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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458168/apoptosis-of-enterocytes-and-nitration-of-junctional-complex-proteins-promote-alcohol-induced-gut-leakiness-and-liver-injury
#1
Young-Eun Cho, Li-Rong Yu, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Seong-Ho Yoo, Byoung-Joon Song
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Binge alcohol causes gut leakiness, contributing to increased endotoxemia and inflammatory liver injury, although the molecular mechanisms are still elusive. This study was aimed at investigating the roles of apoptosis of enterocytes and nitration followed by degradation of intestinal tight junction (TJ) and adherent junction (AJ) proteins in binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness. METHODS: The levels of intestinal (ileum) junctional complex proteins, oxidative stress markers and apoptosis-related proteins in rodents, T84 colonic cells and autopsied human ileums were determined by immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and mass-spectral analyses...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458157/clostridium-innocuum-is-a-vancomycin-resistant-pathogen-that-may-cause-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea
#2
Ju-Hsin Chia, Ting-Shu Wu, Tsu-Lan Wu, Chyi-Liang Chen, Chih-Hsien Chuang, Lin-Hui Su, Hong-Jyun Chang, Chia-Chen Lu, An-Jing Kuo, Hsin-Chih Lai, Cheng-Hsun Chiu
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium innocuum can cause extra-intestinal infection in patients with underlying diseases. The role of C. innocuum in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) remains unknown. METHODS: Clinical information of 103 patients in which C. innocuum was isolated from was reviewed. We carried out cellular and animal experiments to examine the pathogenic potential of C. innocuum in AAD. RESULTS: Eighty-eight percent (91/103) of the 103 patients received antibiotics within 2 weeks of diarrhea onset...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458079/autofluorescence-a-potential-pitfall-in-immunofluorescence-based-inflammation-grading
#3
Jonas Wizenty, Muhammad Imtiaz Ashraf, Nadine Rohwer, Martin Stockmann, Sascha Weiss, Matthias Biebl, Johann Pratschke, Felix Aigner, Tilo Wuensch
Immunofluorescence (IF) staining of paraffin-embedded tissues is a frequently used method to answer research questions or even detect the abundance of a certain protein for diagnostic use. However, the signal originating from specific antibody-staining might be distorted by autofluorescence (AF) of the assessed tissue. Although the AF phenomenon is well known, its presence is often neglected by insufficient staining controls. In this study, we describe the existence of cellular AF in paraffin-embedded healthy and inflamed human and murine colonic tissues and present ways to reduce AF...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458051/elevated-systemic-zonula-occludens-1-is-positively-correlated-with-inflammation-in-cirrhosis
#4
Ashwini Karthikeyan, Pazhanivel Mohan, Palanivel Chinnakali, Balasubramaniyan Vairappan
BACKGROUND/AIM: It has been well established that disruption of the intestinal barrier function and increased intestinal permeability contribute to endotoxemia and associated liver injury in patients with cirrhosis. However, the relationship between systemic inflammation and tight junction protein in cirrhosis remain unidentified. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the blood concentrations of ZO-1 with systemic hsCRP in patients with cirrhosis and healthy individuals. METHODS: 30 cirrhotic patients and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study...
February 16, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458010/galectin-9-is-critical-for-mucosal-adaptive-immunity-through-the-t-h-17-iga-axis
#5
Chih-Chia Liang, Chi-Shan Li, I-Chun Weng, Huan-Yuan Chen, Hsueh-Han Lu, Chiu-Ching Huang, Fu-Tong Liu
Impairment of the intestinal mucosal immunity significantly increases the risk of acute and chronic diseases. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a major role in humoral mucosal immunity to provide protection against pathogens and toxins in the gut. Here, we investigated the role of endogenous galectin-9, a tandem repeat-type β-galactoside-binding protein, in intestinal mucosal immunity. By mucosal immunization of Lgals9-/- and littermate control mice, it was found that lack of galectin-9 impaired mucosal antigen-specific IgA response in the gut...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457962/genotype-identification-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-enterocytozoon-bieneusi-isolates-from-stool-samples-of-diarrheic-children
#6
Songtao Ding, Wei Huang, Qizhong Qin, Jun Tang, Handeng Liu
Among approximately 14 human-pathogenic microsporidian species, Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common. It can inhabit the small intestines, causing chronic diarrhea and wasting syndrome. Until now, determining prevalence and the corresponding genotypes of E. bieneusi in humans have been performed only in a few provinces of China. Herein, 93 fecal specimens were collected from diarrheic children in Chongqing. By PCR and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the E. bieneusi rDNA sequence, we found 11 (11...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457917/clinical-characteristics-and-long-term-prognosis-of-elderly-onset-crohn-s-disease
#7
Eun Mi Song, Nayoung Kim, Sun-Ho Lee, Kiju Chang, Sung Wook Hwang, Sang Hyoung Park, Dong-Hoon Yang, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Seung-Jae Myung, Suk-Kyun Yang, Byong Duk Ye
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and clinical course of Asian elderly-onset Crohn's disease (EOCD) patients in a large well-defined cohort of South Korean IBD patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the Asan inflammatory bowel disease registry, we identified 29 EOCD patients (diagnosed with CD in age of 60 years or over) out of 2989 CD patients (1.0%). After excluding two patients with unclear data, 27 EOCD were matched with 108 young-onset CD (YOCD) and 108 middle age-onset CD (MOCD) for the interval from symptom onset to diagnosis (±3 years) and follow-up duration (±3 years)...
February 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457876/pharmacokinetics-of-metformin-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-intolerance
#8
L McCreight, T B Stage, P Connelly, M Lonergan, F Nielsen, C Prehn, J Adamski, K Brosen, E R Pearson
AIMS: Metformin intolerance symptoms are gastrointestinal in nature, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess potential causes of metformin intolerance including: altered metformin uptake from the intestine; increased anaerobic glucose utilisation and subsequent lactate production; altered serotonin uptake; and altered bile acid pool. METHODS: This pharmacokinetic study recruited ten severely intolerant and ten tolerant individuals matched for age, sex and BMI...
February 19, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457848/effects-of-chronic-heat-exposure-on-growth-performance-intestinal-epithelial-histology-appetite-related-hormones-and-genes-expression-in-broilers
#9
Xiaofang He, Zhuang Lu, Bingbing Ma, Lin Zhang, Jiaolong Li, Yun Jiang, Guanghong Zhou, Feng Gao
BACKGROUND: Heat stress often occurs in the modern poultry industry, which impairs growth performance, particularly via reducing appetite. This study was aimed to investigate the mechanism of attenuating appetite by chronic heat exposure in broilers. A total of 144 broilers (28-d-old) were allocated to three groups containing normal control (NC, 22°C), heat stress (HS, 32°C), and pair-fed (PF, 22°C) group. RESULTS: Chronic heat exposure significantly increased cloacal temperatures and respiration rates, decreased the average daily feed intake and average daily gain, increased feed to gain ratio compared to NC group, and elevated the concentrations of ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) both in serum and intestine, as well as peptide YY and somatostatin in intestine on 35-or 42-d-old broilers...
February 19, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457839/brincidofovir-as-salvage-therapy-for-adenovirus-disease-in-intestinal-transplant-recipients
#10
Nimisha Sulejmani, Shunji Nagai, Mohamed Safwan, Michael D Rizzari, Mohammad Raoufi, Marwan S Abouljoud, Mayur Ramesh
Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that typically cause mild self-limiting respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal infections. In immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipients, the infection can be severe, with dissemination and multiorgan failure. In intestinal transplant recipients, the incidence is as high as 57%. To our knowledge, no standardized guidelines or United States Food and Drug Administration-approved medications exist for the treatment of adenovirus disease. We describe two isolated intestinal transplant recipients who developed adenovirus disease (viremia with viral enteritis) that was managed with a new experimental drug, brincidofovir (an oral lipid conjugate prodrug of cidofovir), as salvage therapy...
February 19, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457784/hiv-latency-is-reversed-by-acss2-driven-histone-crotonylation
#11
Guochun Jiang, Don Nguyen, Nancie M Archin, Steven A Yukl, Gema Méndez-Lagares, Yuyang Tang, Maher M Elsheikh, George R Thompson, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor, David M Margolis, Joseph K Wong, Satya Dandekar
Eradication of HIV-1 (HIV) is hindered by stable viral reservoirs. Viral latency is epigenetically regulated. While the effects of histone acetylation and methylation at the HIV long-terminal repeat (LTR) have been described, our knowledge of the proviral epigenetic landscape is incomplete. We report that a previously unrecognized epigenetic modification of the HIV LTR, histone crotonylation, is a regulator of HIV latency. Reactivation of latent HIV was achieved following the induction of histone crotonylation through increased expression of the crotonyl-CoA-producing enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457572/early-effects-on-the-intestinal-barrier-and-pancreatic-function-after-enteral-stimulation-with-protease-or-kidney-bean-lectin-in-neonatal-rats
#12
Ester Arévalo Sureda, Olena Prykhodko, Björn Weström
Gut maturation naturally accelerates at weaning in altricial mammalian species, such as the rat. Mimicking this, gut development can also be induced precociously, 3-4 d earlier than it would occur naturally, by enteral exposure to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or various proteases. We investigated the early effects of gut provocation on intestinal barrier and pancreatic functions, to get a better understanding of the mechanisms that initiate gut maturation. The effects of oral administration of protease (trypsin) or PHA to 14-d-old suckling rats were studied during 24 h in comparison with water-fed controls...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457309/severe-intestinal-malabsorption-associated-with-ace-inhibitor-or-angiotensin-receptor-blocker-treatment-an-observational-cohort-study-in-germany-and-italy
#13
Peter Malfertheiner, Claudio Ripellino, Nazarena Cataldo
PURPOSE: The angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan has been recently associated with sprue-like enteropathy (SLE), a gastrointestinal condition characterized by intestinal malabsorption (IM) and severe diarrhea. Whether the increased risk of SLE is substance-specific or a class effect involving all ARBs is uncertain. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of enteropathy associated with ARBs and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-i) by using data from large administrative and claim databases...
February 19, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457049/intestinal-obstruction-of-uncommon-cause-and-point-of-care-ultrasonography-where-do-we-stand
#14
Tiago Capela, Paula Sousa, Ana Caldeira, Eduardo Pereira
Malignant neoplasms of the small bowel, especially from the jejunum, are among the rarest types of cancer. Given its location, a delayed diagnosis is frequent and sometimes only made in an emergency context. The authors present a case of intestinal obstruction, where ultrasonography was pivotal in establishing a diagnosis. Point-of-care ultrasonography seems to be particularly sensitive in assessing emergency patients with abdominal pain, allowing effective orientation and saving human and technical resources...
January 2018: GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457048/farnesoid-x-receptor-expression-in-microscopic-colitis-a-potential-role-in-disease-etiopathogenesis
#15
Joana Torres, Carolina Palmela, Pedro Gomes de Sena, Maria Pia Costa Santos, Catarina Gouveia, Maria Helena Oliveira, Ana Raquel Henriques, Cecília Rodrigues, Marília Cravo, Paula Borralho
Introduction: Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unclear etiology. Bile acid (BA) malabsorption has been described in MC patients. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is the main BA receptor; FXR-mediated mechanisms prevent the noxious effects of BA accumulation, preserving the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier and preventing intestinal inflammation. Aim: Our aim was to describe the expression of FXR in patients with MC. Methods: Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from the terminal ileum, right and left colon were obtained from patients with MC and matched controls...
January 2018: GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457041/how-to-catch-a-smurf-ageing-and-beyond%C3%A2-in-vivo-assessment-of-intestinal-permeability-in-multiple-model-organisms
#16
Raquel R Martins, Andrew W McCracken, Mirre J P Simons, Catarina M Henriques, Michael Rera
The Smurf Assay (SA) was initially developed in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster where a dramatic increase of intestinal permeability has been shown to occur during aging (Rera et al. , 2011). We have since validated the protocol in multiple other model organisms (Dambroise et al. , 2016) and have utilized the assay to further our understanding of aging (Tricoire and Rera, 2015; Rera et al. , 2018). The SA has now also been used by other labs to assess intestinal barrier permeability (Clark et al...
February 5, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456888/an-observational-study-on-risk-of-secondary-cancers-in-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-patients-in-the-tki-era-in-the-united-states
#17
Vivek Kumar, Mohit Garg, Neha Chaudhary, Abhinav Binod Chandra
Introduction: The treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has drastically improved the outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. This study was conducted to examine the risk of secondary cancers (SCs) in the CML patients who were diagnosed and treated in the TKI era in the United States. Methods: The surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER) database was used to identify CML patients who were diagnosed and received treatment during January 2002-December 2014...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456533/non-hematopoietic-mlkl-protects-against-salmonella-mucosal-infection-by-enhancing-inflammasome-activation
#18
Shui-Xing Yu, Wei Chen, Zhen-Zhen Liu, Feng-Hua Zhou, Shi-Qing Yan, Gui-Qiu Hu, Xiao-Xia Qin, Jie Zhang, Ke Ma, Chong-Tao Du, Jing-Min Gu, Xu-Ming Deng, Wen-Yu Han, Yong-Jun Yang
The intestinal mucosal barrier is critical for host defense against pathogens infection. Here, we demonstrate that the mixed lineage kinase-like protein (MLKL), a necroptosis effector, promotes intestinal epithelial barrier function by enhancing inflammasome activation. MLKL-/- mice were more susceptible to Salmonella infection compared with wild-type counterparts, with higher mortality rates, increased body weight loss, exacerbated intestinal inflammation, more bacterial colonization, and severe epithelial barrier disruption...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456409/recombinant-expressed-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-analogue-ameliorates-tnbs-induced-colitis-in-rats
#19
Chun-Lan Xu, Yu Guo, Lei Qiao, Li Ma, Yi-Yi Cheng
AIM: To investigate the modulatory effect of recombinant-expressed vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) analogue (rVIPa) on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. METHODS: Forty-eight rats were randomized into six groups: normal control group (Control), model control group (TNBS), ethanol treatment group (ETOH), and VIP treatment groups with different dosage (rVIPa1nmol , rVIPa2nmol , rVIPa4nmol ). Diarrhea and bloody stool were observed. Colonic damage was evaluated histologically...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456308/gingival-enlargement-unveiling-crohn-s-disease-a-report-of-a-rarefied-case
#20
Krishnamurthi Malathi, Arunachalam Muthukumaraswamy, MariaAntony PremBlaisie Rajula, Singh Arjun
This article highlights a peculiar case of Crohn's disease (CD) with the primary presenting symptom as localized gingival overgrowth in the anterior region of maxilla. The patient underwent surgical treatment with external bevel gingivectomy procedure. Follow-up after 6 months revealed no recurrence. A final diagnosis of CD was made, after following histopathological evaluation of the gingival biopsy and other special investigations. It is thus crucial to associate the localized granulomatous gingival overgrowth to systemic signs of CD...
July 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
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