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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694905/obesity-suppresses-cell-competition-mediated-apical-elimination-of-rasv12-transformed-cells-from-epithelial-tissues
#1
Ayana Sasaki, Takahiro Nagatake, Riku Egami, Guoqiang Gu, Ichigaku Takigawa, Wataru Ikeda, Tomoya Nakatani, Jun Kunisawa, Yasuyuki Fujita
Recent studies have revealed that newly emerging transformed cells are often eliminated from epithelial tissues via cell competition with the surrounding normal epithelial cells. This cancer preventive phenomenon is termed epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC). However, it remains largely unknown whether and how EDAC is diminished during carcinogenesis. In this study, using a cell competition mouse model, we show that high-fat diet (HFD) feeding substantially attenuates the frequency of apical elimination of RasV12-transformed cells from intestinal and pancreatic epithelia...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694795/a-pilot-study-of-the-effect-of-green-kiwifruit-on-human-intestinal-fermentation-measured-by-hydrogen-and-methane-breath-testing
#2
Amanda G Y Chen, Marleen S L Offereins, Christopher J Mulder, Christopher M Frampton, Richard B Gearry
We investigated the impact of the ingestion of two green kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward) and one Royal Gala apple on breath hydrogen and methane production in humans. Consumption of two green kiwifruit led to no evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption (0/20), whereas consumption of one apple was associated with carbohydrate malabsorption in 6/20 participants (P = .008). There were no significant differences in the area under the curve for hydrogen or methane breath concentrations after consumption of the two fruits...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694505/tnf-%C3%AE-inhibits-scf-ghrelin-and-substance-p-expressions-through-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-activation-in-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#3
Keyu Ren, Chunming Yong, Hao Yuan, Bin Cao, Kun Zhao, Jin Wang
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon where intestinal motility is disturbed. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are required to maintain normal intestinal motility. In the present study, we assessed the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on viability and apoptosis of ICC, as well as on the expression of stem cell factor (SCF), ghrelin, and substance P. ICC were derived from the small intestines of Swiss albino mice. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694309/malakoplakia-of-the-large-intestine-an-incidental-extremely-rare-finding
#4
C Koutserimpas, A Ioannidis, M Demonakou, P Siaperas, A Skarpas, G Velimezis, I Karanikas
Malakoplakia is a rare inflammatory disease, most commonly found in the urinary tract. It appears be related to a functional deficiency of macrophages, resulting in an inability to destroy digested bacteria and it is associated with various conditions that cause immunodeficiency. A rare case of malakoplakia of the colon in a healthy 68-year old male is presented. The patient underwent emergency surgery with colon resection and an end stoma with closure of the distal bowel (Hartmann's procedure), due to incarcerated ventral hernia and sigmoid-colon rupture...
March 2018: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693787/integrated-strategy-based-on-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-coupled-with-multiple-data-mining-techniques-for-the-metabolic-profiling-of-xanthoceras-sorbifolia-bunge-husks-in-rat-plasma-urine-and-feces
#5
Weiwei Rong, Sirui Guo, Kewen Ding, Ziyue Yuan, Qing Li, Kaishun Bi
An integrated strategy based on high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with multiple data mining techniques was developed to screen the metabolites in rat biological fluids after the oral administration of Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge husks. Mass defect filtering, product ions filtering and neutral loss filtering were applied to detect metabolites from the complex matrix. As a result, a total of 55 metabolites were tentatively identified, among which, 45 barrigenol type triterpenoids metabolites were detected in the feces, six flavonoids and four coumarins metabolites were in the urine...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693729/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-immunonutrition-novel-therapeutic-approaches-through-modulation-of-diet-and-the-gut-microbiome
#6
REVIEW
Larissa S Celiberto, Franziska A Graef, Genelle R Healey, Else S Bosman, Kevan Jacobson, Laura M Sly, Bruce A Vallance
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract, thought to at least in part reflect an aberrant immune response to gut bacteria. IBD is increasing in incidence, particularly in populations that have recently immigrated to Western countries. This suggests that environmental factors are involved in its pathogenesis. We hypothesize that the increase in IBD rates might reflect the consumption of an unhealthy Western diet, containing excess calories and lacking in key nutritional factors, such as fiber and vitamin D...
April 25, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693599/dietary-supplementation-with-oleum-cinnamomi-improves-intestinal-functions-in-piglets
#7
Dan Yi, Qiuhong Fang, Yongqing Hou, Lei Wang, Haiwang Xu, Tao Wu, Joshua Gong, Guoyao Wu
The present study was to determine the efficacy of dietary supplementation with oleum cinnamomi (OCM) on growth performance and intestinal functions in piglets. Sixteen piglets (24-day-old) were randomly assigned to the control or OCM groups. Piglets in the control group were fed a basal diet, whereas piglets in the OCM group were fed the basal diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg OCM. On day 20 of the trial, blood samples and intestinal tissues were obtained from piglets. Compared with the control group, dietary OCM supplementation increased ( p < 0...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693598/inulin-improves-postprandial-hypertriglyceridemia-by-modulating-gene-expression-in-the-small-intestine
#8
Sophie Hiel, Audrey M Neyrinck, Julie Rodriguez, Barbara D Pachikian, Caroline Bouzin, Jean-Paul Thissen, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
Postprandial hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in the context of obesity. Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate, known for its beneficial properties in metabolic disorders. We investigated the impact of inulin on postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and on lipid metabolism in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Mice received a control or a western diet for 4 weeks and were further supplemented or not with inulin for 2 weeks (0.2 g/day per mouse). We performed a lipid tolerance test, measured mRNA expression of genes involved in postprandial lipid metabolism, assessed post-heparin plasma and muscle lipoprotein lipase activity and measured lipid accumulation in the enterocytes and fecal lipid excretion...
April 25, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693476/effects-of-gut-microbiota-manipulation-on-ex-vivo-lipolysis-in-human-abdominal-subcutaneous-adipocytes
#9
Johan W E Jocken, Dorien Reijnders, Emanuel E Canfora, Mark V Boekschoten, Joghum Plat, Gijs H Goossens, Ellen E Blaak
The intestinal microbiota may contribute to the development of obesity by affecting host lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. To investigate the effects of microbiota manipulation on ex vivo basal and β-adrenergically-stimulated lipolysis in human adipocytes, 36 obese men were randomized to amoxicillin (broad-spectrum antibiotic), vancomycin (narrow-spectrum antibiotic) or placebo treatment (7 d, 1500 mg/d). Before and after treatment, ex vivo adipose tissue lipolysis was assessed under basal conditions and during stimulation with the non-selective β-agonist isoprenaline using freshly isolated mature adipocytes...
April 25, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693447/chronic-kidney-disease-uremic-milieu-and-its-effects-on-gut-bacterial-microbiota-dysbiosis
#10
Lee D Chaves, Daniel I McSkimming, Mark A Bryniarski, Amanda M Honan, Sham Abyad, Shruthi A Thomas, Steven Wells, Michael J Buck, Yijun Sun, Robert J Genco, Richard J Quigg, Rabi Yacoub
Several lines of evidence suggest that gut bacterial microbiota is altered in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), though the mechanism of which this dysbiosis takes place is not well understood. Recent studies delineated changes in gut microbiota in both CKD patients and experimental animal models using microarray chips. We present 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of both stool pellets and small bowel contents of C57Bl/6J mice that underwent a remnant kidney model, and establish that changes in microbiota take place in the early gastrointestinal track...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693127/association-between-gastrointestinal-motility-and-macrophage-mast-cell-distribution-in-mice-during-the-healing-stage-after-dss%C3%A2-induced-colitis
#11
Mio Kodani, Hirokazu Fukui, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) frequently occurs after infectious colitis or inflammatory bowel disease in patients with complete remission. This suggests that post‑inflammation‑associated factors may serve a role in the pathophysiology of IBS; however, the mechanism responsible remains unclear. In the present study, the involvement of macrophages and mast cells in alteration of gastrointestinal (GI) motility was investigated in mice in the remission stage after acute colitis. C57BL/6 mice were administered 2% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 5 days and their intestinal tissues were investigated at intervals for up to 24 weeks...
April 24, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693040/formation-of-human-colonic-crypt-array-by-application-of-chemical-gradients-across-a-shaped-epithelial-monolayer
#12
Yuli Wang, Raehyun Kim, Dulan B Gunasekara, Mark I Reed, Matthew DiSalvo, Daniel L Nguyen, Scott J Bultman, Christopher E Sims, Scott T Magness, Nancy L Allbritton
Background & Aims: The successful culture of intestinal organoids has greatly enhanced our understanding of intestinal stem cell physiology and enabled the generation of novel intestinal disease models. Although of tremendous value, intestinal organoid culture systems have not yet fully recapitulated the anatomy or physiology of the in vivo intestinal epithelium. The aim of this work was to re-create an intestinal epithelium with a high density of polarized crypts that respond in a physiologic manner to addition of growth factors, metabolites, or cytokines to the basal or luminal tissue surface as occurs in vivo...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692976/aminopropyl-groups-of-the-functionalized-mobil-crystalline-material-41-as-a-carrier-for-controlled-diclofenac-sodium-and-piroxicam-delivery
#13
Elham Khodaverdi, Mina Ahmadi, Hossein Kamali, Farzin Hadizadeh
Objective: Synthetic Mobil Crystalline Material 41 (MCM-41) as a mesoporous material and functionalized MCM-41 using aminopropyl groups were studied in order to investigate their ability to encapsulate and to control the release of diclofenac sodium and piroxicam. Materials and Methods: MCM-41 was synthesized through sol-gel procedure and functionalized with aminopropyl groups. The physicochemical properties of MCM-41 were studied through particle size analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen analysis...
October 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692798/the-presence-of-genotoxic-and-or-pro-inflammatory-bacterial-genes-in-gut-metagenomic-databases-and-their-possible-link-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#14
Abiel Roche-Lima, Kelvin Carrasquillo-Carrión, Ramón Gómez-Moreno, Juan M Cruz, Dayanara M Velázquez-Morales, Igor B Rogozin, Abel Baerga-Ortiz
Background: The human gut microbiota is a dynamic community of microorganisms that mediate important biochemical processes. Differences in the gut microbial composition have been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and other intestinal disorders. In this study, we quantified and compared the frequencies of eight genotoxic and/or pro-inflammatory bacterial genes found in metagenomic Whole Genome Sequences (mWGSs) of samples from individuals with IBD vs. a cohort of healthy human subjects. Methods: The eight selected gene sequences were clbN, clbB, cif, cnf-1, usp, tcpC from Escherichia coli, gelE from Enterococcus faecalis and murB from Akkermansia muciniphila ...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692785/the-selective-autophagy-receptor-optineurin-in-crohn-s-disease
#15
REVIEW
Markus Tschurtschenthaler, Timon Erik Adolph
Autophagy is a pathway that allows cells to target organelles, protein complexes, or invading microorganisms for lysosomal degradation. The specificity of autophagic processes is becoming increasingly recognized and is conferred by selective autophagy receptors such as Optineurin (OPTN). As an autophagy receptor, OPTN controls the clearance of Salmonella infection and mediates mitochondrial turnover. Recent studies demonstrated that OPTN is critically required for pathogen clearance and an appropriate cytokine response in macrophages...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692762/-clostridium-difficile-from-colonization-to-infection
#16
REVIEW
Holger Schäffler, Anne Breitrück
Clostridium difficile is the most frequent cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The incidence of C. difficile infection (CDI) has been rising worldwide with subsequent increases in morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Asymptomatic colonization with C. difficile is common and a high prevalence has been found in specific cohorts, e.g., hospitalized patients, adults in nursing homes and in infants. However, the risk of infection with C. difficile differs significantly between these cohorts...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692758/food-derived-hemorphins-cross-intestinal-and-blood-brain-barriers-in-vitro
#17
Dorothée Domenger, Benoit Cudennec, Mostafa Kouach, Véronique Touche, Christophe Landry, Jean Lesage, Fabien Gosselet, Sophie Lestavel, Jean-François Goossens, Pascal Dhulster, Rozenn Ravallec
A qualitative study is presented, where the main question was whether food-derived hemorphins, i.e., originating from digested alimentary hemoglobin, could pass the intestinal barrier and/or the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Once absorbed, hemorphins are opioid receptor (OR) ligands that may interact with peripheral and central OR and have effects on food intake and energy balance regulation. LLVV-YPWT (LLVV-H4), LVV-H4, VV-H4, VV-YPWTQRF (VV-H7), and VV-H7 hemorphins that were previously identified in the 120 min digest resulting from the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of hemoglobin have been synthesized to be tested in in vitro models of passage of IB and BBB...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692737/spexin-acts-as-novel-regulator-for-bile-acid-synthesis
#18
Cheng-Yuan Lin, Ling Zhao, Tao Huang, Lin Lu, Mahjabin Khan, Jie Liu, Linda L D Zhong, Zong-Wei Cai, Bao-Min Fan, Anderson O L Wong, Zhao-Xiang Bian
Spexin is a novel hormone involved in obesity and diabetes while its biofunctional significance in lipid metabolism is still to be comprehended. Global metabolomic analysis in the present study revealed multiple metabolic pathways altered by spexin intraperitoneal ( i.p .) injection in rat serum, which are highlighted by the changes in several bile acid metabolites. In rats, spexin (300 μg/kg) could dramatically reduce hepatic and circulating total bile acids (TBA) level compared with the controls. Correspondingly, treatment with spexin by i...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692685/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-processed-euphorbia-lathyris-l-for-reducing-the-intestinal-toxicity
#19
Yu Zhang, Yingzi Wang, Shaojing Li, Xiuting Zhang, Wenhua Li, Shengxiu Luo, Zhenyang Sun, Ruijie Nie
Background: Euphorbia lathyris L., a Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is commonly used for the treatment of hydropsy, ascites, constipation, amenorrhea, and scabies. Semen Euphorbiae Pulveratum, which is another type of Euphorbia lathyris that is commonly used in TCM practice and is obtained by removing the oil from the seed that is called paozhi, has been known to ease diarrhea. Whereas, the mechanisms of reducing intestinal toxicity have not been clearly investigated yet. Methods: In this study, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) in combination with the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic method was applied to investigate the effects of Euphorbia lathyris L...
2018: Proteome Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692663/uncommon-reasons-of-the-digestive-tract-related-paraneoplastic-syndromes-in-children-with-neuroblastic-tumors-three-case-reports
#20
Elżbieta Czkwianianc, Beata Zalewska-Szewczyk, Józef Kobos, Anna Socha-Banasiak, Szymon Janczar, Sylwia Prymus-Kasińska, Joanna Kazanek-Zasada, Wojciech Młynarski
Aim of the study: presentation of the uncommon paraneoplastic syndromes related to the gastrointestinal tract that may occur in children with neuroblastic tumors and their impact on the disease course. Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of three cases of patients mainly with digestive tract-related symptoms, who were originally admitted to the gastroenterology department from 2013 to 2016 and were finally diagnosed with neuroblastic tumors. Results: The clinical data analysis showed that the symptoms from gastrointestinal tract were dominant in analyzed subjects...
2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
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