nociceptive behavior...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686613/essential-control-of-the-function-of-the-striatopallidal-neuron-by-pre-coupled-complexes-of-adenosine-a-2a-dopamine-d-2-receptor-heterotetramers-and-adenylyl-cyclase
#2
Sergi Ferré, Jordi Bonaventura, Wendy Zhu, Candice Hatcher-Solis, Jaume Taura, César Quiroz, Ning-Sheng Cai, Estefanía Moreno, Verónica Casadó-Anguera, Alexxai V Kravitz, Kimberly R Thompson, Dardo G Tomasi, Gemma Navarro, Arnau Cordomí, Leonardo Pardo, Carme Lluís, Carmen W Dessauer, Nora D Volkow, Vicent Casadó, Francisco Ciruela, Diomedes E Logothetis, Daniel Zwilling
The central adenosine system and adenosine receptors play a fundamental role in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission. This is mostly achieved by the strategic co-localization of different adenosine and dopamine receptor subtypes in the two populations of striatal efferent neurons, striatonigral and striatopallidal, that give rise to the direct and indirect striatal efferent pathways, respectively. With optogenetic techniques it has been possible to dissect a differential role of the direct and indirect pathways in mediating "Go" responses upon exposure to reward-related stimuli and "NoGo" responses upon exposure to non-rewarded or aversive-related stimuli, respectively, which depends on their different connecting output structures and their differential expression of dopamine and adenosine receptor subtypes...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681532/a-missense-variant-at-the-nrxn3-locus-enhances-empathy-fear-in-the-mouse
#3
Sehoon Keum, Arie Kim, Jae Jin Shin, Jong-Hyun Kim, Joomin Park, Hee-Sup Shin
Empathy is crucial for our emotional experience and social interactions, and its abnormalities manifest in various psychiatric disorders. Observational fear is a useful behavioral paradigm for assessing affective empathy in rodents. However, specific genes that regulate observational fear remain unknown. Here we showed that 129S1/SvImJ mice carrying a unique missense variant in neurexin 3 (Nrxn3) exhibited a profound and selective enhancement in observational fear. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, the arginine-to-tryptophan (R498W) change in Nrxn3 was confirmed to be the causative variant...
April 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681476/phasic-dopamine-signals-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-that-cause-active-avoidance-require-endocannabinoid-mobilization-in-the-midbrain
#4
Jennifer M Wenzel, Erik B Oleson, Willard N Gove, Anthony B Cole, Utsav Gyawali, Hannah M Dantrassy, Rebecca J Bluett, Dilyan I Dryanovski, Garret D Stuber, Karl Deisseroth, Brian N Mathur, Sachin Patel, Carl R Lupica, Joseph F Cheer
Phasic dopamine (DA) release accompanies approach toward appetitive cues. However, a role for DA in the active avoidance of negative events remains undetermined. Warning signals informing footshock avoidance are associated with accumbal DA release, whereas depression of DA is observed with unavoidable footshock. Here, we reveal a causal role of phasic DA in active avoidance learning; specifically, optogenetic activation of DA neurons facilitates avoidance, whereas optical inhibition of these cells attenuates it...
April 16, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681474/ejaculation-induced-by-the-activation-of-crz-neurons-is-rewarding-to-drosophila-males
#5
Shir Zer-Krispil, Hila Zak, Lisha Shao, Shir Ben-Shaanan, Lea Tordjman, Assa Bentzur, Anat Shmueli, Galit Shohat-Ophir
The reward system is a collection of circuits that reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [1, 2]. Given the importance of reproduction for survival, actions that promote successful mating induce pleasurable feeling and are positively reinforced [3, 4]. This principle is conserved in Drosophila, where successful copulation is naturally rewarding to male flies, induces long-term appetitive memories [5], increases brain levels of neuropeptide F (NPF, the fly homolog of neuropeptide Y), and prevents ethanol, known otherwise as rewarding to flies [6, 7], from being rewarding [5]...
April 17, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679009/nucleus-accumbens-controls-wakefulness-by-a-subpopulation-of-neurons-expressing-dopamine-d-1-receptors
#6
Yan-Jia Luo, Ya-Dong Li, Lu Wang, Su-Rong Yang, Xiang-Shan Yuan, Juan Wang, Yoan Cherasse, Michael Lazarus, Jiang-Fan Chen, Wei-Min Qu, Zhi-Li Huang
Nucleus accumbens (NAc) is involved in behaviors that depend on heightened wakefulness, but its impact on arousal remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that NAc dopamine D1 receptor (D1 R)-expressing neurons are essential for behavioral arousal. Using in vivo fiber photometry in mice, we find arousal-dependent increases in population activity of NAc D1 R neurons. Optogenetic activation of NAc D1 R neurons induces immediate transitions from non-rapid eye movement sleep to wakefulness, and chemogenetic stimulation prolongs arousal, with decreased food intake...
April 20, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675583/do-alcohol-related-ampa-type-glutamate-receptor-adaptations-promote-intake
#7
F Woodward Hopf, Regina A Mangieri
Ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA, and kainate receptors) play a central role in excitatory glutamatergic signaling throughout the brain. As a result, functional changes, especially long-lasting forms of plasticity, have the potential to profoundly alter neuronal function and the expression of adaptive and pathological behaviors. Thus, alcohol-related adaptations in ionotropic glutamate receptors are of great interest, since they could promote excessive alcohol consumption, even after long-term abstinence...
April 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670106/olfactory-inputs-modulate-respiration-related-rhythmic-activity-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-freezing-behavior
#8
Andrew H Moberly, Mary Schreck, Janardhan P Bhattarai, Larry S Zweifel, Wenqin Luo, Minghong Ma
Respiration and airflow through the nasal cavity are known to be correlated with rhythmic neural activity in the central nervous system. Here we show in rodents that during conditioned fear-induced freezing behavior, mice breathe at a steady rate (~4 Hz), which is correlated with a predominant 4-Hz oscillation in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC), a structure critical for expression of conditioned fear behaviors. We demonstrate anatomical and functional connections between the olfactory pathway and plPFC via circuit tracing and optogenetics...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664610/bioprinting-living-biofilms-through-optogenetic-manipulation
#9
Yajia Huang, Aiguo Xia, Guang Yang, Fan Jin
In this paper, we present a new strategy for microprinting dense bacterial communities with a prescribed organization on a substrate. Unlike conventional bioprinting techniques that require bioinks, through optogenetic manipulation, we directly manipulated the behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to allow these living bacteria to autonomically form patterned biofilms following prescribed illumination. The results showed that through optogenetic manipulation, patterned bacterial communities with high spatial resolution (approximately 10 μm) could be constructed in 6 h...
April 18, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662214/locomotor-activity-modulates-associative-learning-in-mouse-cerebellum
#10
Catarina Albergaria, N Tatiana Silva, Dominique L Pritchett, Megan R Carey
Changes in behavioral state can profoundly influence brain function. Here we show that behavioral state modulates performance in delay eyeblink conditioning, a cerebellum-dependent form of associative learning. Increased locomotor speed in head-fixed mice drove earlier onset of learning and trial-by-trial enhancement of learned responses that were dissociable from changes in arousal and independent of sensory modality. Eyelid responses evoked by optogenetic stimulation of mossy fiber inputs to the cerebellum, but not at sites downstream, were positively modulated by ongoing locomotion...
April 16, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650697/cell-type-specific-contributions-of-medial-prefrontal-neurons-to-flexible-behaviors
#11
Hirofumi Nakayama, Ines Ibañez-Tallon, Nathaniel Heintz
Behavioral flexibility and impulse control are necessary for successful execution of adaptive behavior. They are impaired in patients with damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and in some clinically important conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been investigated as a critical structure for behavioral flexibility and impulse control, the contribution of the underlying pyramidal neuron cell types in the mPFC remained to be understood. Here we show that interneuron-mediated local inactivation of pyramidal neurons in the mPFC of male and female mice induces both premature responses and choice bias, and establish that these impulsive and compulsive responses are modulated independently...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643766/spatiotemporal-control-of-gpr37-signaling-and-its-behavioral-effects-by-optogenetics
#12
Wu Zheng, Jianhong Zhou, Yanan Luan, Jianglan Yang, Yuanyuan Ge, Muran Wang, Beibei Wu, Zhongnan Wu, Xingjun Chen, Fei Li, Zhihui Li, Sergii Vakal, Wei Guo, Jiang-Fan Chen
Despite the progress in deorphanization of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs), ≈100 GPCRs are still classified as orphan receptors without identified endogenous ligands and with unknown physiological functions. The lack of endogenous ligands triggering GPCR signaling has hampered the study of orphan GPCR functions. Using GPR37 as an example, we provide here the first demonstration of the channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2)-GPCR approach to bypass the endogenous ligand and selectively activate the orphan GPCR signal by optogenetics...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630041/tracking-drosophila-larval-behavior-in-response-to-optogenetic-stimulation-of-olfactory-neurons
#13
David A Clark, Donovan Kohler, America Mathis, Eryn Slankster, Samipya Kafle, Seth R Odell, Dennis Mathew
The ability of insects to navigate toward odor sources is based on the activities of their first-order olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). While a considerable amount of information has been generated regarding ORN responses to odorants, the role of specific ORNs in driving behavioral responses remains poorly understood. Complications in behavior analyses arise due to different volatilities of odorants that activate individual ORNs, multiple ORNs activated by single odorants, and the difficulty in replicating naturally observed temporal variations in olfactory stimuli using conventional odor-delivery methods in the laboratory...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628879/dopamine-effort-based-choice-and-behavioral-economics-basic-and-translational-research
#14
REVIEW
John D Salamone, Merce Correa, Jen-Hau Yang, Renee Rotolo, Rose Presby
Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628373/hippocampal-neural-circuits-respond-to-optogenetic-pacing-of-theta-frequencies-by-generating-accelerated-oscillation-frequencies
#15
Ipshita Zutshi, Mark P Brandon, Maylin L Fu, Macayla L Donegan, Jill K Leutgeb, Stefan Leutgeb
Biological oscillations can be controlled by a small population of rhythmic pacemaker cells, or in the brain, they also can emerge from complex cellular and circuit-level interactions. Whether and how these mechanisms are combined to give rise to oscillatory patterns that govern cognitive function are not well understood. For example, the activity of hippocampal networks is temporally coordinated by a 7- to 9-Hz local field potential (LFP) theta rhythm, yet many individual cells decouple from the LFP frequency to oscillate at frequencies ∼1 Hz higher...
April 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628188/dynamic-erbb4-activity-in-hippocampal-prefrontal-synchrony-and-top-down-attention-in-rodents
#16
Zhibing Tan, Heath L Robinson, Dong-Min Yin, Yu Liu, Fang Liu, Hongsheng Wang, Thiri W Lin, Guanglin Xing, Lin Gan, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Top-down attention is crucial for meaningful behaviors and impaired in various mental disorders. However, its underpinning regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. We demonstrate that the hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony associates with levels of top-down attention. Both attention and synchrony are reduced in mutant mice of ErbB4, a receptor of neuregulin-1. We used chemical genetic and optogenetic approaches to inactivate ErbB4 kinase and ErbB4+ interneurons, respectively, both of which reduce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity...
April 3, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625451/a-robust-optomotor-assay-for-assessing-the-efficacy-of-optogenetic-tools-for-vision-restoration
#17
Qi Lu, Tushar H Ganjawala, Samer Hattar, Gary W Abrams, Zhuo-Hua Pan
Purpose: To develop an animal behavioral assay for the quantitative assessment of the functional efficacy of optogenetic therapies. Methods: A triple-knockout (TKO) mouse line, Gnat1-/-Cnga3-/-Opn4-/-, and a double-knockout mouse line, Gnat1-/-Cnga3-/-, were employed. The expression of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and its three more light-sensitive mutants, ChR2-L132C, ChR2-L132C/T159C, and ChR2-132C/T159S, in inner retinal neurons was achieved using rAAV2 vectors via intravitreal delivery...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621487/a-hypothalamic-midbrain-pathway-essential-for-driving-maternal-behaviors
#18
Yi-Ya Fang, Takashi Yamaguchi, Soomin C Song, Nicolas X Tritsch, Dayu Lin
Maternal behaviors are essential for the survival of the young. Previous studies implicated the medial preoptic area (MPOA) as an important region for maternal behaviors, but details of the maternal circuit remain incompletely understood. Here we identify estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1)-expressing cells in the MPOA as key mediators of pup approach and retrieval. Reversible inactivation of MPOAEsr1+ cells impairs those behaviors, whereas optogenetic activation induces immediate pup retrieval. In vivo recordings demonstrate preferential activation of MPOAEsr1+ cells during maternal behaviors and changes in MPOA cell responses across reproductive states...
April 4, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618589/functional-imaging-and-optogenetics-in-drosophila
#19
Julie H Simpson, Loren L Looger
Understanding how activity patterns in specific neural circuits coordinate an animal's behavior remains a key area of neuroscience research. Genetic tools and a brain of tractable complexity make Drosophila a premier model organism for these studies. Here, we review the wealth of reagents available to map and manipulate neuronal activity with light.
April 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618588/sleep-active-neurons-conserved-motors-of-sleep
#20
REVIEW
Henrik Bringmann
Sleep is crucial for survival and well-being. This behavioral and physiological state has been studied in all major genetically accessible model animals, including rodents, fish, flies, and worms. Genetic and optogenetic studies have identified several neurons that control sleep, making it now possible to compare circuit mechanisms across species. The "motor" of sleep across animal species is formed by neurons that depolarize at the onset of sleep to actively induce this state by directly inhibiting wakefulness...
April 2018: Genetics
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