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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244189/molecular-diagnosis-of-human-microsporidian-infections
#1
Martin F Heyworth
With the transformation of HIV infection from an acutely life-threatening disease into a chronic condition (as a consequence of the development of effective antiretroviral medication), the perceived clinical importance of diagnosing and treating microsporidian infections diminished, at least in industrialized countries. In locales where effective antiretroviral therapy is not available, as well as in patients with immunodeficiency for reasons other than HIV infection (e.g., following organ transplantation), and in individuals with suspected ocular microsporidiosis, diagnosing microsporidian infections remains a clinical priority...
December 13, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243786/spectrum-of-gastric-histopathologies-in-morbidly-obese-turkish-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy
#2
U Dogan, D Suren, M T Oruc, A A Gokay, B Mayir, T Cakir, A Aslaner, O Z Oner, N Bulbuller
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to describe the findings associated with gastric pathology and to identify the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Gastric specimens of a total of 291 patients (225 females, 66 males; mean age: 42 years; range: 18 to 60 years) who underwent LSG for the treatment of morbid obesity were analyzed. Histopathologic diagnoses and their relation with body mass index (BMI), age and gender were evaluated...
December 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243757/musa-paradisiaca-inflorescence-induces-human-colon-cancer-cell-death-by-modulating-cascades-of-transcriptional-events
#3
Arun K B, Aravind Madhavan, Reshmitha T R, Sithara Thomas, P Nisha
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death, and diet plays an important role in the etiology of CRC. Traditional medical practitioners in many South Asian countries use plantain inflorescence to treat various gastro-intestinal ailments. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects of extracts of inflorescence of Musa paradisiaca against HT29 human colon cancer cells and elucidate the mechanism of these effects by studying the modulation of cascades of transcriptional events...
December 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243747/aggregates-of-octenylsuccinate-oat-%C3%AE-glucan-as-novel-capsules-to-stabilize-curcumin-over-food-processing-storage-and-digestive-fluids-and-to-enhance-its-bioavailability
#4
J Liu, L Lei, F Ye, Y Zhou, Heba G R Younis, G Zhao
Self-aggregates of octenylsuccinate oat β-glucan (AOSG) have been verified as nanocapsules to load curcumin, a representative of hydrophobic phytochemicals. This study primarily investigated the stability of curcumin-loaded AOSGs over food processing, storage and digestive fluids. Curcumin in AOSGs showed better stability over storage and thermal treatment than its free form. Curcumin loaded in AOSGs stored at 4 °C in the dark exhibited higher stability than that at higher temperatures or exposed to light...
December 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243419/-advances-of-mechanism-research-on-procyanidin-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
REVIEW
Xue-Ping Wang, Yi-Ming Li, Zhao Wang, Qi Jia, Kai-Xian Chen
Diabetes mellitus, a chronic disease, is characterized by high blood glucose that could induce various complications. Procyanidin, a kind of polyphenol compounds existing in many plants, have shown to be effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus as they may lower blood glucose, moderate insulin resistance and protect islet β cells. This review focused on the research advances on the preventive and therapeutic application of procyanidin in promoting glucose absorption, protecting islet β cells, modulating intestinal microbiota and regulating diabetic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which should provide useful reference for subsequent studies...
October 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243237/beak-and-feather-disease-virus-carriage-by-knemidocoptes-pilae-in-a-sulphur-crested-cockatoo-cacatua-galerita
#6
T Portas, B Jackson, S Das, S Shamsi, S R Raidal
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the pathology associated with psittacine beak and feather disease in a wild sulphur-crested cockatoo with concurrent knemidocoptic mange, cestodiasis and mycotic encephalitis. METHODS & RESULTS: Large numbers of Knemidocoptes pilae Lavoipierre and Griffiths, 1951 (Acari: Epidermoptidae, Knemidokoptinae) were identified in affected skin associated with enhanced expression of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) determined by immunohistochemistry...
December 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243124/gut-microbiome-a-new-player-in-gastrointestinal-disease
#7
Gregor Gorkiewicz, Alexander Moschen
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a diverse and host-specific gut microbial community. Whereas host-microbe interactions are based on homeostasis and mutualism, the microbiome also contributes to disease development. In this review, we summarize recent findings connecting the GI microbiome with GI disease. Starting with a description of biochemical factors shaping microbial compositions in each gut segment along the longitudinal axis, improved histological techniques enabling high resolution visualization of the spatial microbiome structure are highlighted...
December 14, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243063/molecular-characterization-of-the-spike-gene-of-the-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-in-mexico-2013-2016
#8
Rocío Lara-Romero, Luis Gómez-Núñez, José Luis Cerriteño-Sánchez, Laura Márquez-Valdelamar, Susana Mendoza-Elvira, Humberto Ramírez-Mendoza, José Francisco Rivera-Benítez
In Mexico, the first outbreaks suggestive of the circulation of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) were identified at the beginning of July 2013. To identify the molecular characteristics of the PEDV Spike (S) gene in Mexico, 116 samples of the intestine and diarrhea of piglets with clinical signs of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) were obtained. Samples were collected from 14 farms located in six states of Mexico (Jalisco, Puebla, Sonora, Veracruz, Guanajuato, and Michoacán) from 2013 to 2016. To identify PEDV, we used real-time RT-PCR to discriminate between non-INDEL and INDEL strains...
December 14, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243034/application-of-pyridostigmine-in-pediatric-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders-a-case-series
#9
Mhd Louai Manini, Michael Camilleri, Rayna Grothe, Carlo Di Lorenzo
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are common in children. Treatment is challenging with limited medical and surgical options. Pyridostigmine, an acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor, increases acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction promoting intestinal contractions. Little is known about the role and dosing of pyridostigmine in pediatric GI motility disorders. METHODS: We present a case series of children with GI dysmotility managed with oral pyridostigmine...
December 14, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242837/the-human-gut-microbial-metabolome-modulates-fungal-growth-via-the-tor-signaling-pathway
#10
Carlos García, Faiza Tebbji, Michelle Daigneault, Ning-Ning Liu, Julia R Köhler, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Adnane Sellam
Candida albicans is well known as a major human fungal pathogen, but it is also a permanent resident of healthy gastrointestinal tracts. Recent studies have shown that the human gut microbial metabolome represents an interesting source of bioactive molecules with a significant degree of chemical diversity. Some of these bioactive molecules may have useful antivirulence activities. For instance, intestinal bacterial species belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family were found to secrete molecules that attenuate Salmonella pathogenicity and repress the expression of virulence genes...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242832/persistence-of-supplemented-bifidobacterium-longum-subsp-infantis-evc001-in-breastfed-infants
#11
Steven A Frese, Andra A Hutton, Lindsey N Contreras, Claire A Shaw, Michelle C Palumbo, Giorgio Casaburi, Gege Xu, Jasmine C C Davis, Carlito B Lebrilla, Bethany M Henrick, Samara L Freeman, Daniela Barile, J Bruce German, David A Mills, Jennifer T Smilowitz, Mark A Underwood
Attempts to alter intestinal dysbiosis via administration of probiotics have consistently shown that colonization with the administered microbes is transient. This study sought to determine whether provision of an initial course of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) would lead to persistent colonization of the probiotic organism in breastfed infants. Mothers intending to breastfeed were recruited and provided with lactation support. One group of mothers fed B. infantis EVC001 to their infants from day 7 to day 28 of life (n = 34), and the second group did not administer any probiotic (n = 32)...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242809/effect-of-levodopa-carbidopa-intestinal-gel-on-non-motor-symptoms-in-patients-with-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#12
David G Standaert, Ramon L Rodriguez, John T Slevin, Michael Lobatz, Susan Eaton, Krai Chatamra, Maurizio F Facheris, Coleen Hall, Kavita Sail, Yash J Jalundhwala, Janet Benesh
Background: Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG; carbidopa-levodopa enteral suspension in the United States), delivered via percutaneous gastrojejunostomy (PEG-J) and titrated in the inpatient setting, is an established treatment option for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with motor fluctuations. However, long-term prospective data on the efficacy of LCIG on non-motor symptoms and the safety of outpatient titration are limited. Methods: In this 60-week, open-label phase 3b study, LCIG titration was initiated in an outpatient setting following PEG-J placement in PD patients...
November 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242771/sentinels-at-the-frontline-the-role-of-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
Madeleine D Hu, Karen L Edelblum
Purpose of review: Intestinal mucosal immunity is tightly regulated to ensure effective host defense against invasive microorganisms while limiting the potential for aberrant damage. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an imbalance between effector and regulatory T cell populations results in an uncontrolled inflammatory response to commensal bacteria. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) are perfectly positioned within the intestinal epithelium to provide the first line of mucosal defense against luminal microbes or rapidly respond to epithelial injury...
December 2017: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242764/diversity-of-intestinal-bacterial-lactase-gene-in-antibiotics-induced-diarrhea-mice-treated-with-chinese-herbs-compound-qi-wei-bai-zhu-san
#14
Lu He, Yawei Liu, Yanfang Guo, Kejia Shen, Huaying Hui, Zhoujin Tan
The current investigation is trying to study the impact of the mixture of Chinese herbs Qi Wei Bai Zhu San (QWBZS) on bacterial lactase gene from antibiotics-induced diarrhea (AAD) mice, as the good curative effect of QWBZS on diarrhea. Mice (6 mice per group) were randomly selected as control, model and treatment groups. To induce diarrhea, mice in both model and treatment groups were intragastrically injected with mixture of gentamycin sulfate and cefradine (23.33 mL kg-1 day-1) twice per day and continuously for totally 5 days...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242716/dietary-broccoli-impacts-microbial-community-structure-and-attenuates-chemically-induced-colitis-in-mice-in-an-ah-receptor-dependent-manner
#15
Troy D Hubbard, Iain A Murray, Robert G Nichols, Kaitlyn Cassel, Michael Podolsky, Guray Kuzu, Yuan Tian, Phillip Smith, Mary J Kennett, Andrew D Patterson, Gary H Perdew
Consumption of broccoli mediates numerous chemo-protective benefits through the intake of phytochemicals, some of which modulate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activity. Whether AHR activation is a critical aspect of the therapeutic potential of dietary broccoli is not known. Here we administered isocaloric diets, with or without supplementation of whole broccoli (15% w/w), to congenic mice expressing the high-affinity Ahrb/b or low-affinity Ahrd/d alleles, for 24 days and examined the effects on AHR activity, intestinal microbial community structure, inflammatory status, and response to chemically induced colitis...
October 2017: Journal of Functional Foods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242547/decoding-the-intestinal-epithelium-cell-by-cell
#16
Yujung Michelle Lee, Janelle S Ayres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242507/investigation-of-bioaccessibility-of-cu-fe-mn-and-zn-in-market-vegetables-in-the-colon-using-pbet-combined-with-shime
#17
Naiyi Yin, Xiaolin Cai, Xiaochen Chen, Huili Du, Jiayan Xu, Lihong Wang, Guoxin Sun, Yanshan Cui
The in vitro bioaccessibility of trace metals associated with oral ingestion of market vegetables (lettuce, pak choi, cole, and leaf lettuce) of Beijing, China was studied. The physiologically based extraction test (PBET) combined with the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME) was applied to simulate stomach, small intestine, and colon of human. In the gastro-intestinal phases, the bioaccessibility of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn varied within 5.7-75.5%, 17.3-50.4%, 13.3-49.1%, and 19.9-63.7%, respectively...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242276/oral-sodium-butyrate-impacts-brain-metabolism-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-with-limited-effects-on-gut-anatomy-and-function-in-pigs
#18
David Val-Laillet, Sylvie Guérin, Nicolas Coquery, Isabelle Nogret, Michèle Formal, Véronique Romé, Laurence Le Normand, Paul Meurice, Gwénaëlle Randuineau, Paul Guilloteau, Charles-Henri Malbert, Patricia Parnet, Jean-Paul Lallès, Jean-Pierre Segain
Butyrate can improve gut functions, whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors might alleviate neurocognitive alterations. Our aim was to assess whether oral butyrate could modulate brain metabolism and plasticity and if this would relate to gut function. Sixteen pigs were subjected to sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation via beverage water or water only [control (C)]. All pigs had blood sampled after 2 and 3 wk of treatment, and were subjected to a brain positron emission tomography after 3 wk. Animals were euthanized after 4 wk to sample pancreas, intestine, and brain for gut physiology and anatomy measurements, as well as hippocampal histology, Ki67, and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry...
December 14, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242225/first-report-of-a-whole-genome-shotgun-sequence-of-a-clinical-enterococcus-faecalis-sequence-type-6-strain-from-south-africa
#19
Nontombi Marylucy Mbelle, Nontuthuko Excellent Maningi, Vhudzani Tshisevhe, Lesedi Modipane, Daniel Gyamfi Amoako, John Osei Sekyere
Enterococcus faecalis is a lactic acid-producing Gram-positive bacterium commonly found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals; it is implicated in multidrug-resistant nosocomial infections. The draft genome of this E. faecalis sequence type 6 (ST6) strain consists of 3,215,228 bp, with 37.20% GC content, 3,048 predicted coding sequences, and 61 RNA genes.
December 14, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242199/organ-specific-lymphatic-vasculature-from-development-to-pathophysiology
#20
REVIEW
Tatiana V Petrova, Gou Young Koh
Recent discoveries of novel functions and diverse origins of lymphatic vessels have drastically changed our view of lymphatic vasculature. Traditionally regarded as passive conduits for fluid and immune cells, lymphatic vessels now emerge as active, tissue-specific players in major physiological and pathophysiological processes. Lymphatic vessels show remarkable plasticity and heterogeneity, reflecting their functional specialization to control the tissue microenvironment. Moreover, alternative developmental origins of lymphatic endothelial cells in some organs may contribute to the diversity of their functions in adult tissues...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
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