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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686571/-bartonella-endocarditis-with-glomerulonephritis-in-a-patient-with-complete-transposition-of-the-great-arteries
#1
Helen Hashemi, Tiana R Endicott-Yazdani, Christopher Oguayo, David M Harmon, Tuan Tran, Ginger Tsai-Nguyen, Raul Benavides, Cedric W Spak, Hoang-Lan Nguyen
We describe a patient with history of dextro-transposition of the great vessels, ventricular septal defect, and pulmonary valve replacement who presented with fatigue, prolonged fever, and leg edema. He was found to have kidney injury, pancytopenia, and liver congestion. Echocardiogram revealed thickened leaflets with prolapsing vegetation on the pulmonary valve. Given the negative blood cultures, high Bartonella henselae immunogobulin G titer (≥1:1024) and positive immunoglobulin M titer (≥1:20), he was diagnosed with Bartonella endocarditis complicated with glomerulonephritis...
January 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670059/variability-studies-of-two-prunus-infecting-fabaviruses-with-the-aid-of-high-throughput-sequencing
#2
Igor Koloniuk, Tatiana Sarkisova, Karel Petrzik, Ondřej Lenz, Jaroslava Přibylová, Jana Fránová, Josef Špak, Leonidas Lotos, Christina Beta, Asimina Katsiani, Thierry Candresse, Varvara I Maliogka
During their lifetime, perennial woody plants are expected to face multiple infection events. Furthermore, multiple genotypes of individual virus species may co-infect the same host. This may eventually lead to a situation where plants harbor complex communities of viral species/strains. Using high-throughput sequencing, we describe co-infection of sweet and sour cherry trees with diverse genomic variants of two closely related viruses, namely prunus virus F (PrVF) and cherry virus F (CVF). Both viruses are most homologous to members of the Fabavirus genus ( Secoviridae family)...
April 18, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619600/identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-novel-varicosa-like-virus-from-red-clover
#3
Igor Koloniuk, Jana Fránová, Tatiana Sarkisova, Jaroslava Přibylová, Ondřej Lenz, Karel Petrzik, Josef Špak
During aetiological study of diseased red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) using high throughput sequencing, a novel virus with a 10 kb genome divided into two segments was discovered. The virus, tentatively named red clover associated varicosavirus (RCaVV), is phylogenetically related to classifiable members of the genus Varicosavirus (family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales). Analysis of mRNA levels from the individual RCaVV genes suggested possible differences in transcription regulation between rhabdoviruses with divided and undivided genomes...
April 4, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602832/intracellular-chloride-and-scaffold-protein-mo25-cooperatively-regulate-transepithelial-ion-transport-through-wnk-signaling-in-the-malpighian-tubule
#4
Qifei Sun, Yipin Wu, Sima Jonusaite, John M Pleinis, John M Humphreys, Haixia He, Jeffrey N Schellinger, Radha Akella, Drew Stenesen, Helmut Krämer, Elizabeth J Goldsmith, Aylin R Rodan
Background With No Lysine kinase (WNK) signaling regulates mammalian renal epithelial ion transport to maintain electrolyte and BP homeostasis. Our previous studies showed a conserved role for WNK in the regulation of transepithelial ion transport in the Drosophila Malpighian tubule. Methods Using in vitro assays and transgenic Drosophila lines, we examined two potential WNK regulators, chloride ion and the scaffold protein mouse protein 25 (Mo25), in the stimulation of transepithelial ion flux. Results In vitro , autophosphorylation of purified Drosophila WNK decreased as chloride concentration increased...
May 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596900/role-of-nitric-oxide-and-wnk-spak-osr1-kcc2-signaling-in-daily-changes-in-gabaergic-inhibition-in-the-rat-dorsal-raphe-neurons
#5
Mi Jung Kim, Hye Jin Yang, Younghoon Kim, Insug Kang, Sung Soo Kim, Young-Wuk Cho
Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) act as wake-inducing neurons in the sleep-wake cycle and are controlled by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synaptic inputs. We investigated daily changes in GABAergic inhibition of the rat DRN neurons and the role of nitric oxide (NO) and cation-chloride co-transporters in the GABAergic action. Neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) was co-expressed in 74% of serotonergic DRN neurons and nNOS expression was higher during daytime (the sleep cycle) than that during nighttime (the wake cycle)...
March 27, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581290/osr1-regulates-a-subset-of-inward-rectifier-potassium-channels-via-a-binding-motif-variant
#6
Clinton A Taylor, Sung-Wan An, Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage, Steve Stippec, Svetlana Earnest, Ashesh T Trivedi, Jonathan Zijiang Yang, Hamid Mirzaei, Chou-Long Huang, Melanie H Cobb
The with-no-lysine (K) (WNK) signaling pathway to STE20/SPS1-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) kinase is an important mediator of cell volume and ion transport. SPAK and OSR1 associate with upstream kinases WNK 1-4, substrates, and other proteins through their C-terminal domains which interact with linear R-F-x-V/I sequence motifs. In this study we find that SPAK and OSR1 also interact with similar affinity with a motif variant, R-x-F-x-V/I. Eight of 16 human inward rectifier K+ channels have an R-x-F-x-V motif...
April 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510178/metformin-increases-urinary-sodium-excretion-by-reducing-phosphorylation-of-the-sodium-chloride-cotransporter
#7
Hiroko Hashimoto, Naohiro Nomura, Wakana Shoda, Kiyoshi Isobe, Hiroaki Kikuchi, Kouhei Yamamoto, Takuya Fujimaru, Fumiaki Ando, Takayasu Mori, Tomokazu Okado, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida, Eisei Sohara
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is an antidiabetic drug that is widely used to treat patients with diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have reported that treatment with metformin not only improved blood glucose levels but also reduced blood pressure. However, it remains unclear how metformin reduces blood pressure. We hypothesized that metformin affects sodium reabsorption in the kidneys. METHODS: Urinary sodium excretion and expression of renal sodium transporters were examined in 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice with acute and chronic treatment of metformin...
March 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483157/mechanism-of-hyperkalemia-induced-metabolic-acidosis
#8
Autumn N Harris, P Richard Grimm, Hyun-Wook Lee, Eric Delpire, Lijuan Fang, Jill W Verlander, Paul A Welling, I David Weiner
Background Hyperkalemia in association with metabolic acidosis that are out of proportion to changes in glomerular filtration rate defines type 4 renal tubular acidosis (RTA), the most common RTA observed, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the associated metabolic acidosis are incompletely understood. We sought to determine whether hyperkalemia directly causes metabolic acidosis and, if so, the mechanisms through which this occurs. Methods We studied a genetic model of hyperkalemia that results from early distal convoluted tubule (DCT)-specific overexpression of constitutively active Ste20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (DCT-CA-SPAK)...
May 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482694/pseudohypoaldosteronism-type-ii-a-young-girl-presented-with-hypertension-hyperkalemia-and-metabolic-acidosis
#9
Gul Hassan Sethar, Aisha Almoghawi, Nargis Khan, Wehad Altourah, Najat Mohammed Ashour
Pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) type II is an extremely rare disorder which presents with hypertension, hyperkalemia, and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. PHA II is also known as familial hyperkalemic hypertension, Gordon syndrome, and chloride shunt syndrome. PHA II is an autosomal dominant disorder and is caused by mutation in WNK1, WNK4, CULLIN3, KLHL3, OSR, SPAK gene. The expression of these proteins is limited to the distal convoluted tube and collecting duct of the kidney. PHA II usually responds to salt restriction and thiazide diuretics...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459793/consequences-of-spak-inactivation-on-hyperkalemic-hypertension-caused-by-wnk1-mutations-evidence-for-differential-roles-of-wnk1-and-wnk4
#10
Chloé Rafael, Christelle Soukaseum, Véronique Baudrie, Perrine Frère, Juliette Hadchouel
Mutations of the gene encoding WNK1 [With No lysine (K) kinase 1] or WNK4 cause Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (FHHt). Previous studies have shown that the activation of SPAK (Ste20-related Proline/Alanine-rich Kinase) plays a dominant role in the development of FHHt caused by WNK4 mutations. The implication of SPAK in FHHt caused by WNK1 mutation has never been investigated. To clarify this issue, we crossed WNK1+/FHHt mice with SPAK knock-in mice in which the T-loop Thr243 residue was mutated to alanine to prevent activation by WNK kinases...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412702/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-stimulates-pendrin-dependent-cl-absorption-in-the-mouse-ccd-through-protein-kinase-c
#11
Yoskaly Lazo-Fernandez, Paul A Welling, Susan M Wall
Alpha-ketoglutarate (αKG) is a citric acid cycle intermediate and a glutamine catabolism product. It is also the natural ligand of OXGR1, a Gq-protein coupled receptor expressed on the apical membrane of intercalated cells. In the CCD, Cl- /HCO3 - exchange increases upon αKG binding to the OXGR1. To determine the signaling pathway(s) by which αKG stimulates Cl- absorption, we examined αKG-stimulated Cl- absorption in isolated perfused mouse CCDs. αKG increased electroneutral Cl- absorption in CCDs from wild type mice, but had no effect on Cl- absorption in pendrin KO mice...
February 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390949/test-enhanced-learning-in-health-professions-education-a-systematic-review-beme-guide-no-48
#12
Michael L Green, Jeremy J Moeller, Judy M Spak
BACKGROUND: Cognitive psychology studies demonstrate that subjects who attempt to recall information show better learning, retention, and transfer than subjects who spend the same time studying the same material (test-enhanced learning, TEL). We systematically reviewed TEL interventions in health professions education. METHODS: We searched 13 databases, 14 medical education journals, and reference lists. Inclusion criteria included controlled studies of TEL that compared TEL to studying the same material or to a different TEL strategy...
April 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384416/differential-roles-of-wnk4-in-regulation-of-ncc-in-vivo
#13
Yih-Sheng Yang, Jian Xie, Sung-Sen Yang, Shih-Hua Lin, Chou-Long Huang
The Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) in distal convoluted tubule (DCT) plays important roles in renal NaCl reabsorption. Current hypothesis for the mechanism of regulation of NCC focuses on WNK4 and intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i). WNK kinases bind Cl- and Cl- binding decreases the catalytic activity. It is believed that hypokalemia under low K+ intake decreases [Cl-]i to activate WNK4, which thereby phosphorylates and stimulates NCC through activation of SPAK. However, increased NCC activity and apical NaCl entry would mitigate the fall in [Cl-]i...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367247/epstein-barr-virus-ebv-latent-protein-ebna3a-directly-targets-and-silences-the-stk39-gene-in-b-cells-infected-by-ebv
#14
Quentin Bazot, Kostas Paschos, Martin J Allday
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) establishes latent infection in human B cells and is associated with a wide range of cancers. The EBV nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA3) family proteins are critical for B cell transformation and function as transcriptional regulators. It is well established that EBNA3A and EBNA3C cooperate in the regulation of cellular genes. Here, we demonstrate that the gene STK39 is repressed only by EBNA3A. This is the first example of a gene regulated only by EBNA3A in EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) without the help of EBNA3C...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361671/mechanisms-and-controversies-in-mutant-cul3-mediated-familial-hyperkalemic-hypertension
#15
Mohammed Zubaerul Ferdaus, James A McCormick
Autosomal dominant mutations in Cullin3 (Cul3) cause the most severe form of Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (FHHt). Cul3 mutations cause skipping of exon 9 which results in an internal deletion of 57 amino acids from the CUL3 protein (CUL3-∆9). The precise mechanism by which this altered form of CUL3 causes FHHt is controversial. CUL3 is a member of the Cullin-Ring ubiquitin Ligase (CRL) family which mediates ubiquitination and thus degradation of cellular proteins including With-no-lysine [K] kinases (WNKs)...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326302/role-of-clc-k-and-barttin-in-low-potassium-induced-sodium-chloride-cotransporter-activation-and-hypertension-in-mouse-kidney
#16
Naohiro Nomura, Wakana Shoda, Yuanlong Wang, Shintaro Mandai, Taisuke Furusho, Daiei Takahashi, Moko Zeniya, Eisei Sohara, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida
The sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) has been identified as a key molecule regulating potassium balance. The mechanisms of NCC regulation during low extracellular potassium concentrations have been studied in vitro. These studies have shown that hyperpolarization increased chloride efflux, leading to the activation of chloride-sensitive with-no-lysine kinase (WNK) kinases and their downstream molecules, including STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and NCC. However, this mechanism was not studied in vivo Previously, we developed the barttin hypomorphic mouse ( Bsndneo/neo mice), expressing very low levels of barttin and ClC-K channels, because barttin is an essential β-subunit of ClC-K...
February 28, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134279/dietary-k-and-cl-independently-regulate-basolateral-conductance-in-principal-and-intercalated-cells-of-the-collecting-duct
#17
Viktor N Tomilin, Oleg Zaika, Arohan R Subramanya, Oleh Pochynyuk
The renal collecting duct contains two distinct cell types, principal and intercalated cells, expressing potassium Kir 4.1/5.1 (KCNJ10/16) and chloride ClC-K2 (ClC-Kb in humans) channels on their basolateral membrane, respectively. Both channels are thought to play important roles in controlling systemic water-electrolyte balance and blood pressure. However, little is known about mechanisms regulating activity of Kir 4.1/5.1 and ClC-K2/b. Here, we employed patch clamp analysis at the single channel and whole cell levels in freshly isolated mouse collecting ducts to investigate regulation of Kir 4...
February 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122955/dnpep-is-not-the-only-peptidase-that-produces-spak-fragments-in-kidney
#18
Rainelli Koumangoye, Eric Delpire
SPAK (STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) regulates Na+ and Cl- reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule, and possibly in the thick ascending limb of Henle. This kinase phosphorylates and activates the apical Na-Cl cotransporter in the DCT. Western blot analysis reveals that SPAK in kidney exists as a full-length protein as well as shorter fragments that might affect NKCC2 function in the TAL. Recently, we showed that kidney lysates exerts proteolytic activity towards SPAK, resulting in the formation of multiple SPAK fragments with possible inhibitory effects on the kinase...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101099/insulin-regulates-multiple-signaling-pathways-leading-to-monocyte-macrophage-chemotaxis-into-the-wound-tissue
#19
Yan Liu, Sandeep Dhall, Anthony Castro, Alex Chan, Raquelle Alamat, Manuela Martins-Green
Wound healing is a complex process that involves sequential phases that overlap in time and space and affect each other dynamically at the gene and protein levels. We previously showed that insulin accelerates wound healing by stimulating faster and regenerative healing. One of the processes that insulin stimulates is an increase in monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis. In this study, we performed experiments in vivo and in vitro to elucidate the signaling transduction pathways that are involved in insulin-induced monocyte/macrophage chemotaxis...
November 3, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094747/calibration-and-evaluation-of-puf-pas-sampling-rates-across-the-global-atmospheric-passive-sampling-gaps-network
#20
Nicholas J Herkert, Scott N Spak, Austen Smith, Jasmin K Schuster, Tom Harner, Andres Martinez, Keri C Hornbuckle
Passive air samplers equipped with polyurethane foam (PUF-PAS) are frequently used to measure persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air. Here we present and evaluate a method to determine sampling rates (RS ), and the effective sampling volume (Veff ), for gas-phase chemical compounds captured by a PUF-PAS sampler deployed anywhere in the world. The method uses a mathematical model that requires only publicly available hourly meteorological data, physical-chemical properties of the target compound, and the deployment dates...
January 24, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
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