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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885496/descending-aortic-mechanics-and-atrial-fibrillation-a-two-dimensional-speckle-tracking-transesophageal-echocardiography-study
#1
Rogério Teixeira, Ricardo Monteiro, Paulo Dinis, Maria José Santos, Ana Botelho, Nuno Quintal, Nuno Cardim, Lino Gonçalves
Vascular mechanics assessed with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) could be used as a new imaging surrogate of vascular stiffening. The CHA2DS2-VASc score is considered accurate as an estimate of stroke risk in non-valvular AF, although many potential stroke risk factors have not been included in this scoring method. The purpose of this research is to study the feasibility of evaluating vascular mechanics at the descending aorta in non-valvular AF patients using transesophageal 2D-STE and to analyze the association between descending aortic mechanics and stroke...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879271/vitamin-d3-prevents-calcium-induced-progression-of-early-stage-prostate-tumors-by-counteracting-trpc6-and-calcium-sensing-receptor-upregulation
#2
Sophie Bernichtein, Natascha Pigat, Nicolas Barry Delongchamps, Florence Boutillon, Virginie Verkarre, Philippe Camparo, Edouard Reyes-Gomez, Arnaud Méjean, Stephane Marie Oudard, Eve M Lepicard, Melanie Viltard, Jean-Claude Souberbielle, Gerard Friedlander, Thierry Capiod, Vincent Goffin
Active surveillance has emerged as an alternative to immediate treatment for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Accordingly, identification of environmental factors that faciliate progression to more aggressive stages is critical for disease prevention. Although calcium-enriched diets have been speculated to increase prostate cancer risk, their impact on early-stage tumors remains unexplored. In this study, we addressed this issue with a large interventional animal study. Mouse models of fully penetrant and slowly-evolving prostate tumorigenesis showed that a high calcium diet dramatically accelerated the progression of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia, by promoting cell proliferation, micro-invasion, tissue inflammation and expression of acknowledged prostate cancer markers...
November 22, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872158/filamin-a-is-reduced-and-contributes-to-the-casr-sensitivity-in-human-parathyroid-tumors
#3
Alessandra Mingione, Chiara Verdelli, Stefano Ferrero, Valentina Vaira, Vito Guarnieri, Alfredo Scillitani, Leonardo Vicentini, Gianni Balza, Edoardo Beretta, Annalisa Terranegra, Giuseppe Vezzoli, Laura Soldati, Sabrina Corbetta
Parathyroid tumors display reduced sensitivity to extracellular calcium ([Ca2+]o). [Ca2+]o activates calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), which interacts with the scaffold protein filamin A (FLNA). The study aimed to investigate: 1) the FLNA expression in human parathyroid tumors, 2) its effects on the CASR mRNA and protein expression, and 3) on ERK signaling activation, 4) the effect of the carboxy-terminal CASR variants and 5) of the treatment with the CASR agonist R568 on FLNA-mediated ERK phosphorylation in HEK293 cells...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867361/calcium-sensing-receptor-regulates-cytosolic-ca-2-and-plays-a-major-role-in-the-development-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
Kimberly A Smith, Ramon J Ayon, Haiyang Tang, Ayako Makino, Jason X-J Yuan
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) leading to right heart failure and premature death. The increased PVR results in part from pulmonary vascular remodeling and sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction. Excessive pulmonary vascular remodeling stems from increased pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation and decreased PASMC apoptosis. A rise in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) in PASMC is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction and a key stimulus for PASMC proliferation and migration, both contributing to the development of pulmonary vascular remodeling...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866297/nps2143-inhibits-muc5ac-and-proinflammatory-mediators-in-cigarette-smoke-extract-cse-stimulated-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#5
Jae-Won Lee, Ji-Won Park, Ok-Kyoung Kwon, Hee Jae Lee, Hye Gwang Jeong, Jae-Hong Kim, Sei-Ryang Oh, Kyoung-Seop Ahn
Mucus overproduction is a fundamental hallmark of COPD that is caused by exposure to cigarette smoke. MUC5AC is one of the main mucin genes expressed in the respiratory epithelium, and its transcriptional upregulation often correlates with increased mucus secretion. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonists have been reported to possess anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of NPS2143, a selective CaSR antagonist on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-stimulated NCI-H292 mucoepidermoid human lung cells...
November 19, 2016: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862333/genetic-variants-in-the-promoter-region-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-gene-are-associated-with-its-down-regulation-in-neuroblastic-tumors
#6
Laia Masvidal, Raquel Iniesta, Marta García, Carla Casalà, Cinzia Lavarino, Jaume Mora, Carmen de Torres
We have previously reported that the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in benign, differentiated neuroblastic tumors and epigenetically silenced in undifferentiated, malignant cases. Furthermore, cinacalcet, an allosteric activator of the CaSR, reduces neuroblastoma tumor growth in preclinical models. However, to identify patients that might benefit from this treatment, a complete understanding of mechanisms governing CaSR expression in these tumors would be required. We have now analyzed two polymorphisms in the promoter region of the CASR gene (rs7652589 and rs1501899) by allelic discrimination in neuroblastoma patients and cell lines...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855397/inhibition-of-cartilage-acidic-protein-1-reduces-ultraviolet-b-irradiation-induced-apoptosis-through-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-jun-amino-terminal-kinase-pathways
#7
Yinghong Ji, Xianfang Rong, Dan Li, Lei Cai, Jun Rao, Yi Lu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation can easily induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) and further lead to various eye diseases including cataract. Here for the first time, we investigated the role of cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) gene in UVB irradiation induced-apoptosis in HLECs. METHODS: Three groups of HLECs were employed including model group, empty vector group, and CRTAC1 interference group. RESULTS: After UVB irradiation, the percentage of primary apoptotic cells was obviously fewer in CRTAC1 interference group...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836810/external-ca-2-regulates-polycystin-2-trpp2-cation-currents-in-llc-pk1-renal-epithelial-cells
#8
Xiao Qing Dai, Paula L Perez, Gonzalo Soria, Noelia Scarinci, Mariano Smoler, D Cristian Morsucci, Kunimasa Suzuki, María Del Rocío Cantero, Horacio F Cantiello
Polycystin-2 (PC2, TRPP2) is a nonselective cation channel whose dysfunction is associated with the onset of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). PC2 contributes to Ca(2+) transport and cell signaling in renal epithelia and other tissues. Little is known however, as to the external Ca(2+) regulation of PC2 channel function. In this study, we explored the effect of external Ca(2+) on endogenous PC2 in wild type LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells. We obtained whole cell currents at different external Ca(2+) concentrations, and observed that the basal whole cell conductance in normal Ca(2+)(1...
November 9, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833799/ischemic-postconditioning-and-pinacidil-suppress-calcium-overload-in-anoxia-reoxygenation-cardiomyocytes-via-down-regulation-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor
#9
Lin Zhang, Song Cao, Shengli Deng, Gang Yao, Tian Yu
Ischemic postconditioning (IPC) and ATP sensitive potassium channel (KATP) agonists (e.g. pinacidil and diazoxide) postconditioning are effective methods to defeat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but their specific mechanisms of reducing I/R injury are not fully understood. We observed an intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) overload in Anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) cardiomyocytes, which can be reversed by KATP agonists diazoxide or pinacidil. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816765/micrornas-in-parathyroid-physiopathology
#10
V Vaira, C Verdelli, I Forno, S Corbetta
Parathyroid glands regulate calcium homeostasis through synthesis and secretion of parathormone (PTH). They sense the extracellular calcium concentration through the G-protein coupled calcium sensing receptor (CASR) and release PTH in order to preserve calcium concentration in the physiological range. Tumors of the parathyroid glands are common endocrine neoplasia associated with primary or secondary/tertiary hyperparathyroidisms. Small non-coding RNAs are regulators of gene expression able to modulate hormone synthesis, hormone release and endocrine cell proliferation...
November 2, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805845/presence-of-auto-reactive-mhc-class-i-restricted-calcium-sensing-receptor-casr-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-idiopathic-hypoparathyroidism
#11
Samrina Mahtab, Utpreksha Vaish, Soma Saha, Archana Singh, Ravinder Goswami, Rajni Rani
CONTEXT: Autoimmunity to Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) has been implicated in aetiopathogenesis of Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH). While humoral immune responses have been shown, cell mediated auto-immune responses have not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To study CaSR specific cytotoxic T cell responses in PBMCs of IH patients. DESIGN: Twenty four peptides of CaSR (RH1-RH24) were evaluated for their ex-vivo potential to stimulate PBMCs from IH patients and controls in IFN-γ ELISPOT assays...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803672/autosomal-dominant-hypocalcemia-hypoparathyroidism-types-1-and-2
#12
REVIEW
Kelly L Roszko, Ruiye D Bi, Michael Mannstadt
Extracellular calcium is essential for life and its concentration in the blood is maintained within a narrow range. This is achieved by a feedback loop that receives input from the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), expressed on the surface of parathyroid cells. In response to low ionized calcium, the parathyroids increase secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) which increases serum calcium. The CASR is also highly expressed in the kidneys, where it regulates the reabsorption of calcium from the primary filtrate...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803671/cross-talk-between-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-and-the-vitamin-d-system-in-prevention-of-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Abhishek Aggarwal, Enikö Kállay
There is epidemiological evidence for the cancer preventive effect of dietary calcium (Ca(2+)) and vitamin D. This effect is strongest in colorectal cancer (CRC). The active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), bound to its receptor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulates the expression of hundreds of different genes in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. While Ca(2+) acts through multiple mechanisms and pathways, some of its effects are mediated by the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). The joint action of Ca(2+) and 1,25D3 is due to the fact that both regulate some of the main processes involved in the development of various cancers, such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and inflammation...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792163/the-control-of-calcium-metabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#14
REVIEW
Chia-Hao Lin, Pung-Pung Hwang
Zebrafish is an emerging model for the research of body fluid ionic homeostasis. In this review, we focus on current progress on the regulation of Ca(2+) uptake in the context of Ca(2+) sensing and hormonal regulation in zebrafish. Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase-rich cells (NaRCs), the specialized ionocytes in the embryonic skin and adult gills, play a dominant role in Ca(2+) uptake in zebrafish. Transepithelial Ca(2+) transport in NaRC, through apical epithelial Ca(2+) channels (ECaC), basolateral plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), and Na⁺/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), is analogous to mammalian renal and intestinal Ca(2+)-absorption cells...
October 26, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770255/characterisation-of-vitamin-d-related-molecules-and-calcium-sensing-receptor-in-human-fallopian-tube-during-the-menstrual-cycle-and-in-ectopic-pregnancy
#15
Bassem Refaat, Jawwad Ahmad, Shakir Idris, Fadi Fayez Kamfar, Ahmed Mohamed Ashshi, Sarah Abdullah Batwa, Faizah Ahmed Malibary
This is a prospective observational study that measures the expression of vitamin D (VD) metabolising and signalling molecules and Ca(2+) sensing receptor (CaSR) in human Fallopian tube (FT) during the menstrual cycle and ectopic pregnancy (EP). Fresh FTs were obtained during total abdominal hysterectomy at the follicular (n = 16) and midluteal (n = 16) phases. Specimens from remote and implantation sites as well as trophoblastic tissues were also freshly collected from each FT with EP (n = 10)...
October 22, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761213/alanine-to-serine-variant-at-position-986-of-calcium-sensing-receptor-and-colorectal-cancer-risk
#16
Reza Dabiri, Touraj Mahmoudi, Hamid Farahani, Hossein Nobakht, Mohammad Reza Zali
BACKGROUND: With regard to the effect of calcium against colorectal cancer (CRC) and considering the key role of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in calcium homeostasis, this study investigated whether CaSR gene rs1801725 or A986S variant was associated with susceptibility to CRC risk. METHODS: This study was conducted as a case-control study and 303 cases with CRC and 354 controls were enrolled. All 657 subjects were genotyped for CaSR gene A986S variant using PCR-RFLP method...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760455/orphan-adhesion-gpcr-gpr64-adgrg2-is-overexpressed-in-parathyroid-tumors-and-attenuates-calcium-sensing-receptor-mediated-signaling
#17
Nariman Balenga, Pedram Azimzadeh, Joyce A Hogue, Paul N Staats, Yuhong Shi, James Koh, Holly Dressman, John A Olson
Abnormal feedback of serum calcium to parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is the hallmark of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). While the molecular pathogenesis of parathyroid neoplasia in PHPT has been linked to abnormal expression of genes involved in cell growth (i.e. cyclin D1, retinoblastoma and β catenin), the molecular basis of abnormal calcium sensing by calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and PTH hypersecretion in PHPT are incompletely understood. Through gene expression profiling, we discovered that an orphan adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, GPR64/ADGRG2 is expressed in human normal parathyroid glands and is overexpressed in parathyroid tumors from patients with PHPT...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746744/molecular-basis-of-the-extracellular-ligands-mediated-signaling-by-the-calcium-sensing-receptor
#18
Chen Zhang, Cassandra L Miller, Rakshya Gorkhali, Juan Zou, Kenneth Huang, Edward M Brown, Jenny J Yang
Ca(2+)-sensing receptors (CaSRs) play a central role in regulating extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]o) homeostasis and many (patho)physiological processes in multiple organs. This regulation is orchestrated by a cooperative response to extracellular stimuli such as small changes in Ca(2+), Mg(2+), amino acids, and other ligands. In addition, CaSR is a pleiotropic receptor regulating several intracellular signaling pathways, including calcium mobilization and intracellular calcium oscillation. Nearly 200 mutations and polymorphisms have been found in CaSR in relation to a variety of human disorders associated with abnormal Ca(2+) homeostasis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746743/calcium-sensing-receptor-in-breast-physiology-and-cancer
#19
Wonnam Kim, John J Wysolmerski
The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in normal breast epithelial cells and in breast cancer cells. During lactation, activation of the CaSR in mammary epithelial cells increases calcium transport into milk and inhibits parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) secretion into milk and into the circulation. The ability to sense changes in extracellular calcium allows the lactating breast to actively participate in the regulation of systemic calcium and bone metabolism, and to coordinate calcium usage with calcium availability during milk production...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739473/associations-of-the-calcium-sensing-receptor-gene-casr-rs7652589-snp-with-nephrolithiasis-and-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-haemodialysis-patients
#20
Alicja E Grzegorzewska, Mateusz Paciorkowski, Adrianna Mostowska, Bartosz Frycz, Wojciech Warchoł, Ireneusz Stolarek, Marek Figlerowicz, Paweł P Jagodziński
Nephrolithiasis, secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), and cardiovascular complications are associated with disturbances in Ca handling and contribute to morbidity/mortality during haemodialysis (HD). Calcimimetics, activators of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), provide an effective means of reducing parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in sHPT. Polymorphism in CaSR gene (CASR) influences Ca-related parameters, however it was not shown in HD patients for CASR rs7652589. The minor allele at this polymorphism modifies the binding sites of transcription factors and CaSR expression...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
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