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Shoko Ono, Satoshi Abiko, Mototsugu Kato
Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a high risk for intestinal type gastric cancer; however, there is a limitation for detection of GIM using white light imaging (WLI). Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) is more advantageous than WLI for optical diagnosis of GIM (1). Linked color imaging (LCI) (FUJIFILM Co., Tokyo, Japan) was newly developed for advanced IEE and enables visualization of red lesions that appear redder and whitish red lesions that appear whiter during routine endoscopy (2). GIM is observed as a lavender color that is distinguishable from the circumferential mucosa without GIM by using LCI (Figure 1)...
October 22, 2016: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
T Koiava, D Gonçalves, J Palmeira, K Arobelidze, M Tediashvili, L Akhvlediani, H Ferreira
Research describing the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant microbes is vital to the proactive development of new antimicrobial agents. In the last years, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have emerged worldwide and have replaced classical TEM and SHV-type ESBLs in many countries. CTX-M-15 is currently the most frequent, with a pandemic distribution, and its rapid spread is facilitated by incorporation of resistance genes in mobile genetic elements. The ESBL is efficacious in Gram-negative bacteria and thus closely associated with nosocomial environments, often colonizing the intestines, particularly in older and dependent patients...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Danielle E Jenkins, Dharshini Sreenivasan, Fiona Carman, Samal Babru, Lee E Eiden, Stephen J Bunn
The pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β/α modulate catecholamine secretion, and long-term gene regulation, in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Since interleukin-6 (IL6) also plays a key integrative role during inflammation, we have examined its ability to affect both tyrosine hydroxylase activity and adrenomedullary gene transcription in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. IL6 caused acute tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and serine/tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Fuqin Zou, Dong Zeng, Bin Wen, Hao Sun, Yi Zhou, Mingyue Yang, Zhirong Peng, Shuai Xu, Hesong Wang, Xiangchao Fu, Dan Du, Yan Zeng, Hui Zhu, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing, Ping Wang, Xueqin Ni
Antibiotics have been widely used for the prevention and the treatment of diseases to humans and animals, and they have fed additives for agricultural animals to promote growth. However, there is a growing concern over the practice due to its side effects on intestinal microbial communities which plays a vital role in animals' health. To investigate the effect of antibiotics on the bacterial population of the caecum in rex rabbits, 80 rex rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: control group (B, basal diet), chlortetracycline group (C, 50 mg/kg), colistin sulfate group (S, 20 mg/kg) and zinc bacitracin group (Z, 40 mg/kg)...
December 2016: AMB Express
Bronwen J Mayo, Andrea M Stringer, Joanne M Bowen, Emma H Bateman, Dorothy M Keefe
PURPOSE: A common side effect of irinotecan administration is gastrointestinal mucositis, often manifesting as severe diarrhoea. The damage to the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract caused by this cytotoxic agent is debilitating and often leads to alterations in patients' regimens, hospitalisation or stoppage of treatment. The purpose of this review is to identify mechanisms of irinotecan-induced intestinal damage and a potential role for GLP-2 analogues for intervention...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Xiaodan Luo, Lihua Xu, Yangqiu Li, Huo Tan
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) induced by host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and donor-derived T cells remains the major limitation of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell-cell communication that is important in T cell development. Recently, Notch signaling pathway is reported to be involved in regulating GVHD. To investigate the role of Notch inhibition in modulating GVHD, we established MHC-mismatched murine allo-BMT model. We found that inhibition of Notch signaling pathway by γ-secretase inhibitor in vivo could reduce aGVHD, which was shown by the onset time of aGVHD, body weight, clinical aGVHD scores, pathology aGVHD scores, and survival...
October 21, 2016: Cell Biology and Toxicology
Hongqin Song, Dandan Liu, Jinjun Xu, Lili Wu, Yabin Dai, Mei Liu, Jianping Tao
Twenty-one, 25-day-old, artificially reared, coccidia-free goslings (Anser cygnoides var. domestica) were inoculated orally with 0.5 × 10(4), 1 × 10(4), or 100 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria anseris and sacrificed at intervals from 24 to 216 h post-inoculation (HPI). Nine uninfected goslings served as negative controls. Parts of the visceral organs from goslings, including the intestines, kidneys, and liver, were fixed, sectioned, and observed microscopically. The results revealed that two generations of meronts occurred in the life cycle of E...
October 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
Margaret L Ong, Isabell B Purdy, Orly L Levit, Daniel T Robinson, Tristan Grogan, Martiniano Flores, Kara L Calkins
BACKGROUND: In some studies, the dose of intravenous soybean oil (SO) has been associated with a decreased incidence of intestinal failure-associated liver disease. The effect of lipid sparing on neurodevelopment (ND) and growth remains unknown. This study investigated the impact of SO dose on ND and growth over the first 2 years of age in preterm neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single-site prospective follow-up study. Neonates with a gestational age ≤29 weeks were randomized to low-dose (LOW) or standard-dose (CON) SO...
October 21, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Jinke Xu, Mifong Tam, Sepideh Samadei, Sophie Lerouge, Jake Barralet, Mary M Stevenson, Marta Cerruti
Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems stick to mucosal tissues and prolong the local retention time of drugs. Since the colon is covered by a mucosal layer, mucoadhesive rectal formulations may improve treatment of such diseases as hypertension or colon cancer. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. It is commonly treated with sulfasalazine (SSZ), which is metabolized by the intestinal flora into the therapeutic 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and a toxic by-product sulfapyridine (SP)...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
R Balfour Sartor, Gary D Wu
Intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. We review the mechanisms by which these gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses mediate mucosal homeostasis, via their composite genes (metagenome) and metabolic products (metabolome). We explain how alterations to their profiles and functions under conditions of dysbiosis contribute to inflammation and effector immune responses that mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans and enterocolitis in mice...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
A Aounallah, N Ghariani Fetoui, N Ghariani, M Korbi, S Mokni, L Boussofara, W Saidi, M Ksiaa, I Ben Jazia, M Guerfala, B Sriha, C Belajouza, M Denguezli, R Nouira
BACKGROUND: Thrombotic cutaneous gangrene is a rare extra-intestinal manifestation of ulcerative colitis with a severe prognosis. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old woman with a 7-year history of ulcerative colitis presented with extensive ecchymotic lesions that began a few hours earlier. On examination, she was febrile with multiple necrotic lesions. Skin biopsy showed multiple microthrombi in the dermal vessels. A diagnosis of thrombotic cutaneous gangrene was established...
October 18, 2016: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Pierre Dehoux, Jean Christophe Marvaud, Amr Abouelleil, Ashlee M Earl, Thierry Lambert, Catherine Dauga
BACKGROUND: Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme, previously included in the complex C. clostridioforme in the group Clostridium XIVa, remain difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. These bacteria, prevailing in the human intestinal microbiota, are opportunistic pathogens with various drug susceptibility patterns. In order to better characterize the two species and to obtain information on their antibiotic resistance genes, we analyzed the genomes of six strains of C...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Julia M Fraile, Diana Campos-Iglesias, Francisco Rodríguez, Yaiza Español, José M P Freije
Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases (USPs) are deubiquitinating enzymes frequently deregulated in human malignancies. Here, we show that USP54 is overexpressed in intestinal stem cells and demonstrate that its downregulation in colorectal carcinoma cells impedes tumorigenesis. We have generated mutant mice deficient for this deubiquitinase, which are viable and fertile, and protected against chemically-induced colorectal carcinoma. Furthermore, we show that USP54 is upregulated in human colon cancer and associates with poor prognosis...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Amal A Sultan, Sanaa A El-Gizawy, Mohamed A Osman, Gamal M El Maghraby
Mixed micelles provide promising strategy for enhancing dissolution and permeability of drugs. However, their fluid nature limited the stability of the loaded drug and hindered the development of stable oral dosage form. Accordingly, the objective was to develop solid self dispersing mixed micelle forming systems (MMFS) for enhanced dissolution and intestinal permeability of hydrochlorothiazide. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using sodium cholate, lecithin with either poloxamer 407 or PEG 4000 to determine the composition of MMFS...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Lanfang Tian, Siyuan Chen, Haiyan Liu, Mingzhang Guo, Wentao Xu, Xiaoyun He, Yunbo Luo, Xiaozhe Qi, Hongxia Luo, Kunlun Huang
Hepcidin, one kind of antimicrobial peptides, is one of the promising alternatives to antibiotics with broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Hepcidins cloned from different kinds of fishes have been produced using exogenous expression systems, and their in vitro antimicrobial effects have been verified. However their in vivo effects on gut microbiota and gut health of hosts remain unclear. Here we performed a safety study of hepcidin so that it can be used to reduce microbial contaminations in the food and feed...
2016: PloS One
Yong-Sik Bong, Shahin Assefnia, Therese Tuohy, Deborah W Neklason, Randall W Burt, Jaeil Ahn, Hao-Wen J Jiang, Stephen W Byers
Vitamin D is implicated in the etiology of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, usually characterized by alteration in the APC/β-catenin/TCF tumor suppressor pathway. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is also implicated in cardiovascular and skin diseases as well as in immunity. Activated VDR can indirectly alter β-catenin nuclear localization and directly suppress β-catenin/TCF mediated transcriptional activity. We treated VDR null mice with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) and generated mice bearing a mutated APC (hypomorph) on a VDR null background (Apc1638N/+Vdr-/-)...
October 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Dana T Anton-Pǎduraru, Amalia M Bontea, Ioana Cernescu, Smaranda Diaconescu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Norbert Nemeth, Katalin Peto, Adam Deak, Viktoria Sogor, Gabor Varga, Bence Tanczos, Klaudia Balog, Adrienn Csiszko, Zoltan Godo, Zsolt Szentkereszty
BACKGROUND: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a life-threatening condition, of which pathomechanism hasn't been completely clarified, yet. Furthermore, surgical therapy still needs optimization. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate microcirculatory and micro-rheological alterations in ACS, using various temporary abdominal closure methods, including three settings of vacuum-assisted closure technique (negative pressure wound therapy, NPWT). METHODS: On anesthetized pigs, by intraabdominally placed and filled-up silicone bags, intraabdominal pressure at 30 mmHg was maintained for 3 hours, and afterwards, decompressive laparotomy happened...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Sarah Wills, Hugues Beaufrère, Gwyneth Watrous, Michelle L Oblak, Dale A Smith
CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Eric Banan-Mwine Daliri, Shuai Wei, Deog H Oh, Byong H Lee
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract has co-developed with a large number of microbes in a symbiotic relationship over millions of years. Recent studies indicate that indigenous bacteria are intimate with the intestine and play essential roles in health and disease. In the quest to maintain a stable niche, these prokaryotes influence multiple host metabolic pathways, resulting from an interactive host-microbiota metabolic signaling and impacting strongly on the metabolic phenotypes of the host. Since dysbiosis of the gut bacteria result in alteration in the levels of certain microbial and host co-metabolites, identifying these markers could enhance early detection of diseases...
October 21, 2016: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
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