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hpa and fetal stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886495/early-life-stress-from-neuroendocrine-mechanisms-to-stress-related-disorders
#1
Panagiota Pervanidou, George P Chrousos
Stress exposure is highly prevalent in the general population; however, the experience of stress during vulnerable periods of development has substantial and permanent effects on brain structure and function and physical health in adulthood. Stress, the state of threatened homeostasis, is generally associated with a time-limited activation of the stress system, i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the arousal/sympathetic nervous system, tailored to the stressful stimulus also known as the stressor...
June 8, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29874660/the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-the-fetus
#2
Amr Morsi, Donald DeFranco, Selma Witchel
Glucocorticoids (GCs), cortisol in humans, influence multiple essential maturational events during gestation. In the human fetus, fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, fetal adrenal steroidogenesis, placental 11β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity, maternal cortisol concentrations, and environmental factors impact fetal cortisol exposure. The beneficial effects of synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs), such as dexamethasone and betamethasone, on fetal lung maturation have significantly shifted the management of preterm labor and threatened preterm birth...
June 6, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859198/non-invasive-biomarkers-of-fetal-brain-development-reflecting-prenatal-stress-an-integrative-multi-scale-multi-species-perspective-on-data-collection-and-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Martin G Frasch, Silvia Lobmaier, Tamara Stampalija, Paula Desplats, María Eugenia Pallarés, Verónica Pastor, Marcela Brocco, Hau-Tieng Wu, Jay Schulkin, Christophe Herry, Andrew Seely, Gerlinde A S Metz, Yoram Louzoun, Marta Antonelli
Prenatal stress (PS) impacts early postnatal behavioural and cognitive development. This process of 'fetal programming' is mediated by the effects of the prenatal experience on the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). We derive a multi-scale multi-species approach to devising preclinical and clinical studies to identify early non-invasively available pre- and postnatal biomarkers of PS. The multiple scales include brain epigenome, metabolome, microbiome and the ANS activity gauged via an array of advanced non-invasively obtainable properties of fetal heart rate fluctuations...
May 30, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783163/maternal-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-system-activity-and-stress-during-pregnancy-effects-on-gestational-age-and-infant-s-anthropometric-measures-at-birth
#4
Maria Gilles, Henrike Otto, Isabell A C Wolf, Barbara Scharnholz, Verena Peus, Michael Schredl, Marc W Sütterlin, Stephanie H Witt, Marcella Rietschel, Manfred Laucht, Michael Deuschle
BACKGROUND: Prenatal maternal stress might be a risk for the developing fetus and may have long-lasting effects on child and adult vulnerability to somatic and psychiatric disease. Over-exposure of the unborn to excess glucocorticoids and subsequent alteration of fetal development is hypothesized to be one of the key mechanisms linking prenatal stress with negative child outcome. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal study, mothers-to-be (n = 405) in late pregnancy (36...
April 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772083/effects-of-prenatal-stress-on-anxiety-and-depressive-like-behaviors-are-sex-specific-in-prepubertal-rats
#5
Ann Mary Iturra-Mena, Marcia Arriagada-Solimano, Ariane Luttecke-Anders, Alexies Dagnino-Subiabre
The fetal brain is highly susceptible to stress in late pregnancy, with lifelong effects of stress on physiology and behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of prenatal stress during the prepubertal period of female and male rats. We subjected pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to a restraint stress protocol from gestational day 14 until 21, a critical period for fetal brain susceptibility to stress effects. Male and female offspring were subsequently assessed at postnatal day 24 for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and spontaneous social interaction...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717932/gestational-hypoxia-and-developmental-plasticity
#6
Charles A Ducsay, Ravi Goyal, William J Pearce, Sean Wilson, Xiang-Qun Hu, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxia is one of the most common and severe challenges to the maintenance of homeostasis. Oxygen sensing is a property of all tissues, and the response to hypoxia is multidimensional involving complicated intracellular networks concerned with the transduction of hypoxia-induced responses. Of all the stresses to which the fetus and newborn infant are subjected, perhaps the most important and clinically relevant is that of hypoxia. Hypoxia during gestation impacts both the mother and fetal development through interactions with an individual's genetic traits acquired over multiple generations by natural selection and changes in gene expression patterns by altering the epigenetic code...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473646/research-review-intergenerational-transmission-of-disadvantage-epigenetics-and-parents-childhoods-as-the-first-exposure
#7
Pamela Scorza, Cristiane S Duarte, Alison E Hipwell, Jonathan Posner, Ana Ortin, Glorisa Canino, Catherine Monk
BACKGROUND: For decades, economists and sociologists have documented intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic disadvantage, demonstrating that economic, political, and social factors contribute to 'inherited hardship'. Drawing on biological factors, the developmental origins of adult health and disease model posits that fetal exposure to maternal prenatal distress associated with socioeconomic disadvantage compromises offspring's neurodevelopment, affecting short- and long-term physical and mental health, and thereby psychosocial standing and resources...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423924/timing-of-prenatal-exposure-to-trauma-and-altered-placental-expressions-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-genes-and-genes-driving-neurodevelopment
#8
W Zhang, Q Li, M Deyssenroth, L Lambertini, J Finik, J Ham, Y Huang, K J Tsuchiya, P Pehme, J Buthmann, S Yoshida, J Chen, Y Nomura
Prenatal maternal stress increases the risk for negative developmental outcomes in offspring; however, the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unexplored. In the present study, alterations in placental gene expression associated with maternal stress were examined to clarify the potential underlying epi/genetic mechanisms. Expression levels of 40 selected genes involved in regulating foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurodevelopment were profiled in placental tissues collected from a birth cohort established around the time of Superstorm Sandy...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385276/limited-association-between-markers-of-stress-during-pregnancy-and-fetal-growth-in-born-into-life-a-new-prospective-birth-cohort
#9
Awad I Smew, Anna M Hedman, Flaminia Chiesa, Vilhelmina Ullemar, Ellika Andolf, Göran Pershagen, Catarina Almqvist
AIMS: We aimed to investigate the associations between perceived maternal stress or salivary cortisol levels during pregnancy and birthweight. METHODS: In 2010-2012, we recruited 92 women living in Stockholm, Sweden, and followed them from before conception and through pregnancy and childbirth. Their Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores and salivary cortisol levels were collected at 26-28 gestational weeks. Birthweight was collected from medical records. Linear regression analyses and Pearson correlations were performed between the PSS scores or cortisol levels and birthweight, respectively, adjusted for gestational age...
June 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344930/maternal-prenatal-stress-and-infant-dna-methylation-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
David W Sosnowski, Carolyn Booth, Timothy P York, Ananda B Amstadter, Wendy Kliewer
Maternal prenatal stress has been linked to a variety of infant postnatal outcomes, partially through alterations in fetal HPA axis functioning; yet the underlying pathobiology remains elusive. Current literature posits DNA methylation as a candidate mechanism through which maternal prenatal stress can influence fetal HPA axis functioning. The goal of this systematic review was to summarize the literature examining the associations among maternal prenatal stress, DNA methylation of commonly studied HPA axis candidate genes, and infant HPA axis functioning...
January 18, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100173/maternal-prenatal-stress-and-placental-gene-expression-of-nr3c1-and-hsd11b2-the-effects-of-maternal-ethnicity
#11
Lauren E Capron, Paul G Ramchandani, Vivette Glover
BACKGROUND: Prenatal stress is associated with altered fetal and infant development. Previous studies have suggested that these effects may be mediated in part via altered functioning of placental enzymes and receptors involved in the HPA-axis, including the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and HSD11B2, the enzyme which metabolises cortisol. However, previous studies have not examined the potential ethnicity effects on these associations. This study aimed to characterise the association between maternal prenatal stress and placental genes expression and subsequently, any potential effect of maternal ethnicity...
January 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064426/stress-and-the-hpa-axis-balancing-homeostasis-and-fertility
#12
REVIEW
Dana N Joseph, Shannon Whirledge
An organism's reproductive fitness is sensitive to the environment, integrating cues of resource availability, ecological factors, and hazards within its habitat. Events that challenge the environment of an organism activate the central stress response system, which is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The regulatory functions of the HPA axis govern the cardiovascular and metabolic system, immune functions, behavior, and reproduction. Activation of the HPA axis by various stressors primarily inhibits reproductive function and is able to alter fetal development, imparting a biological record of stress experienced in utero...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041862/impact-of-chronic-maternal-stress-during-early-gestation-on-maternal-fetal-stress-transfer-and-fetal-stress-sensitivity-in-sheep
#13
Michelle Dreiling, Rene Schiffner, Sabine Bischoff, Sven Rupprecht, Nasim Kroegel, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Matthias Schwab, Florian Rakers
Acute stress-induced reduction of uterine blood flow (UBF) is an indirect mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer during late gestation. Effects of chronic psychosocial maternal stress (CMS) during early gestation, as may be experienced by many working women, on this stress signaling mechanism are unclear. We hypothesized that CMS in sheep during early gestation augments later acute stress-induced decreases of UBF, and aggravates the fetal hormonal, cardiovascular, and metabolic stress responses during later development...
January 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979893/prenatal-maternal-stress-and-the-risk-of-asthma-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Konstantinos Douros, Maria Moustaki, Sophia Tsabouri, Anna Papadopoulou, Marios Papadopoulos, Kostas N Priftis
Emerging evidence indicate that maternal prenatal stress (MPS) can result in a range of long-term adverse effects in the offspring. The underlying mechanism of MPS is not fully understood. However, its complexity is emphasized by the number of purportedly involved pathways namely, placental deregulated metabolism of maternal steroids, impaired maturation of fetal HPA axis, imbalanced efflux of commensal bacteria across the placenta, and skewed immune development toward Th2. Fetal programming probably exerts a pivotal role in the end result of the above pathways through the modulation of gene expression...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658297/abnormal-dendritic-maturation-of-developing-cortical-neurons-exposed-to-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-insights-into-effects-of-prenatal-adversity
#15
Megan M Curran, Curt A Sandman, Elysia Poggi Davis, Laura M Glynn, Tallie Z Baram
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) produced by the hypothalamus initiates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the body's stress response. CRH levels typically are undetectable in human plasma, but during pregnancy the primate placenta synthesizes and releases large amounts of CRH into both maternal and fetal circulations. Notably, placental CRH synthesis increases in response to maternal stress signals. There is evidence that human fetal exposure to high concentrations of placental CRH is associated with behavioral consequences during infancy and into childhood, however the direct effects on of the peptide on the human brain are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647674/in-pregnancy-increased-maternal-stai-trait-stress-score-shows-decreased-insulin-sensitivity-and-increased-stress-hormones
#16
Georgios Valsamakis, Dimitrios C Papatheodorou, Nikolaos Chalarakis, Nikolaos Vrachnis, Elpida J Sidiropoulou, Maria Manolikaki, Aimilia Mantzou, Alexandra Margeli, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, George Mastorakos
INTRODUCTION: Chronic or acute stressors influence maternal and fetal Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axes (HPA) during pregnancy. In this study, the effect of maternal stress into maternal insulin sensitivity was investigated during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-two pregnant women [aged 27.1±2.5 (mean±SD) yrs; BMI=25±2.2kg/m2] had at the 2nd and 3rd trimesters anthropometry, fasting blood samples (cortisol, Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), active amylin, Interleukin (IL6)), Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) for glucose and insulin, state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) trait and state questionnaires (for stress assessment)...
October 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641158/determinants-of-cortisol-during-pregnancy-the-abcd-cohort
#17
Laura S Bleker, Tessa J Roseboom, Tanja G Vrijkotte, Rebecca M Reynolds, Susanne R de Rooij
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values during pregnancy is inconclusive. A possible explanation for this is that other maternal factors overshadow any potential effects of stress on cortisol levels. We studied a large cohort of pregnant women with extensive data on pregnancy characteristics to determine the respective contributions of biological, environmental and psychosocial stress factors to cortisol levels in pregnancy...
September 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570434/the-prospective-association-of-the-diurnal-cortisol-rhythm-with-sleep-duration-and-perceived-sleeping-problems-in-preschoolers-the-generation-r-study
#18
Nathalie S Saridjan, Desana Kocevska, Maartje P C M Luijk, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier
OBJECTIVE: Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, plays an important role in modulating sleep. Yet, studies investigating the association between diurnal cortisol rhythm and sleep patterns in young children are scarce. We tested the hypothesis that the diurnal cortisol rhythm is associated with shorter sleep duration and more sleep problems across early childhood. METHODS: This study was embedded in Generation R, a population-based cohort from fetal life onward...
June 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555334/prenatal-nicotine-exposure-induces-hpa-axis-hypersensitivity-in-offspring-rats-via-the-intrauterine-programming-of-up-regulation-of-hippocampal-gad67
#19
Xia He, Juan Lu, Wanting Dong, Zhexiao Jiao, Chong Zhang, Ying Yu, Zhaohui Zhang, Hui Wang, Dan Xu
The intrauterine programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hypersensitivity is associated with chronic adult diseases. Our previous studies demonstrated the HPA-axis hypersensitivity in offspring rats induced by prenatal nicotine exposure. The goal of the present study is to further investigate the intrauterine programming mechanism. Pregnant Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered with 2.0 mg/kg day of nicotine from gestational day (GD) 9-20. A group of the pregnant rats was euthanized at GD20, and the fetal rats were extracted...
December 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460648/endothelial-dysfunction-in-individuals-born-after-fetal-growth-restriction-cardiovascular-and-renal-consequences-and-preventive-approaches
#20
REVIEW
C Yzydorczyk, J B Armengaud, A C Peyter, H Chehade, F Cachat, C Juvet, B Siddeek, S Simoncini, F Sabatier, F Dignat-George, D Mitanchez, U Simeoni
Individuals born after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have an increased risk of perinatal morbidity/mortality, and those who survive face long-term consequences such as cardiovascular-related diseases, including systemic hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease. In addition to the demonstrated long-term effects of decreased nephron endowment and hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, individuals born after IUGR also exhibit early alterations in vascular structure and function, which have been identified as key factors of the development of cardiovascular-related diseases...
August 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
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