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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131976/purification-of-eutrophic-water-containing-chlorpyrifos-by-aquatic-plants-and-its-effects-on-planktonic-bacteria
#1
Xing-Jian Xu, Guo-Li Lai, Chang-Qiao Chi, Jie-Yu Zhao, Ying-Chun Yan, Yong Nie, Xiao-Lei Wu
In this study, the removal of nutrients and chlorpyrifos as well as shifts of planktonic bacterial communities in constructed microcosms were investigated to evaluate the influence of Phragmites australis, Nymphaea alba, and Myriophyllum verticillatum, and their combination, on the restoration of eutrophic water containing chlorpyrifos. Plant-treated groups showed a higher pollutant removal rate than did no-remediation controls, indicating that treatment with plants is effective at remediation of eutrophic water containing chlorpyrifos...
October 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124413/assessment-of-bacterial-diversity-in-hyalomma-aegyptium-h-marginatum-and-h-excavatum-ticks-through-tag-encoded-pyrosequencing
#2
Adem Keskin, Ahmet Bursali, David E Snow, Scot E Dowd, Saban Tekin
Ticks are among the most significant human-biting ectoparasites and they play a major role in transmission of many pathogenic agents to humans. In the present study, three species of Hyalomma ticks, Hyalomma aegyptium, H. marginatum and H. excavatum, were examined for the presence of zoonotic bacteria, both male and female ticks alike. Examination of microbial diversity with tag-encoded pyrosequencing indicates that H. marginatum and H. excavatum were more diversity rich than H. aegyptium. Although numerous pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial genera were detected, including Acidovorax, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Bdellovibrio, Clostridium, Curvibacter, Escherichia, Flavobacterium, Limnohabitans, Paenibacillus, Ralstonia, Sarcina, Sediminibacterium, Segetibacter Stenotrophomonas and Variovorax, the predominant zoonotic bacteria represented in these ticks were genera Borrelia, Francisella, and Rickettsia...
November 9, 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089523/combined-application-of-bacterial-predation-and-violacein-to-kill-polymicrobial-pathogenic-communities
#3
Hansol Im, Seong Yeol Choi, Sangmo Son, Robert J Mitchell
Violacein is a bisindole antibiotic that is effective against Gram-positive bacteria while the bacterial predator, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD100, predates on Gram-negative strains. In this study, we evaluated the use of both together against multidrug resistant pathogens. The two antibacterial agents did not antagonize the activity of the other. For example, treatment of Staphylococcus aureus with violacein reduced its viability by more than 2,000-fold with or without B. bacteriovorus addition. Likewise, predation of Acinetobacter baumannii reduced the viability of this pathogen by more than 13,000-fold, regardless if violacein was present or not...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974693/fluorescent-d-amino-acids-reveal-bi-cellular-cell-wall-modifications-important-for-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-predation
#4
Erkin Kuru, Carey Lambert, Jonathan Rittichier, Rob Till, Adrien Ducret, Adeline Derouaux, Joe Gray, Jacob Biboy, Waldemar Vollmer, Michael VanNieuwenhze, Yves V Brun, R Elizabeth Sockett
Modification of essential bacterial peptidoglycan (PG)-containing cell walls can lead to antibiotic resistance; for example, β-lactam resistance by L,D-transpeptidase activities. Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus are naturally antibacterial and combat infections by traversing, modifying and finally destroying walls of Gram-negative prey bacteria, modifying their own PG as they grow inside prey. Historically, these multi-enzymatic processes on two similar PG walls have proved challenging to elucidate. Here, with a PG-labelling approach utilizing timed pulses of multiple fluorescent D-amino acids, we illuminate dynamic changes that predator and prey walls go through during the different phases of bacteria:bacteria invasion...
October 3, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951476/individual-patterns-of-complexity-in-cystic-fibrosis-lung-microbiota-including-predator-bacteria-over-a-1-year-period
#5
Juan de Dios Caballero, Rafael Vida, Marta Cobo, Luis Máiz, Lucrecia Suárez, Javier Galeano, Fernando Baquero, Rafael Cantón, Rosa Del Campo
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung microbiota composition has recently been redefined by the application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) tools, identifying, among others, previously undescribed anaerobic and uncultivable bacteria. In the present study, we monitored the fluctuations of this ecosystem in 15 CF patients during a 1-year follow-up period, describing for the first time, as far as we know, the presence of predator bacteria in the CF lung microbiome. In addition, a new computational model was developed to ascertain the hypothetical ecological repercussions of a prey-predator interaction in CF lung microbial communities...
September 26, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919044/susceptibility-of-colistin-resistant-pathogens-to-predatory-bacteria
#6
Sonal Dharani, Dong Hyun Kim, Robert M Q Shanks, Yohei Doi, Daniel E Kadouri
The increase in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections has forced the reintroduction of antibiotics such as colistin. However, the spread of the plasmid-borne mcr-1 colistin resistance gene have moved us closer to an era of untreatable Gram-negative infections. To evaluate whether predatory bacteria could be used as a potential therapeutic to treat this upcoming threat, the ability of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus to prey on several clinically relevant mcr-1-positive, colistin-resistant isolates was evaluated...
September 15, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886689/predator-versus-pathogen-how-does-predatory-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-interface-with-the-challenges-of-killing-gram-negative-pathogens-in-a-host-setting
#7
David Negus, Chris Moore, Michelle Baker, Dhaarini Raghunathan, Jess Tyson, R Elizabeth Sockett
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a small deltaproteobacterial predator that has evolved to invade, reseal, kill, and digest other gram-negative bacteria in soils and water environments. It has a broad host range and kills many antibiotic-resistant, clinical pathogens in vitro, a potentially useful capability if it could be translated to a clinical setting. We review relevant mechanisms of B. bacteriovorus predation and the physiological properties that would influence its survival in a mammalian host. Bacterial pathogens increasingly display conventional antibiotic resistance by expressing and varying surface and soluble biomolecules...
September 8, 2017: Annual Review of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871435/comparison-of-the-bacterial-community-composition-in-the-granular-and-the-suspended-phase-of-sequencing-batch-reactors
#8
Enikö Szabó, Raquel Liébana, Malte Hermansson, Oskar Modin, Frank Persson, Britt-Marie Wilén
Granulation of activated sludge is an increasingly important area within the field of wastewater treatment. Granulation is usually achieved by high hydraulic selection pressure, which results in the wash-out of slow settling particles. The effect of the harsh wash-out conditions on the granular sludge ecosystem is not yet fully understood, but different bacterial groups may be affected to varying degrees. In this study, we used high-throughput amplicon sequencing to follow the community composition in granular sludge reactors for 12 weeks, both in the granular phase and the suspended phase (effluent)...
September 5, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827526/measuring-and-modelling-the-response-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-kpc-prey-to-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-predation-in-human-serum-and-defined-buffer
#9
Michelle Baker, David Negus, Dhaarini Raghunathan, Paul Radford, Chris Moore, Gemma Clark, Mathew Diggle, Jess Tyson, Jamie Twycross, R Elizabeth Sockett
In worldwide conditions of increasingly antibiotic-resistant hospital infections, it is important to research alternative therapies. Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus bacteria naturally prey on Gram-negative pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant strains and so B. bacteriovorus have been proposed as "living antibiotics" to combat antimicrobially-resistant pathogens. Predator-prey interactions are complex and can be altered by environmental components. To be effective B. bacteriovorus predation needs to work in human body fluids such as serum where predation dynamics may differ to that studied in laboratory media...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812884/controlling-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-gene-expression-and-predation-using-synthetic-riboswitches
#10
Mohammed Dwidar, Yohei Yokobayashi
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a predatory bacterium that feeds on Gram-negative bacteria including a wide range of pathogens and thus has potential applications as a biocontrol agent. Owing to its unique life cycle, however, there are limited tools that enable genetic manipulation of B. bacteriovorus. This work describes our first steps toward engineering the predatory bacterium for practical applications by developing basic genetic parts to control gene expression. Specifically, we evaluated four robust promoters that are active during the attack phase of B...
August 18, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725056/serum-albumin-and-osmolality-inhibit-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-predation-in-human-serum
#11
Hansol Im, Sangmo Son, Robert J Mitchell, Cheol-Min Ghim
We evaluated the bactericidal activity of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, strain HD100, within blood sera against bacterial strains commonly associated with bacteremic infections, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica. Tests show that B. bacteriovorus HD100 is not susceptible to serum complement or its bactericidal activity. After a two hour exposure to human sera, the prey populations decreased 15- to 7,300-fold due to the serum complement activity while, in contrast, the B. bacteriovorus HD100 population showed a loss of only 33%...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710792/biophysical-investigation-of-type-a-putas-reveals-a-conserved-core-oligomeric-structure
#12
David A Korasick, Harkewal Singh, Travis A Pemberton, Min Luo, Richa Dhatwalia, John J Tanner
Many enzymes form homooligomers, yet the functional significance of self-association is seldom obvious. Herein, we examine the connection between oligomerization and catalytic function for proline utilization A (PutA) enzymes. PutAs are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze both reactions of proline catabolism. Type A PutAs are the smallest members of the family, possessing a minimal domain architecture consisting of N-terminal proline dehydrogenase and C-terminal l-glutamate-γ-semialdehyde dehydrogenase modules...
September 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704678/the-role-of-microbial-diversity-and-composition-in-minimizing-sludge-production-in-the-oxic-settling-anoxic-process
#13
Galilee U Semblante, Hop V Phan, Faisal I Hai, Zhi-Qiang Xu, William E Price, Long D Nghiem
The oxic-settling-anoxic (OSA) process, which involves an aerobic tank attached to oxygen- and substrate-deficient external anoxic reactors, minimizes sludge production in biological wastewater treatment. In this study, the microbial community structure of OSA was determined. Principal coordinate analysis showed that among the three operational factors, i.e., (i) redox condition, (ii) external reactor sludge retention time (SRText), and (iii) sludge interchange between aerobic and anoxic reactors, redox condition had the greatest impact on microbial diversity...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612728/-bdellovibrio-and-like-organisms-outstanding-predators
#14
Édouard Jurkevitch, Stéphan Jacquet
Obligate predatory bacteria, i.e. bacteria requiring a Gram negative prey cell in order to complete their cell cycle, belong to the polyphyletic group referred to as the Bdellovibrio And Like Organisms (BALO). Predatory interactions between bacteria are complex, yet their dynamics and impact on bacterial communities in the environment are becoming better understood. BALO have unique life cycles: they grow epibiotically with the predator remaining attached to the prey's envelope, dividing in a binary manner or periplasmically, i...
May 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601973/attack-phase-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-responses-to-extracellular-nutrients-are-analogous-to-those-seen-during-late-intraperiplasmic-growth
#15
Mohammed Dwidar, Hansol Im, Jeong Kon Seo, Robert J Mitchell
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a predatory bacterium which lives by invading the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria and consuming them from within. This predator was thought to be dependent upon prey for nutrients since it lacks genes encoding for critical enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. This study, however, found that planktonic attack-phase predators are not just dependent upon prey for nutrients, but rather, they respond to nutrients in the surrounding medium and, subsequently, synthesize and secrete proteases in a nutrient-dependent manner...
November 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594872/unraveling-the-environmental-and-anthropogenic-drivers-of-bacterial-community-changes-in-the-estuary-of-bilbao-and-its-tributaries
#16
Mikel Aguirre, David Abad, Aitor Albaina, Lauren Cralle, María Soledad Goñi-Urriza, Andone Estonba, Iratxe Zarraonaindia
In this study, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the changes in taxonomic composition and environmental factors significantly influencing bacterial community structure across an annual cycle in the Estuary of Bilbao as well as its tributaries. In spite of this estuary being small and characterized by a short residence time, the environmental factors most highly correlated with the bacterial community mirrored those reported to govern larger estuaries, specifically salinity and temperature. Additionally, bacterial community changes in the estuary appeared to vary with precipitation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510364/lyophilization-of-bdellovibrio-bacteriovorus-109j-for-long-term-storage
#17
Mélanie J Boileau, Rinosh Mani, Kenneth D Clinkenbeard
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J is a Gram-negative predatory bacterium with obligate host dependency on other Gram-negative bacteria. This bacteriolytic predator collides with, enters, and establishes growth within the prey (host) periplasm, eventually lysing the prey cell wall to release fresh, motile B. bacteriovorus progeny. Laboratory maintenance of B. bacteriovorus has been previously described by other investigators. The protocols included in this unit deal with the technique required to lyophilize or freeze dry host-dependent B...
May 16, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500337/examining-the-efficacy-of-intravenous-administration-of-predatory-bacteria-in-rats
#18
Kenneth Shatzkes, Eric Singleton, Chi Tang, Michael Zuena, Sean Shukla, Shilpi Gupta, Sonal Dharani, Joseph Rinaggio, Daniel E Kadouri, Nancy D Connell
The proteobacteria Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus are obligate predators of Gram-negative bacteria, and have been proposed to be used to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. The ability of predatory bacteria to reduce bacterial burden in vivo within the lungs of rats has been demonstrated, but it was unknown if predatory bacteria can attenuate systemic bacterial burden administered intravenously. In this study, we first assessed the safety of intravenous inoculation of predatory bacteria in rats...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492178/isolation-of-bdellovibrio-and-like-organisms-and-potential-to-reduce-acute-hepatopancreatic-necrosis-disease-caused-by-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#19
Jetnapang Kongrueng, Pimonsri Mitraparp-Arthorn, Khotchawan Bangpanwimon, William Robins, V Vuddhakul, John Mekalanos
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease, a severe disease of shrimp, is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus (AHPND Vp), a halophilic bacterium harboring a plasmid that contains toxin genes homologous to Photorhabdus insect-related toxins. We obtained 9 isolates of Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) from water and sediment samples in Thailand. Using 16S rRNA sequencing, all of the organisms were identified as Bacteriovorax spp. and were able to attack all tested AHPND Vp isolates. In addition, their various susceptible hosts, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, were observed...
May 11, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444379/killing-the-killer-predation-between-protists-and-predatory-bacteria
#20
Julia Johnke, Jens Boenigk, Hauke Harms, Antonis Chatzinotas
Predation by microbes is one of the main drivers of bacterial mortality in the environment. In most ecosystems multiple micropredators compete at least partially for the same bacterial resource. Predatory interactions between these micropredators might lead to shifts within microbial communities. Integrating these interactions is therefore crucial for the understanding of ecosystem functioning. In this study, we investigated the predation between two groups of micropredators, i.e. phagotrophic protists and Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs)...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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