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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343184/regulatory-role-of-ngfs-in-neurocognitive-functions
#1
Ashutosh Kumar, Vikas Pareek, Muneeb A Faiq, Pavan Kumar, Khursheed Raza, Pranav Prasoon, Subrahamanyam Dantham, Sankat Mochan
Nerve growth factors (NGFs), especially the prototype NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have a diverse array of functions in the central nervous system through their peculiar set of receptors and intricate signaling. They are implicated not only in the development of the nervous system but also in regulation of neurocognitive functions like learning, memory, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Evidence even suggests their role in continued neurogenesis and experience-dependent neural network remodeling in adult brain...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341345/the-signaling-signature-of-the-neurotensin-type-1-receptor-with-endogenous-ligands
#2
Élie Besserer-Offroy, Rebecca L Brouillette, Sandrine Lavenus, Ulrike Froehlich, Andrea Brumwell, Alexandre Murza, Jean-Michel Longpré, Éric Marsault, Michel Grandbois, Philippe Sarret, Richard Leduc
The human neurotensin 1 receptor (hNTS1) is a G protein-coupled receptor involved in many physiological functions, including analgesia, hypothermia, and hypotension. To gain a better understanding of which signaling pathways or combination of pathways are linked to NTS1 activation and function, we investigated the ability of activated hNTS1, which was stably expressed by CHO-K1 cells, to directly engage G proteins, activate second messenger cascades and recruit β-arrestins. Using BRET-based biosensors, we found that neurotensin (NT), NT(8-13) and neuromedin N (NN) activated the Gαq-, Gαi1-, GαoA-, and Gα13-protein signaling pathways as well as the recruitment of β-arrestins 1 and 2...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338656/focal-adhesion-kinase-depletion-reduces-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-growth-by-repressing-enhancer-of-zeste-homolog-2
#3
Daniela Gnani, Ilaria Romito, Simona Artuso, Marco Chierici, Cristiano De Stefanis, Nadia Panera, Annalisa Crudele, Sara Ceccarelli, Elena Carcarino, Valentina D'Oria, Manuela Porru, Ezio Giorda, Karin Ferrari, Luca Miele, Erica Villa, Clara Balsano, Diego Pasini, Cesare Furlanello, Franco Locatelli, Valerio Nobili, Rossella Rota, Carlo Leonetti, Anna Alisi
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer in humans. The focal adhesion tyrosine kinase (FAK) is often over-expressed in human HCC and FAK inhibition may reduce HCC cell invasiveness. However, the anti-oncogenic effect of FAK knockdown in HCC cells remains to be clarified. We found that FAK depletion in HCC cells reduced in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity, by inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis, decreasing anchorage-independent growth, and modulating the expression of several cancer-related genes...
March 24, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335383/a-biomedical-investigation-of-the-hepatoprotective-effect-of-radix-salviae-miltiorrhizae-and-network-pharmacology-based-prediction-of-the-active-compounds-and-molecular-targets
#4
Ming Hong, Sha Li, Ning Wang, Hor-Yue Tan, Fan Cheung, Yibin Feng
Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen in Chinese), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb, has been used for centuries to treat liver diseases. In this study, the preventive and curative potential of Danshen aqueous extract on acute/chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was studied. The in vivo results indicated that Danshen could alleviate hepatic inflammation, fatty degeneration, and haptic fibrogenesis in ALD and NAFLD models. In the aspect of mechanism of action, the significant reduction in MDA levels in both ALD and NAFLD models implies the decreased levels of oxidative stress by Danshen...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333443/systematic-investigation-of-ginkgo-biloba-leaves-for-treating-cardio-cerebrovascular-diseases-in-an-animal-model
#5
Yinfeng Yang, Yan Li, Jinghui Wang, Ke Sun, Weiyang Tao, Zhenzhong Wang, Wei Xiao, Yanqiu Pan, Shuwei Zhang, Yonghua Wang
Globally, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVDs) account for the leading cause of death, and thus the development of novel strategies for preventing and treating such diseases is in urgent need. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), used for thousands of years in Asia and other regions, have been proven effective in certain disorders. As a medicinal herb for a long time in TCM, Ginkgo Biloba Leaves (GBLs), have been widely used to treat various diseases including CCVDs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of medicinal herb in treating these diseases are still unclear...
March 23, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330964/thermoregulatory-inversion-a-novel-thermoregulatory-paradigm
#6
Domenico Tupone, Georgina Cano, Shaun F Morrison
To maintain core body temperature in mammals, the normal CNS thermoregulatory reflex networks produce an increase in brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in response to skin cooling, and an inhibition of the sympathetic outflow to BAT during skin rewarming. In contrast, these normal thermoregulatory reflexes appear to be inverted in hibernation/torpor: thermogenesis is inhibited during exposure to a cold environment, allowing dramatic reductions in core temperature and metabolism, and thermogenesis is activated during skin rewarming, contributing to a return of normal body temperature...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330614/a-predictive-3d-multi-scale-model-of-biliary-fluid-dynamics-in-the-liver-lobule
#7
Kirstin Meyer, Oleksandr Ostrenko, Georgios Bourantas, Hernan Morales-Navarrete, Natalie Porat-Shliom, Fabian Segovia-Miranda, Hidenori Nonaka, Ali Ghaemi, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Lutz Brusch, Ivo Sbalzarini, Yannis Kalaidzidis, Roberto Weigert, Marino Zerial
Bile, the central metabolic product of the liver, is transported by the bile canaliculi network. The impairment of bile flow in cholestatic liver diseases has urged a demand for insights into its regulation. Here, we developed a predictive 3D multi-scale model that simulates fluid dynamic properties successively from the subcellular to the tissue level. The model integrates the structure of the bile canalicular network in the mouse liver lobule, as determined by high-resolution confocal and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, with measurements of bile transport by intravital microscopy...
March 15, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326014/the-gabaergic-hypothesis-for-cognitive-disabilities-in-down-syndrome
#8
REVIEW
Andrea Contestabile, Salvatore Magara, Laura Cancedda
Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of a third copy of chromosome 21. DS affects multiple organs, but it invariably results in altered brain development and diverse degrees of intellectual disability. A large body of evidence has shown that synaptic deficits and memory impairment are largely determined by altered GABAergic signaling in trisomic mouse models of DS. These alterations arise during brain development while extending into adulthood, and include genesis of GABAergic neurons, variation of the inhibitory drive and modifications in the control of neural-network excitability...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324940/use-of-local-field-potentials-of-dissociated-cultures-grown-on-multi-electrode-arrays-for-pharmacological-assays
#9
G D C Mendis, E Morrisroe, C A Reid, S K Halgamuge, S Petrou
In vitro Multi-Electrode Arrays (MEA) are an extracellular recording technology that enables the analysis of networks of neurons in vitro. Neurons in culture exhibit a range of behavioral dynamics, which can be measured in terms of individual action potentials, network-wide synchronized firing and a host of other features that characterize network activity. MEA data analysis was historically focused on high frequency spike data forgoing the low frequency content of the signal. In this study, we use local field potentials, which are low frequency components of MEA signals, to differentiate between two types of antiepileptic drugs (p<;0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321877/pharmacological-interventions-for-acute-hepatitis-b-infection-an-attempted-network-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Konstantinos Mantzoukis, Manuel Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Elena Buzzetti, Douglas Thorburn, Brian R Davidson, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy
BACKGROUND: Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Apart from chronic HBV infection, the complications related to acute HBV infection are severe acute viral hepatitis and fulminant hepatitis characterised by liver failure. The optimal pharmacological treatment of acute HBV infection remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pharmacological interventions in the treatment of acute HBV infection through a network meta-analysis and to generate rankings of the available treatments according to their safety and efficacy...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315459/dynamic-reorganization-of-intrinsic-functional-networks-in-the-mouse-brain
#11
Joanes Grandjean, Maria Giulia Preti, Thomas A W Bolton, Michaela Buerge, Erich Seifritz, Christopher R Pryce, Dimitri Van De Ville, Markus Rudin
Functional connectivity (FC) derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) allows for the integrative study of neuronal processes at a macroscopic level. The majority of studies to date have assumed stationary interactions between brain regions, without considering the dynamic aspects of network organization. Only recently has the latter received increased attention, predominantly in human studies. Applying dynamic FC (dFC) analysis to mice is attractive given the relative simplicity of the mouse brain and the possibility to explore mechanisms underlying network dynamics using pharmacological, environmental or genetic interventions...
March 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304152/reprogramming-of-histone-methylation-controls-the-differentiation-of-monocytes-into-macrophages
#12
Qi-Fan Zheng, Hui-Min Wang, Zhan-Feng Wang, Jin-Yang Liu, Qi Zhang, Li Zhang, Yuan-Hua Lu, Han You, Guang-Hui Jin
Subset heterogeneity of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) is controlled by defined transcriptional networks and programs; however, the dynamic establishment of programs that control broad, orchestrated expression of transcription factors (TFs) during the progression of monocyte-into-phagocyte (MP) differentiation remains largely unexplored. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we show the extensive trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) as well as histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) occupancy with broad footprints at the promoters of MP differentiation-related TFs, such as HOXA and FOXO genes, KLF4, IRF8 and others...
March 17, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303498/validation-of-a-preclinical-drug-screening-platform-for-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy
#13
Melissa L Barker-Haliski, Kristina Johnson, Peggy Billingsley, Jennifer Huff, Laura J Handy, Rizvana Khaleel, Zhenmei Lu, Matthew J Mau, Timothy H Pruess, Carlos Rueda, Gerald Saunders, Tristan K Underwood, Fabiola Vanegas, Misty D Smith, Peter J West, Karen S Wilcox
The successful identification of promising investigational therapies for the treatment of epilepsy can be credited to the use of numerous animal models of seizure and epilepsy for over 80 years. In this time, the maximal electroshock test in mice and rats, the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol test in mice and rats, and more recently the 6 Hz assay in mice, have been utilized as primary models of electrically or chemically-evoked seizures in neurologically intact rodents. In addition, rodent kindling models, in which chronic network hyperexcitability has developed, have been used to identify new agents...
March 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302905/protein-kinase-a-regulates-the-ras-rap1-and-torc2-pathways-in-response-to-the-chemoattractant-camp-in-dictyostelium
#14
Margarethakay Scavello, Alexandra R Petlick, Ramya Ramesh, Valery F Thompson, Pouya Lotfi, Pascale G Charest
Efficient directed migration requires tight regulation of chemoattractant signal transduction pathways in both space and time, but the mechanisms involved in such regulation are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of Protein Kinase A (PKA) in controlling signaling of the chemoattractant cAMP in Dictyostelium We found that cells lacking PKA display severe chemotaxis defects, including impaired directional sensing. Although PKA is an important regulator of developmental gene expression, including the cAMP receptor cAR1, our studies using exogenously expressed cAR1 in cells lacking PKA, cells lacking adenylyl cyclase A (ACA), and cells treated with the PKA-selective pharmacological inhibitor H89, suggest that PKA controls chemoattractant signal transduction, in part, through the regulation of RasG, Rap1, and TORC2...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295526/pharmacological-treatments-in-asthma-affected-horses-a-pair-wise-and-network-meta-analysis
#15
L Calzetta, P Roncada, D di Cave, L Bonizzi, A Urbani, E Pistocchini, P Rogliani, M G Matera
BACKGROUND: Equine asthma is a disease characterised by reversible airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation following exposure of susceptible horses to specific airborne agents. Although clinical remission can be achieved in a low-airborne dust environment, repeated exacerbations may lead to irreversible airway remodelling. The available data on the pharmacotherapy of equine asthma results from several small studies, and no head-to-head clinical trials have been conducted among the available medications...
March 10, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294298/proteins-and-chemical-chaperones-involved-in-neuronal-nicotinic-receptor-expression-and-function-an-update
#16
REVIEW
Arianna Crespi, Sara Francesca Colombo, Cecilia Gotti
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a family of acetylcholine-(ACh) gated cation channels and their homeostasis or proteostasis is essential for the correct physiology of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The proteostasis network regulates the folding, assembly, degradation and trafficking of nAChRs in order to ensure their efficient functional cell surface expression. However, as nAChRs are multisubunit, multispan, integral membrane proteins, the folding and assembly is a very inefficient process, and only a small portion of subunits can form functional pentamers...
March 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292834/functional-connectivity-of-multiple-brain-regions-required-for-the-consolidation-of-social-recognition-memory
#17
Toshiyuki Tanimizu, Justin W Kenney, Emiko Okano, Kazune Kadoma, Paul W Frankland, Satoshi Kida
Social recognition memory is an essential and basic component of social behavior to discriminate familiar and novel animals/humans. Previous studies have shown the importance of several brain regions for social recognition memories; however, the mechanisms underlying the consolidation of social recognition memory at the molecular and anatomic levels remain unknown. Here, we show a brain network necessary for the generation of social recognition memory in mice. A mouse genetic study showed that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated transcription is required for the formation of social recognition memory...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291572/noradrenaline-transporter-blockade-increases-fronto-parietal-functional-connectivity-relevant-for-working-memory
#18
Dennis Hernaus, Marta Ma Casales Santa, Jan Stefan Offermann, Thérèse Van Amelsvoort
Experimental animal work has demonstrated that dopamine and noradrenaline play an essential role in modulating prefrontal cortex-mediated networks underlying working memory performance. Studies of functional connectivity have been instrumental in extending such notions to humans but, so far, have almost exclusively focussed on pharmacological agents with a predominant dopaminergic mechanism of action. Here, we investigate the effect of a single dose of atomoxetine 60mg, a noradrenaline transporter inhibitor, on working memory performance and associated functional connectivity during an n-back task in 19 healthy male volunteers...
March 10, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290133/the-effects-of-acute-gaba-treatment-on-the-functional-connectivity-and-network-topology-of-cortical-cultures
#19
Yao Han, Hong Li, Yiran Lang, Yuwei Zhao, Hongji Sun, Peng Zhang, Xuan Ma, Jiuqi Han, Qiyu Wang, Jin Zhou, Changyong Wang
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory transmitter, acting on receptor channels to reduce neuronal excitability in matured neural systems. However, electrophysiological responses of whole neuronal ensembles to the exposure to GABA are still unclear. We used micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) to study the effects of the increasing amount of GABA on functional network of cortical neural cultures. Then the recorded data were analyzed by the cross-covariance analysis and graph theory. Results showed that after the GABA treatment, the activity parameters of firing rate, bursting rate, bursting duration and network burst frequency in neural cultures decreased as expected...
March 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289796/-neurobiological-foundations-underlying-normal-and-disturbed-sexuality
#20
T H C Krüger, J Kneer
BACKGROUND: Sexual functions are regulated by hormonal and neurochemical factors as well as neuronal networks. An understanding of these basic principles is necessary for the diagnostics, counselling and treatment of sexual problems. OBJECTIVE: Description of essential mechanisms of sexual function on a neurochemical and neuronal level. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literature search, selection and discussion of relevant studies. RESULTS: Analogous to the dual control model there are primary inhibitory (e...
March 13, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
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