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hpa and fetal stress

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100173/maternal-prenatal-stress-and-placental-gene-expression-of-nr3c1-and-hsd11b2-the-effects-of-maternal-ethnicity
#1
Lauren E Capron, Paul G Ramchandani, Vivette Glover
BACKGROUND: Prenatal stress is associated with altered fetal and infant development. Previous studies have suggested that these effects may be mediated in part via altered functioning of placental enzymes and receptors involved in the HPA-axis, including the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and HSD11B2, the enzyme which metabolises cortisol. However, previous studies have not examined the potential ethnicity effects on these associations. This study aimed to characterise the association between maternal prenatal stress and placental genes expression and subsequently, any potential effect of maternal ethnicity...
October 26, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064426/stress-and-the-hpa-axis-balancing-homeostasis-and-fertility
#2
REVIEW
Dana N Joseph, Shannon Whirledge
An organism's reproductive fitness is sensitive to the environment, integrating cues of resource availability, ecological factors, and hazards within its habitat. Events that challenge the environment of an organism activate the central stress response system, which is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The regulatory functions of the HPA axis govern the cardiovascular and metabolic system, immune functions, behavior, and reproduction. Activation of the HPA axis by various stressors primarily inhibits reproductive function and is able to alter fetal development, imparting a biological record of stress experienced in utero...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041862/impact-of-chronic-maternal-stress-during-early-gestation-on-maternal-fetal-stress-transfer-and-fetal-stress-sensitivity-in-sheep
#3
Michelle Dreiling, Rene Schiffner, Sabine Bischoff, Sven Rupprecht, Nasim Kroegel, Harald Schubert, Otto W Witte, Matthias Schwab, Florian Rakers
Acute stress-induced reduction of uterine blood flow (UBF) is an indirect mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer during late gestation. Effects of chronic psychosocial maternal stress (CMS) during early gestation, as may be experienced by many working women, on this stress signaling mechanism are unclear. We hypothesized that CMS in sheep during early gestation augments later acute stress-induced decreases of UBF, and aggravates the fetal hormonal, cardiovascular, and metabolic stress responses during later development...
October 18, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979893/prenatal-maternal-stress-and-the-risk-of-asthma-in-children
#4
REVIEW
Konstantinos Douros, Maria Moustaki, Sophia Tsabouri, Anna Papadopoulou, Marios Papadopoulos, Kostas N Priftis
Emerging evidence indicate that maternal prenatal stress (MPS) can result in a range of long-term adverse effects in the offspring. The underlying mechanism of MPS is not fully understood. However, its complexity is emphasized by the number of purportedly involved pathways namely, placental deregulated metabolism of maternal steroids, impaired maturation of fetal HPA axis, imbalanced efflux of commensal bacteria across the placenta, and skewed immune development toward Th2. Fetal programming probably exerts a pivotal role in the end result of the above pathways through the modulation of gene expression...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658297/abnormal-dendritic-maturation-of-developing-cortical-neurons-exposed-to-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-crh-insights-into-effects-of-prenatal-adversity
#5
Megan M Curran, Curt A Sandman, Elysia Poggi Davis, Laura M Glynn, Tallie Z Baram
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) produced by the hypothalamus initiates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which regulates the body's stress response. CRH levels typically are undetectable in human plasma, but during pregnancy the primate placenta synthesizes and releases large amounts of CRH into both maternal and fetal circulations. Notably, placental CRH synthesis increases in response to maternal stress signals. There is evidence that human fetal exposure to high concentrations of placental CRH is associated with behavioral consequences during infancy and into childhood, however the direct effects on of the peptide on the human brain are unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647674/in-pregnancy-increased-maternal-stai-trait-stress-score-shows-decreased-insulin-sensitivity-and-increased-stress-hormones
#6
Georgios Valsamakis, Dimitrios C Papatheodorou, Nikolaos Chalarakis, Nikolaos Vrachnis, Elpida J Sidiropoulou, Maria Manolikaki, Aimilia Mantzou, Alexandra Margeli, Ioannis Papassotiriou, George P Chrousos, George Mastorakos
INTRODUCTION: Chronic or acute stressors influence maternal and fetal Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axes (HPA) during pregnancy. In this study, the effect of maternal stress into maternal insulin sensitivity was investigated during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-two pregnant women [aged 27.1±2.5 (mean±SD) yrs; BMI=25±2.2kg/m(2)] had at the 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimesters anthropometry, fasting blood samples (cortisol, Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), active amylin, Interleukin (IL6)), Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) for glucose and insulin, state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) trait and state questionnaires (for stress assessment)...
October 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641158/determinants-of-cortisol-during-pregnancy-the-abcd-cohort
#7
Laura S Bleker, Tessa J Roseboom, Tanja G Vrijkotte, Rebecca M Reynolds, Susanne R de Rooij
BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stress during pregnancy has been proposed as a major contributor of glucocorticoid-mediated programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, with later adverse health consequences. However, evidence linking maternal stress to maternal cortisol values during pregnancy is inconclusive. A possible explanation for this is that other maternal factors overshadow any potential effects of stress on cortisol levels. We studied a large cohort of pregnant women with extensive data on pregnancy characteristics to determine the respective contributions of biological, environmental and psychosocial stress factors to cortisol levels in pregnancy...
May 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570434/the-prospective-association-of-the-diurnal-cortisol-rhythm-with-sleep-duration-and-perceived-sleeping-problems-in-preschoolers-the-generation-r-study
#8
Nathalie S Saridjan, Desana Kocevska, Maartje P C M Luijk, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier
OBJECTIVE: Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, plays an important role in modulating sleep. Yet, studies investigating the association between diurnal cortisol rhythm and sleep patterns in young children are scarce. We tested the hypothesis that the diurnal cortisol rhythm is associated with shorter sleep duration and more sleep problems across early childhood. METHODS: This study was embedded in Generation R, a population-based cohort from fetal life onward...
June 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555334/prenatal-nicotine-exposure-induces-hpa-axis-hypersensitivity-in-offspring-rats-via-the-intrauterine-programming-of-up-regulation-of-hippocampal-gad67
#9
Xia He, Juan Lu, Wanting Dong, Zhexiao Jiao, Chong Zhang, Ying Yu, Zhaohui Zhang, Hui Wang, Dan Xu
The intrauterine programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hypersensitivity is associated with chronic adult diseases. Our previous studies demonstrated the HPA-axis hypersensitivity in offspring rats induced by prenatal nicotine exposure. The goal of the present study is to further investigate the intrauterine programming mechanism. Pregnant Wistar rats were subcutaneously administered with 2.0 mg/kg day of nicotine from gestational day (GD) 9-20. A group of the pregnant rats was euthanized at GD20, and the fetal rats were extracted...
May 29, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460648/endothelial-dysfunction-in-individuals-born-after-fetal-growth-restriction-cardiovascular-and-renal-consequences-and-preventive-approaches
#10
C Yzydorczyk, J B Armengaud, A C Peyter, H Chehade, F Cachat, C Juvet, B Siddeek, S Simoncini, F Sabatier, F Dignat-George, D Mitanchez, U Simeoni
Individuals born after intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) have an increased risk of perinatal morbidity/mortality, and those who survive face long-term consequences such as cardiovascular-related diseases, including systemic hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease. In addition to the demonstrated long-term effects of decreased nephron endowment and hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, individuals born after IUGR also exhibit early alterations in vascular structure and function, which have been identified as key factors of the development of cardiovascular-related diseases...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418941/prenatal-fluoxetine-modifies-the-behavioral-and-hormonal-responses-to-stress-in-male-mice-role-for-glucocorticoid-insensitivity
#11
Ronit Avitsur
Women with major depressive disorder during pregnancy often use selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) antidepressants. These drugs readily cross the placental barrier and impact the developing fetal brain. Recently, we reported that prenatal fluoxetine (FLX), an SSRI antidepressant drug, altered corticosterone and behavioral responses to stress in female mouse offspring. The present study assessed the effects of prenatal FLX on these responses in males. The results showed that prenatal FLX significantly augmented the corticosterone response to acute stress in young prepubescent mice...
April 17, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389369/prenatal-stress-and-depression-associated-neuronal-development-in-neonates
#12
REVIEW
Mahino Fatima, Saurabh Srivastav, Amal Chandra Mondal
Prenatal maternal depression has its direct effects on early brain development deficits with permanent changes in neuroendocrine functions and impaired behavior in offsprings. Prenatal stress (PS) transmits its affect on developing fetus and on pregnancy outcomes in adult offsprings. This results in impaired neurodevelopment, delayed cognitive and motor development with impaired behavior towards stressful conditions. There are sufficient evidences in animal models suggesting depression responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its hormonal response via cortisol, responsible for its critical effects in both the mother and offspring...
August 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237726/transfer-of-maternal-psychosocial-stress-to-the-fetus
#13
REVIEW
Florian Rakers, Sven Rupprecht, Michelle Dreiling, Christoph Bergmeier, Otto W Witte, Matthias Schwab
Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA)...
February 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168960/sex-specific-neurodevelopmental-programming-by-placental-insulin-receptors-on-stress-reactivity-and-sensorimotor-gating
#14
Stefanie L Bronson, Jennifer C Chan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk...
July 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103963/sex-differences-in-early-life-programming-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-humans-suggest-increased-vulnerability-in-females-a-systematic-review
#15
T Carpenter, S M Grecian, R M Reynolds
Fetal glucocorticoid overexposure is a key mechanism linking early development with later-life disease. In humans, low birth weight associates with increased fasting cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, and with cardiovascular risk and cognitive decline. As there are sex differences in these adult diseases, we hypothesized that there may be sex differences in programming of the HPA axis in response to prenatal stressors. We conducted a systematic review following Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984355/the-prospective-association-of-the-diurnal-cortisol-rhythm-with-sleep-duration-and-perceived-sleeping-problems-in-pre-schoolers-the-generation-r-study
#16
Nathalie S Saridjan, Desana Kocevska, Maartje P C M Luijk, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier
OBJECTIVE: Cortisol, the end-product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, plays an important role in modulating sleep. Yet, studies investigating the association between diurnal cortisol rhythm and sleep patterns in young children are scarce. We tested the hypothesis that the diurnal cortisol rhythm is associated with shorter sleep duration and more sleep problems across early childhood. METHODS: This study was embedded in Generation R, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards...
December 15, 2016: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898587/maternal-epigenetics-and-fetal-and-neonatal-growth
#17
Sofia Kitsiou-Tzeli, Maria Tzetis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article provides an update on new insights of factors altering inherited maternal epigenome that ultimately affect fetal and neonatal growth. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of new publications have identified mechanisms through which maternal nutrition, environmental exposures such as stress and toxic substances altering expression of imprinted genes during pregnancy can influence fetal and neonatal phenotype and susceptibility to disease development later in life...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801895/prenatal-maternal-depression-is-associated-with-offspring-inflammation-at-25-years-a-prospective-longitudinal-cohort-study
#18
D T Plant, S Pawlby, D Sharp, P A Zunszain, C M Pariante
Animal studies and a handful of prospective human studies have demonstrated that young offspring exposed to maternal prenatal stress show abnormalities in immune parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. No study has examined the effect of maternal prenatal depression on offspring inflammation and HPA axis activity in adulthood, nor the putative role of child maltreatment in inducing these abnormalities. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and awakening cortisol were measured at age 25 in 103 young-adult offspring of the South London Child Development Study (SLCDS), a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of mother-offspring dyads recruited in pregnancy in 1986...
November 1, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691980/why-is-the-topic-of-the-biological-embedding-of-experiences-important-for-translation
#19
REVIEW
Michael Rutter
Translational research focuses on innovation in healthcare settings, but this is a two-way process that may have implications for either treatment or prevention. Smoking and lung cancer and the fetal alcohol syndrome are used as examples. Experimental medicine that budges basic and clinical science often constitutes a key way forward. Areas of scientific progress and challenge are discussed in relation to drug action, social cognition, cognitive neuroscience, molecular genetics, gene-environment interaction, and epigenetics...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678095/investigating-the-role-of-fetal-gene-expression-in-preterm-birth
#20
Neeta L Vora, Lisa Smeester, Kim Boggess, Rebecca C Fry
Second-trimester amniotic fluid supernatant (AFS) contains cell-free fetal RNA (cffRNA) transcripts that can provide information about fetal gene expression. In a retrospective case-control study, we measured second-trimester fetal gene expression using cffRNA extracted from AFS in women who had spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) <34 weeks and in women who delivered >37 weeks. We extracted cffRNA from AFS of women with singletons who had second-trimester genetic amniocenteses. Twenty-one gravidas who had sPTB and 21 term controls were matched 1:1 for maternal age, fetal sex, race, gestational age (GA) at the time of amniocentesis, and medication exposure...
June 2017: Reproductive Sciences
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