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hpa and fetus in animals

Mahino Fatima, Saurabh Srivastav, Amal Chandra Mondal
Prenatal maternal depression has its direct effects on early brain development deficits with permanent changes in neuroendocrine functions and impaired behavior in offsprings. Prenatal stress (PS) transmits its affect on developing fetus and on pregnancy outcomes in adult offsprings. This results in impaired neurodevelopment, delayed cognitive and motor development with impaired behavior towards stressful conditions. There are sufficient evidences in animal models suggesting depression responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its hormonal response via cortisol, responsible for its critical effects in both the mother and offspring...
August 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Dong In Suh, Hyoung Yoon Chang, Eun Lee, Song I Yang, Soo Jong Hong
Recent studies have suggested a close association between prenatal maternal distress and allergic diseases in the offspring. We selected relevant birth-cohort or national registry studies using a keyword search of the PubMed database and summarized current evidence on the impact of prenatal maternal distress on the development of offspring's allergic diseases. Moreover, we postulated possible pathways linking prenatal distress and allergic diseases based on relevant human and animal studies. Both dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increased oxidative stress may cause structural (altered brain/lung development) and functional (skewed immune development) changes, which may predispose the fetus to developing allergic diseases during childhood...
May 2017: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Andrea Constantinof, Vasilis G Moisiadis, Stephen G Matthews
The embryo and fetus are highly responsive to the gestational environment. Glucocorticoids (GC) represent an important class of developmental cues and are crucial for normal brain development. Levels of GC in the fetal circulation are tightly regulated. They are maintained at low levels during pregnancy, and increase rapidly at the end of gestation. This surge in GC is critical for maturation of the organs, specifically the lungs, brain and kidney. There are extensive changes in brain epigenetic profiles that accompany the GC surge, suggesting that GC may drive regulation of gene transcription through altered epigenetic pathways...
June 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
N Lan, M P Y Chiu, L Ellis, J Weinberg
Adverse intrauterine environments increase vulnerability to chronic diseases across the lifespan. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which integrates multiple neuronal signals and ultimately controls the response to stressors, may provide a final common pathway linking early adversity and adult diseases. Both prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and prenatal stress (PS) induce a hyperresponsive HPA phenotype in adulthood. As glucocorticoids are pivotal for the normal development of many fetal tissues including the brain, we used animal models of PAE and PS to investigate possible mechanisms underlying fetal programing of glucocorticoid signaling in the placenta and fetal brain at gestation day (GD) 21...
February 7, 2017: Neuroscience
Suzanne King, Sue Kildea, Marie-Paule Austin, Alain Brunet, Vanessa E Cobham, Paul A Dawson, Mark Harris, Elizabeth M Hurrion, David P Laplante, Brett M McDermott, H David McIntyre, Michael W O'Hara, Norbert Schmitz, Helen Stapleton, Sally K Tracy, Cathy Vaillancourt, Kelsey N Dancause, Sue Kruske, Nicole Reilly, Laura Shoo, Gabrielle Simcock, Anne-Marie Turcotte-Tremblay, Erin Yong Ping
BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies suggest that maternal exposure to a severe stressor during pregnancy increases the fetus' risk for a variety of disorders in adulthood. Animal studies testing the fetal programming hypothesis find that maternal glucocorticoids pass through the placenta and alter fetal brain development, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, there are no prospective studies of pregnant women exposed to a sudden-onset independent stressor that elucidate the biopsychosocial mechanisms responsible for the wide variety of consequences of prenatal stress seen in human offspring...
2015: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
A C Liaudat, N Rodríguez, S Chen, M C Romanini, A Vivas, A Rolando, H Gauna, N Mayer
Stress in pregnant rats caused by chronic immobilization alters the pattern of secretion of corticosterone and modifies the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) of the fetus. Early postnatal handling, however, may reverse the effects of increased secretion of corticosterone. We investigated the effects of prenatal stress and postnatal handling on the activity of the HPA axis of male offspring of stressed female rats. Male 90-day-old rats from four groups were investigated: prenatally stressed animals without postnatal handling, prenatally stressed animals with postnatal handling, unstressed control animals with postnatal handling, and unstressed control animals without postnatal handling...
2015: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Hanno Schönbom, Ana Kassens, Charlotte Hopster-Iversen, Jutta Klewitz, Marion Piechotta, Gunilla Martinsson, Andreas Kißler, Dominik Burger, Harald Sieme
Pregnancy diagnostics in equine reproduction are routinely performed using transrectal ultrasonography, although it is also possible to visualize the fetus by transabdominal ultrasound examinations from the 90th day of gestation onward. We hypothesized that ultrasound examinations may stress the mare and that the gestational stage status and lactation may influence the mare's stress reaction. To investigate the stress reaction, 25 thoroughbred mares of different age, pregnancy and lactational status underwent a transrectal examination...
March 1, 2015: Theriogenology
H J Oh, G A Kim, M J Kim, Y K Jo, Y B Choi, E M N Setyawan, S H Lee, H J Kim, B C Lee
Artificial activation is an important step for successful somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In order to clone animals, diverse methods of activation have been studied to increase the developmental efficiency of cloned embryos. Here, we investigated the pronucleus formation and in vivo development of canine cloned embryos produced by different durations of 1.9mM 6-dimethylaminopurine (DMAP) treatment. For canine SCNT, in vivo-matured oocytes were enucleated, microinjected into the perivitelline space with donor cells, and fused by electrical stimulation...
December 2014: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Vivette Glover
Many prospective studies have shown that if a mother is depressed, anxious or stressed while pregnant, this increases the risk for her child having a wide range of adverse outcomes including emotional problems, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or impaired cognitive development. Although genetics and postnatal care clearly affect these outcomes, evidence for a prenatal causal component also is substantial. Prenatal anxiety/depression may contribute 10-15 % of the attributable load for emotional/behavioural outcomes...
2015: Advances in Neurobiology
Amy J Hewitt, Christine C Dobson, James F Brien, Katherine E Wynne-Edwards, James N Reynolds
Maternal-fetal signaling is critical for optimal fetal development and postnatal outcomes. Chronic ethanol exposure alters programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in a myriad of neurochemical and behavioral alterations in postnatal life. Based on a recent study which showed that human intra-partum fetal stress increased fetal secretion of corticosterone, the non-dominant glucocorticoid, this investigation tested the hypothesis that an established model of HPA axis programming, chronic maternal ethanol administration to the pregnant guinea pig, would result in preferential elevation of corticosterone, which is also the non-dominant glucocorticoid...
August 2014: Alcohol
Rebecca C Painter, Tessa J Roseboom, Susanne R de Rooij
There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that events during prenatal life can have long-lasting effects on development and adult health. Stress during pregnancy is common and has been linked to increased incidence of a range of affective and behavioral outcomes in the offspring in later life and also some somatic outcomes. Glucocorticoids, and their actions on the fetus, which are regulated by placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), are hypothesized to mediate these effects. Animal studies have demonstrated long-term effects of stress and glucocorticoid administration on behavioral outcomes, as well as increased blood pressure, altered hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) function, and decreased glucose tolerance and brain size...
December 2012: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Ophira Salomon, Nurit Rosenberg
Fetal neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a devastating bleeding disorder in the fetus or neonate caused by transplacental transport of maternal alloantibodies to paternal-derived antigen on fetal platelets. In Caucasians, up to 80% of FNAIT cases result from maternal immunization to human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a. New methods have developed facilitating detection of common and private antibodies against HPAs triggering FNAIT. Understanding the pathogenesis of FNAIT made it possible to develop a novel strategy to treat this disorder...
August 2013: British Journal of Haematology
Ellen Kanitz, Winfried Otten, Margret Tuchscherer, Maria Gräbner, Klaus-Peter Brüssow, Charlotte Rehfeldt, Cornelia C Metges
Imbalanced maternal nutrition during gestation can cause alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system in offspring. The present study investigated the effects of maternal low- and high-protein diets during gestation in pigs on the maternal-fetal HPA regulation and expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2) and c-fos mRNAs in the placenta and fetal brain. Twenty-seven German Landrace sows were fed diets with high (HP, 30%), low (LP, 6...
2012: PloS One
A V Graf, T Iu Dunaeva, A S Maklakova, M V Maslova, N A Sokolova
This paper considers the transgenerational effects of prenatal stress of different etiology. The impacts of stress factors on the biochemical and morphofunctional parameters of life of the mother, fetus, and offspring in the first and subsequent generations (F1-F4) are estimated. Particular attention is paid to assessing changes in the parameters of physical development, the state of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, proinflammatory status, behavioral indicators, cognitive performance, and vegetative balance in the post-stress period...
September 2012: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia
Rebecca M Reynolds
Low birthweight, a marker of an adverse in utero environment, is associated with cardiometabolic disease and brain disorders in adulthood. The adaptive changes made by the fetus in response to the intra-uterine environment result in permanent changes in physiology, structure and metabolism, a phenomenon termed early life programming. One of the key hypotheses to explain programming, namely over exposure of the developing fetus to glucocorticoids, was proposed nearly two decades ago, following the observation that the fetus was protected from high glucocorticoid levels in the mother by the actions of the placental barrier enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which converts active glucocorticoids into inactive products...
January 2013: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Rebecca A Simmons
The 'thrifty phenotype' hypothesis proposes that the fetus adapts to an adverse intrauterine milieu by optimizing the use of a reduced nutrient supply to ensure survival, but by favoring the development of certain organs over that of others, this leads to persistent alterations in the growth and function of developing tissues. This concept has been somewhat controversial, however recent epidemiological, clinical, and animal studies provide support for the developmental origins of disease hypothesis. Underlying mechanisms include reprogramming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, islet development, and insulin signaling pathways...
October 2012: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Dan Xu, Benjian Zhang, Gai Liang, Jie Ping, Hao Kou, Xiaojun Li, Jie Xiong, Dongcai Hu, Liaobin Chen, Jacques Magdalou, Hui Wang
Epidemiological investigations have shown that fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are susceptible to adult metabolic syndrome. Clinical investigations and experiments have demonstrated that caffeine is a definite inducer of IUGR, as children who ingest caffeine-containing food or drinks are highly susceptible to adult obesity and hypertension. Our goals for this study were to investigate the effect of prenatal caffeine ingestion on the functional development of the fetal hippocampus and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and to clarify an intrauterine HPA axis-associated neuroendocrine alteration induced by caffeine...
2012: PloS One
Feizal Waffarn, Elysia Poggi Davis
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is a major neuroendocrine pathway that modulates the stress response. The glucocorticoid, cortisol, is the principal end product of the HPA axis in humans and plays a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis and in fetal maturation and development. Antenatal administration of synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) accelerates fetal lung maturation and has significantly decreased neonatal mortality and morbidity in infants born before 34 weeks of gestation. Exposure to excess levels of endogenous GCs and exogenous GCs (betamethasone and dexamethasone) has been shown to alter the normal development trajectory...
December 2012: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Dean A Myers, Charles A Ducsay
By late gestation, the maturing hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis aids the fetus in responding to stress. Hypoxia represents a significant threat to the fetus accompanying situations such as preeclampsia, smoking, high altitude, and preterm labor. We developed a model of high-altitude (3,820 m), long-term hypoxia (LTH) in pregnant sheep. We describe the impact of LTH on the fetal HPA axis at the level of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), anterior pituitary corticotrope, and adrenal cortex...
2012: Journal of Pregnancy
A M Ward, D I Phillips
Epidemiological studies have shown that small size at birth is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and its risk factors, including hypertension and Type 2 diabetes.It is suggested that these observations linking low birthweight with disease result from an imbalance between fetal nutrient demand and supply. This imbalance results in metabolic and endocrine adaptations, which benefit the fetus in the short term by reducing fetal growth and increasing fuel availability, but in the longer term they are maladaptive leading to an increased risk of coronary heart disease...
December 2001: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
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