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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655938/delineation-of-early-brain-development-from-fetuses-to-infants-with-diffusion-mri-and-beyond
#1
REVIEW
Minhui Ouyang, Jessica Dubois, Qinlin Yu, Pratik Mukherjee, Hao Huang
Dynamic macrostructural and microstructural changes take place from the mid-fetal stage to 2 years after birth. Delineating brain structural changes during this early developmental period provides new insights into the complicated processes of both typical brain development and the pathological mechanisms underlying various psychiatric and neurological disorders including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Decades of histological studies have identified strong spatial and functional gradients of maturation in human brain gray and white matter...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653321/neurodevelopmental-comorbidities-and-seizure-control-24-months-after-a-first-unprovoked-seizure-in-children
#2
Eva Åndell, Torbjörn Tomson, Sofia Carlsson, Kristina Tedroff, Per Åmark
PURPOSE: To follow children with newly diagnosed unprovoked seizures to determine (1) whether the prevalence of neurodevelopmental comorbidities and cerebral palsy (CP) changed after the initial seizure, and (2) the association between studied comorbidities and seizures 13-24 months after seizure onset or initiation of treatment. METHODS: Analyses were based on 750 children (28 days-18 years) with a first unprovoked seizure (index) included in a population-based Incidence Registry in Stockholm between 2001 and 2006...
March 20, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653296/the-role-of-resting-state-eeg-localized-activation-and-central-nervous-system-arousal-in-executive-function-performance-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#3
Da-Wei Zhang, Stuart J Johnstone, Steven Roodenrys, Xiangsheng Luo, Hui Li, Encong Wang, Qihua Zhao, Yan Song, Lu Liu, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Wang, Li Sun
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the relationships between resting-state electroencephalogram (RS-EEG) localized activation and two important types of executive functions (EF) to extend the prognostic utilization of RS-EEG in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). Also, the role of central nervous system (CNS) arousal in the relationships was examined. METHODS: Fifty-eight children with AD/HD participated in the study. RS-EEG localized activation was derived from spectral power differences between EEG in eyes-closed and eyes-open conditions...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652524/smoking-adhd-and-problematic-video-game-use-a-structural-modeling-approach
#4
Hyo Jin Lee, Denise D Tran, Holly E R Morrell
Problematic video game use (PVGU), or addiction-like use of video games, is associated with physical and mental health problems and problems in social and occupational functioning. Possible correlates of PVGU include frequency of play, cigarette smoking, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of the current study was to explore simultaneously the relationships among these variables as well as test whether two separate measures of PVGU measure the same construct, using a structural modeling approach...
April 13, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652302/-results-of-a-multicenter-study-on-the-efficacy-of-cortexin-in-treatment-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-children
#5
V P Zykov, E B Serebrennikova, T N Panchenko, Ya B Sycheva, S N Presnyakova, E L Mazur, M N Salova, E S Golubeva, S K Khromova
AIM: To study the efficacy and tolerability of cortexin in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 635 patients, aged 3-7 years. Patients were divided into 4 clinical groups: group 1 (269 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)), group 2 (215 children with speech delay), group 3 (82 patients with the consequences of a perinatal lesion of the central nervous system), group 4 (69 patients with asthenic/neurotic syndrome)...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651972/n-3-omega-3-fatty-acids-effects-on-brain-dopamine-systems-and-potential-role-in-the-etiology-and-treatment-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#6
Beth Levant, Michelle Healy-Stoffel
A number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and, to some extent, depression, involve dysregulation of the brain dopamine systems. The etiology of these diseases is multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors. Evidence suggests that inadequate levels of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the brain may represent a risk factor for these disorders. These fatty acids, which are derived from the diet, are a major component of neuronal membranes and are of particular importance in brain development and function...
April 12, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651681/higher-autistic-traits-among-criminals-but-no-link-to-psychopathy-findings-from-a-high-security-prison-in-portugal
#7
Diana Loureiro, Ana Machado, Tânia Silva, Tânia Veigas, Carlos Ramalheira, Joaquim Cerejeira
The relationship between autism, criminality and psychopathy has gained increased attention in recent years, although research has focused on autism spectrum disorders, and not autistic traits. We measured autistic traits (with the Autism Spectrum Quotient) in a sample of 101 inmates from a high-security prison and compared them to a control group, using a logistic regression model that included age, education, psychopathology, psychopathy and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder as covariates. Prisoners had more autistic traits (OR 1...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651505/the-role-of-psychiatric-status-on-pediatric-extremity-fractures-a-prospective-analysis
#8
Altuğ Duramaz, Semra Yilmaz, Nezih Ziroğlu, Burcu Bursal Duramaz, Berhan Bayram, Tayfun Kara
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and depression with pediatric extremity fractures. METHODS: Between November 2014 and November 2016, consecutive 138 patients with pediatric extremity fractures were prospectively investigated in terms of the tendency to anxiety, depression, or ADHD in the study group. Consecutive 168 non-trauma patients who were admitted to general pediatrics outpatient clinic were included the control group...
April 12, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651258/associations-between-core-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-both-binge-and-restrictive-eating
#9
Panagiota Kaisari, Colin T Dourish, Pia Rotshtein, Suzanne Higgs
Introduction: It is unclear whether core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relate to specific types of disordered eating and little is known about the mediating mechanisms. We investigated associations between core symptoms of ADHD and binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior and assessed whether negative mood and/or deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues mediate these relationships. Methods: In two independent studies, we used a dimensional approach to study ADHD and disordered eating...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651240/cognitive-neuroscience-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-and-its-clinical-translation
#10
REVIEW
Katya Rubia
This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649723/the-relevance-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-self-limited-childhood-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#11
Ellen Marise Lima, Patricia Rzezak, Bernardo Dos Santos, Letícia Gentil, Maria A Montenegro, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Kette D Valente
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the attentional and executive functions in patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with controls and compared with patients with ADHD without epilepsy. We evaluated 12 patients with BCECTS and ADHD (66.7% boys; mean age of 9.67years); 11 children with non-ADHD BCECTS (63.6% boys; mean age of 11.91years); 20 healthy children (75% boys; mean age of 10.15years); and 20 subjects with ADHD without epilepsy (60% boys; mean age of 10...
April 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649467/monosodium-glutamate-ingestion-during-the-development-period-reduces-aggression-mediated-by-the-vagus-nerve-in-a-rat-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#12
Ruriko Nishigaki, Yoshihiro Yokoyama, Yuko Shimizu, Ryosuke Marumoto, Sachiyo Misumi, Yoshitomo Ueda, Akimasa Ishida, Yasuyuki Shibuya, Hideki Hida
We used an umami substance, monosodium glutamate (MSG), as a simple stimulant to clarify the mechanism of the formation of emotional behavior. A 60 mM MSG solution was fed to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), used as a model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, from postnatal day 25 for 5 weeks kept in isolation. Emotional behaviors (anxiety and aggression) were then assessed by the open-field test, cylinder test and social interaction test. MSG ingestion during the developmental period resulted in a significant reduction in aggressive behavior but had few effects on anxiety-like behavior...
April 9, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648850/c-keith-conners-1933-2017
#13
Mark A Stein, Jeffrey H Newcorn
Presents an obituary of C. Keith Conners (1933-2017) who passed away of heart failure in Durham, North Carolina, on July 6, 2017. Conners was a pioneer in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) research and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record
April 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648599/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-is-associated-with-adverse-mental-health-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes
#14
Thomas R Berni, Christopher L Morgan, Ellen R Berni, D Aled Rees
Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism and subfertility but the effects on mental health and child neurodevelopment are unclear. Objectives: To determine if (i) there is an association between PCOS and psychiatric outcomes, and (ii) whether rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are higher in children of mothers with PCOS. Design: Data were extracted from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644474/risk-factors-for-parental-psychopathology-a-study-in-families-with-children-or-adolescents-with-psychopathology
#15
L W Wesseldijk, G C Dieleman, F J A van Steensel, M Bartels, J J Hudziak, R J L Lindauer, S M Bögels, C M Middeldorp
The parents of children with psychopathology are at increased risk for psychiatric symptoms. To investigate which parents are mostly at risk, we assessed in a clinical sample of families with children with psychopathology, whether parental symptom scores can be predicted by offspring psychiatric diagnoses and other child, parent and family characteristics. Parental depressive, anxiety, avoidant personality, attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), and antisocial personality symptoms were measured with the Adult Self Report in 1805 mothers and 1361 fathers of 1866 children with a psychiatric diagnosis as assessed in a child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic...
April 11, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644473/attention-and-executive-functions-computer-training-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Aida Bikic, James F Leckman, Torben Ø Christensen, Niels Bilenberg, Søren Dalsgaard
Multicenter randomized clinical superiority single-blind trial investigated the effect of a computer training program targeting multiple cognitive functions. Seventy children with ADHD, aged 6-13, were randomized to intervention or control group. The intervention group used ACTIVATE™ for 8 weeks and both groups received treatment as usual and were assessed in regard to cognitive functions, symptoms, behavioral and functional outcome measures after 8, 12 and 24 weeks. There was no significant effect on the primary outcome, sustained attention (β = - 0...
April 11, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643596/effects-of-interactive-metronome-training-on-timing-attention-working-memory-and-processing-speed-in-children-with-adhd-a-case-study-of-two-children
#17
Yun-Yi Park, Yu-Jin Choi
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to present the effects of Interactive metronome (IM) on timing for children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the present study were 2 children diagnosed with ADHD. Pre- and post-intervention tests were completed by the researcher using Long Form Assessment (LFA) test of IM and K-WPPSI-IV. The subjects were provided with IM for 40 minutes at a time, 2 times per week, for a total of 8 weeks. [Results] The timing decreased after IM intervention...
December 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629523/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-evaluation-with-a-continuous-performance-test
#18
Rony Cohen, Ayelet Halevy, Sharon Aharon, Avinoam Shuper
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine if the MOXO visual- and vocal-distractors-based continuous performance test distinguishes patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) from those without NF1. METHODS: Thirty-five patients (16 males; mean age 9.91 years) attending a multidisciplinary NF1 clinic completed the MOXO test. The findings were compared to 532 healthy age-matched standardized control subjects (285 males) without ADHD...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628964/exploring-the-needs-of-family-caregivers-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-qualitative-study
#19
Saeid Pahlavanzadeh, Sharifeh Mousavi, Jahangir Maghsoudi
Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common chronic childhood disorders that lead to dysfunction and disability in childhood and subsequently be careful. This study aimed to understand the needs of the children's caregivers in Iran. Materials and Methods: This qualitative research was conducted in 2016. Using purposive sampling, 27 participants from 20 families of children with ADHD were interviewed. Unstructured interviews were conducted within 6 months in Isfahan...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625537/evaluation-of-dystonia-in-children-and-adolescents-treated-with-atomoxetine-within-the-truven-marketscan-database-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#20
Kristin J Meyers, Himanshu P Upadhyaya, Robert Goodloe, Ludmila A Kryzhanovskaya, Marie A Liles-Burden, Nicole A Kellier-Steele, Michele Mancini
OBJECTIVE: Atomoxetine is a non-stimulant drug indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children aged ≥6 years, adolescents, and adults. In this retrospective cohort study, the incidence and risk of dystonia in children and adolescents treated with atomoxetine was compared to a propensity score-matched cohort of stimulant users. METHODS: Data between 01 January 2006 and 31 December 2014 from patients aged 6-17 years in the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database were used to generate two cohorts of patients: (1) atomoxetine users and (2) stimulant (methylphenidates or amphetamines) users...
April 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
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