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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898587/maternal-epigenetics-and-fetal-and-neonatal-growth
#1
Sofia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article provides an update on new insights of factors altering inherited maternal epigenome that ultimately affect fetal and neonatal growth. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of new publications have identified mechanisms through which maternal nutrition, environmental exposures such as stress and toxic substances altering expression of imprinted genes during pregnancy can influence fetal and neonatal phenotype and susceptibility to disease development later in life...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801895/prenatal-maternal-depression-is-associated-with-offspring-inflammation-at-25-years-a-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-study
#2
D T Plant, S Pawlby, D Sharp, P A Zunszain, C M Pariante
Animal studies and a handful of prospective human studies have demonstrated that young offspring exposed to maternal prenatal stress show abnormalities in immune parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. No study has examined the effect of maternal prenatal depression on offspring inflammation and HPA axis activity in adulthood, nor the putative role of child maltreatment in inducing these abnormalities. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and awakening cortisol were measured at age 25 in 103 young-adult offspring of the South London Child Development Study (SLCDS), a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of mother-offspring dyads recruited in pregnancy in 1986...
November 1, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691980/why-is-the-topic-of-the-biological-embedding-of-experiences-important-for-translation
#3
Michael Rutter
Translational research focuses on innovation in healthcare settings, but this is a two-way process that may have implications for either treatment or prevention. Smoking and lung cancer and the fetal alcohol syndrome are used as examples. Experimental medicine that budges basic and clinical science often constitutes a key way forward. Areas of scientific progress and challenge are discussed in relation to drug action, social cognition, cognitive neuroscience, molecular genetics, gene-environment interaction, and epigenetics...
October 3, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678095/investigating-the-role-of-fetal-gene-expression-in-preterm-birth
#4
Neeta L Vora, Lisa Smeester, Kim Boggess, Rebecca C Fry
Second-trimester amniotic fluid supernatant (AFS) contains cell-free fetal RNA (cffRNA) transcripts that can provide information about fetal gene expression. In a retrospective case-control study, we measured second-trimester fetal gene expression using cffRNA extracted from AFS in women who had spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) <34 weeks and in women who delivered >37 weeks. We extracted cffRNA from AFS of women with singletons who had second-trimester genetic amniocenteses. Twenty-one gravidas who had sPTB and 21 term controls were matched 1:1 for maternal age, fetal sex, race, gestational age (GA) at the time of amniocentesis, and medication exposure...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646492/impact-of-maternal-steroids-during-pregnancy
#5
Rebecca M Reynolds
Increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids is a key mechanism thought to underlie the early life programming of later life disease. There is substantial experimental data in animal models in support of this hypothesis. Emerging evidence suggests glucocorticoid programming may also occur in humans with some studies now linking maternal endogenous cortisol levels with size at birth and gestation at delivery. The dramatic changes to the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during pregnancy mean that large-scale studies in humans are challenging to conduct...
December 2016: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465226/antenatal-endogenous-and-exogenous-glucocorticoids-and-their-impact-on-immune-ontogeny-and-long-term-immunity
#6
María Emilia Solano, Megan C Holmes, Paul R Mittelstadt, Karen E Chapman, Eva Tolosa
Endogenous levels of glucocorticoids rise during pregnancy to warrant development and maturation of the fetal organs close to birth. However, during most of the gestation, the fetus is protected from excessive biologically active endogenous glucocorticoids by placental and fetal expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2). Maternal stress, which may overwhelm placental 11β-HSD2 activity with high glucocorticoid levels, or administration of synthetic glucocorticoids to improve the survival chances of the premature newborn, are associated to postnatal increased risk for immune diseases...
November 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423986/dexamethasone-exposure-affects-paraventricular-nucleus-and-pituitary-corticotrophs-in-female-rat-fetuses-an-unbiased-stereological-and-immunohistochemical-study
#7
Milica Manojlović-Stojanoski, Nataša Nestorović, Svetlana Trifunović, Nataša Ristić, Ivana Jarić, Branko Filipović, Verica Milošević
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) drives the stress response by activating the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, particularly vulnerable to glucocorticoid exposure during development. To evaluate the effects of fetal dexamethasone (Dx) exposure on the stereological features of PVN and HPA axis activity in female rat fetuses, pregnant rats received 0.5mg Dx/kg/b.w./day on days 16, 17 and 18 of pregnancy and 21-day-old fetuses were obtained; controls received the same volume of saline. In an unbiased stereological approach, Cavalieri's principle and an optical fractionator were used for estimating volume and total cell number of the PVN, respectively...
October 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352901/stress-induced-decrease-of-uterine-blood-flow-in-sheep-is-mediated-by-alpha-1-adrenergic-receptors
#8
Michelle Dreiling, Sabine Bischoff, Rene Schiffner, Sven Rupprecht, Michael Kiehntopf, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Peter W Nathanielsz, Matthias Schwab, Florian Rakers
Prenatal maternal stress can be transferred to the fetus via a catecholamine-dependent decrease of uterine blood flow (UBF). However, it is unclear which group of adrenergic receptors mediates this mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer. We hypothesized that in sheep, alpha 1-adrenergic receptors may play a key role in catecholamine mediated UBF decrease, as these receptors are mainly involved in peripheral vasoconstriction and are present in significant number in the uterine vasculature. After chronic instrumentation at 125 ± 1 days of gestation (dGA; term 150 dGA), nine pregnant sheep were exposed at 130 ± 1 dGA to acute isolation stress for one hour without visual, tactile, or auditory contact with their flockmates...
September 2016: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27283378/prenatal-ssri-alters-the-hormonal-and-behavioral-responses-to-stress-in-female-mice-possible-role-for-glucocorticoid-resistance
#9
Ronit Avitsur, Rachel Grinshpahet, Naama Goren, Ido Weinstein, Or Kirshenboim, Noa Chlebowski
Life time prevalence of major depression disorder (MDD) is higher in women compared to men especially during the period surrounding childbirth. Women suffering from MDD during pregnancy use antidepressant medications, particularly Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI). These drugs readily cross the placental barrier and impact the developing fetal brain. The present study assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), an SSRI antidepressant drug, on corticosterone and behavioral responses to stress in female mice...
August 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912073/effects-of-elevated-glucocorticoids-on-reproduction-and-development-relevance-to-endocrine-disruptor-screening
#10
Raphael J Witorsch
This article reviews the influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis on mammalian male and female reproduction and development of offspring and its potential impact on the identification of endocrine disruptive chemicals by in vivo assays. In the adult male rat and baboon, stress suppresses testosterone secretion via a direct inhibitory effect of elevated glucocorticoids on Leydig cells. In adult female sheep, stress disrupts reproductive function via multi-stage mechanisms involving glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of LH secretion, LH action on the ovary and the action of estradiol on its target cells (e...
2016: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844584/diurnal-salivary-cortisol-patterns-prior-to-pregnancy-predict-infant-birth-weight
#11
Christine M Guardino, Christine Dunkel Schetter, Darby E Saxbe, Emma K Adam, Sharon Landesman Ramey, Madeleine U Shalowitz
OBJECTIVE: Elevated maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy and accompanying changes in stress hormones may contribute to risk of adverse birth outcomes such as low birth weight and preterm birth. Relatedly, research on fetal programming demonstrates intriguing associations between maternal stress processes during pregnancy and outcomes in offspring that extend into adulthood. The purpose of this study was to test whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) patterns in mothers during the period between 2 pregnancies (i...
June 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26822443/prenatal-maternal-stress-predicts-methylation-of-genes-regulating-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical-system-in-mothers-and-newborns-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#12
Darlene A Kertes, Hayley S Kamin, David A Hughes, Nicole C Rodney, Samarth Bhatt, Connie J Mulligan
Exposure to stress early in life permanently shapes activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the brain. Prenatally, glucocorticoids pass through the placenta to the fetus with postnatal impacts on brain development, birth weight (BW), and HPA axis functioning. Little is known about the biological mechanisms by which prenatal stress affects postnatal functioning. This study addresses this gap by examining the effect of chronic stress and traumatic war-related stress on epigenetic changes in four key genes regulating the HPA axis in neonatal cord blood, placenta, and maternal blood: CRH, CRHBP, NR3C1, and FKBP5...
January 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26733242/gestational-hypoxia-modulates-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-and-arginine-vasopressin-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-in-the-ovine-fetus
#13
Dean A Myers, Krista Singleton, Christy Kenkel, Kanchan M Kaushal, Charles A Ducsay
Maturation of the fetal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is critical for organ maturation necessary for the fetus to transition to the ex-utero environment. Intrauterine stressors can hasten maturation of the HPA axis leading to fetal growth restriction and in sheep, premature birth. We have previously reported that high-altitude mediated, long-term-moderate gestational hypoxia (LTH) during gestation has a significant impact on the fetal HPA axis. Significant effects were observed at the level of both the anterior pituitary and adrenal cortex resulting in elevated plasma ACTH during late gestation with decreased adrenocortical expression of enzymes rate limiting for cortisol synthesis...
January 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26676148/prenatal-stress-prematurity-and-asthma
#14
REVIEW
Brock Medsker, Erick Forno, Hyagriv Simhan, Juan C Celedón
Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting millions of children in the United States and worldwide. Prematurity is a risk factor for asthma, and certain ethnic or racial minorities such as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic blacks are disproportionately affected by both prematurity and asthma. In this review, we examine current evidence to support maternal psychosocial stress as a putative link between prematurity and asthma, while also focusing on disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune responses as potential underlying mechanisms for stress-induced "premature asthma...
December 2015: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26474822/programming-of-stress-pathways-a-transgenerational-perspective
#15
REVIEW
Andrea Constantinof, Vasilis G Moisiadis, Stephen G Matthews
The embryo and fetus are highly responsive to the gestational environment. Glucocorticoids (GC) represent an important class of developmental cues and are crucial for normal brain development. Levels of GC in the fetal circulation are tightly regulated. They are maintained at low levels during pregnancy, and increase rapidly at the end of gestation. This surge in GC is critical for maturation of the organs, specifically the lungs, brain and kidney. There are extensive changes in brain epigenetic profiles that accompany the GC surge, suggesting that GC may drive regulation of gene transcription through altered epigenetic pathways...
June 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26458013/high-maternal-cortisol-levels-during-pregnancy-are-associated-with-more-psychiatric-symptoms-in-offspring-at-age-of-nine-a-prospective-study-from-nicaragua
#16
J Isaksson, F Lindblad, E Valladares, U Högberg
Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up...
December 2015: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26368654/the-omniscient-placenta-metabolic-and-epigenetic-regulation-of-fetal-programming
#17
REVIEW
Bridget M Nugent, Tracy L Bale
Fetal development could be considered a sensitive period wherein exogenous insults and changes to the maternal milieu can have long-term impacts on developmental programming. The placenta provides the fetus with protection and necessary nutrients for growth, and responds to maternal cues and changes in nutrient signaling through multiple epigenetic mechanisms. The X-linked enzyme O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine transferase (OGT) acts as a nutrient sensor that modifies numerous proteins to alter various cellular signals, including major epigenetic processes...
October 2015: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26342748/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-and-prenatal-stress-differentially-alter-glucocorticoid-signaling-in-the-placenta-and-fetal-brain
#18
N Lan, M P Y Chiu, L Ellis, J Weinberg
Adverse intrauterine environments increase vulnerability to chronic diseases across the lifespan. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which integrates multiple neuronal signals and ultimately controls the response to stressors, may provide a final common pathway linking early adversity and adult diseases. Both prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and prenatal stress (PS) induce a hyperresponsive HPA phenotype in adulthood. As glucocorticoids are pivotal for the normal development of many fetal tissues including the brain, we used animal models of PAE and PS to investigate possible mechanisms underlying fetal programing of glucocorticoid signaling in the placenta and fetal brain at gestation day (GD) 21...
September 2, 2015: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26327302/maternal-psychosocial-stress-during-pregnancy-alters-the-epigenetic-signature-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-promoter-in-their-offspring-a-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
H Palma-Gudiel, A Córdova-Palomera, E Eixarch, M Deuschle, L Fañanás
Prenatal stress has been widely associated with a number of short- and long-term pathological outcomes. Epigenetic mechanisms are thought to partially mediate these environmental insults into the fetal physiology. One of the main targets of developmental programming is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis as it is the main regulator of the stress response. Accordingly, an increasing number of researchers have recently focused on the putative association between DNA methylation at the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and prenatal stress, among other types of psychosocial stress...
2015: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26241065/stress-and-androgen-activity-during-fetal-development
#20
REVIEW
Emily S Barrett, Shanna H Swan
Prenatal stress is known to alter hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and more recent evidence suggests that it may also affect androgen activity. In animal models, prenatal stress disrupts the normal surge of testosterone in the developing male, whereas in females, associations differ by species. In humans, studies show that (1) associations between prenatal stress and child outcomes are often sex-dependent, (2) prenatal stress predicts several disorders with notable sex differences in prevalence, and (3) prenatal exposure to stressful life events may be associated with masculinized reproductive tract development and play behavior in girls...
October 2015: Endocrinology
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