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Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228455/prognostic-significance-of-neoadjuvant-rectal-score-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-after-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-and-construction-of-a-prediction-model
#1
Yanwu Sun, Yiyi Zhang, Xuejing Wu, Huiming Lin, Xingrong Lu, Ying Huang, Zongbin Xu, Shenghui Huang, Xiaojie Wang, Pan Chi
AIM: To evaluate the prognostic significance of neoadjuvant rectal (NAR) score after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), and to develop a nomogram predicting disease-free survival (DFS). METHOD: A total of 522 LARC patients undergoing nCRT and surgery were included. NAR scores were calculated using the equation [5pN-3(cT-pT) + 12]^2/9.61, and classified as low (<8), intermediate (8-16), and high (>16). Clinicopathological and survival outcomes were compared...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225479/density-of-cd8-lymphocytes-in-biopsy-samples-combined-with-the-circulating-lymphocyte-ratio-predicts-pathologic-complete-response-to-chemoradiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer
#2
Binyi Xiao, Jianhong Peng, Rongxin Zhang, Jing Xu, Yongchun Wang, Yujing Fang, Junzhong Lin, Zhizhong Pan, Xiaojun Wu
Objectives: The systemic status and local immune status, as determined by the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or the lymphocyte ratio (LYMR) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) count, respectively, have been suggested as predictors of the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in rectal cancer, although the utility of these measures remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the values of the LYMR, NLR and TIL count and their combinations (TIL-LYMR/TIL-NLR) in predicting pathologic complete response (pCR) after nCRT...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208445/optimal-interval-for-18f-fdg-pet-after-chemoradiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer
#3
Kazushige Kawai, Hiroaki Nozawa, Keisuke Hata, Toshiaki Tanaka, Takeshi Nishikawa, Koji Oba, Toshiaki Watanabe
INTRODUCTION: Although 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) has been increasingly used to evaluate the response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer, the optimal intervals between completion of CRT, PET, and surgery have not been fully investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 148 consecutive patients with rectal adenocarcinoma who received CRT followed by FDG-PET and radical surgery were retrospectively analyzed...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203981/triple-test-a-predictor-of-anastomotic-integrity-in-patients-undergoing-low-anterior-resection-after-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy
#4
Madhu Muralee, Nithish R Acharya, Wagh Mira Sudham, Arun Peter Mathew, Kurian Cherian, K Chandramohan, Paul Augustine, M Iqbal Ahamed
Anastomotic leak after low anterior resection for rectal cancer is a dreaded complication. Diversion stoma helps tiding over this crisis and it is routinely practised in most centres, especially in post chemoradiotherapy setting. But a diversion stoma has got its own problems. In this study, we attempt to use the triple test as a predictor of anastomotic integrity and thereby avoid a diverting stoma, and patients undergoing low anterior resection after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy were spared the trouble of a diverting stoma if the on table triple test was negative...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200872/lymphocyte-to-monocyte-ratio-before-chemoradiotherapy-represents-a-prognostic-predictor-for-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#5
Yu-Xiang Deng, Jun-Zhong Lin, Jian-Hong Peng, Yu-Jie Zhao, Qiao-Qi Sui, Xiao-Jun Wu, Zhen-Hai Lu, Yuan-Hong Gao, Zhi-Fang Zeng, Zhi-Zhong Pan
Research indicates that cancer-triggered inflammation plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. Here, we aimed to evaluate the correlation of lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) before neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with clinical outcomes in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). We retrospectively enrolled 317 consecutive patients with LARC between 2004 and 2013. The optimal cutoff values of LMR were determined using receiver operating curve analysis. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival related to the LMR were analyzed using the log-rank test and multivariate Cox regression methods...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199720/a-prospective-randomized-trial-comparing-capecitabine-based-chemoradiotherapy-with-5-fu-based-chemoradiotherapy-in-neoadjuvant-setting-in-locally-advanced-carcinoma-rectum
#6
K Singh, M K Gupta, R K Seam, M Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Fluorouracil (FU)based chemoradiotherapy is regarded as a standard perioperative treatment in locally advanced rectal cancer. Capecitabine is an oral fluoropyrimidine that generates 5FU preferentially at the tumor site by exploiting the higher activity of the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase in tumor tissue compared with healthy tissue. As an oral agent, capecitabine can be administered in the outpatient setting, potentially providing FU exposure similar to a lowdose continuous infusion of 5FU...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184696/adaptive-radiation-dose-escalation-in-rectal-adenocarcinoma-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Jonathan D Van Wickle, Eric S Paulson, Jerome C Landry, Beth A Erickson, William A Hall
Total mesorectal excision (TME) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has offered superior control for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, but can carry a quality of life cost. Fortunately, some patients achieve a complete response after CRT alone without the added morbidity caused by surgery. Efforts to increase fidelity of radiation treatment planning and delivery may allow for escalated doses of radiotherapy (RT) with limited off-target toxicity and elicit more pathological complete responses (pCR) to CRT thereby sparing more rectal cancer patients from surgery...
October 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181181/adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-patients-with-ypt0-2n0-category-after-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer
#8
Jue-Feng Wan, Li-Feng Yang, Ji Zhu, Gui-Chao Li, Zhen Zhang
Locally advanced rectal cancer patients with ypT0-2N0 have good prognosis and may not require as many cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy as patients with a poor (ypT3-4 or N+) response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the three-year disease-free and overall survival between patients with ypT0-2N0 rectal adenocarcinoma who received 0-3 cycles of 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy and those who received >3 cycles. A total of 106 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, classified as ypT0-2N0 after surgery at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (Shanghai, China) between 2006 and 2012, were identified...
November 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178095/-efficacy-analysis-of-proximally-extended-resection-for-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-after-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy
#9
Qiyuan Qin, Yingyi Kuang, Tenghui Ma, Yali Wu, Huaiming Wang, Yanna Pi, Hui Wang, Lei Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term outcomes and perioperative safety of proximally extended resection for locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: From colorectal cancer database in The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, a cohort of patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy(1.8-2.0 Gy per day, 25-28 fractions, concurrent fluorouracil-based chemotherapy) followed by curative sphincter-preserving surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer between May 2016 and June 2017 were retrospectively identified...
November 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167909/outcomes-of-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-followed-by-total-mesorectal-excision-surgery-for-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-a-single-institution-experience
#10
Michelle Shu Fen Tseng, Huili Zheng, Ivy Wei Shan Ng, Yiat Horng Leong, Cheng Nang Leong, Wei Peng Yong, Wai Kit Cheong, Jeremy Chee Seong Tey
INTRODUCTION: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer has been shown to improve local control and reduce toxicity, as compared to adjuvant CRT. We report the outcomes of our patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated at National University Hospital, Singapore. METHODS: From April 2002 to December 2014, 117 patients with T3/4, N0/+, M0 rectal cancer received neoadjuvant CRT followed by TME surgery...
November 13, 2017: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167471/pim-3-as-a-potential-predictor-of-chemoradiotherapy-resistance-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-patients
#11
Rong-Xin Zhang, Zhong-Guo Zhou, Shi-Xun Lu, Zhen-Hai Lu, De-Sen Wan, Zhi-Zhong Pan, Xiao-Jun Wu, Gong Chen
Approximately 30% of locally advanced rectal cancer patients might not benefit from chemoradiotherapy; however, the response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in these cases is difficult to predict. Pim-3 is a member of the provirus integration site for a moloney murine leukemia virus family of proteins that contributes to cell proliferation, survival, and chemotherapy resistance. Therefore, the relationship between Pim-3 expression and response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer patients is important to evaluate...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166313/the-perineal-turnover-perforator-flap-a-new-and-simple-technique-for-perineal-reconstruction-after-extralevator-abdominoperineal-excision
#12
Maria Chasapi, Mohamed Maher, Peter Mitchell, Milind Dalal
BACKGROUND: Extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) is increasingly used to treat locally advanced low rectal cancer as it has been related to superior oncological outcomes than traditional abdominoperineal excision.However, ELAPE also has been associated with high perineal wound morbidity rates as it creates a larger perineal cavity than standard abdominoperineal excision. This greater defect, along with the effects of preoperative chemoradiation on wound healing, makes uneventful perineal reconstruction post-ELAPE a real challenge for the plastic surgeon...
November 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162332/integrating-downstaging-in-the-risk-assessment-of-patients-with-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-treated-with-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-validation-of-valentini-s-nomograms-and-the-neoadjuvant-rectal-score
#13
Susana Roselló, Matteo Frasson, Eduardo García-Granero, Desamparados Roda, Esther Jordá, Samuel Navarro, Salvador Campos, Pedro Esclápez, Stephanie García-Botello, Blas Flor, Alejandro Espí, Carlotta Masciocchi, Vincenzo Valentini, Andrés Cervantes
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemotherapy is controversial in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiation. Valentini et al developed 3 nomograms (VN) to predict outcomes in these patients. The neoadjuvant rectal score (NAR) was developed after VN to predict survival. We aimed to validate these tools in a retrospective cohort at an academic institution. PATIENTS AND METHODS: VN and the NAR were applied to 158 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with chemoradiation followed by surgery...
October 28, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161802/the-impact-of-surgical-timing-on-pathologic-tumor-response-after-short-course-and-long-course-preoperative-chemoradiation-for-locally-advanced-rectal-adenocarcinoma
#14
Sea-Won Lee, Jong Hoon Lee, In Kyu Lee, Seong Taek Oh, Dae Yong Kim, Tae Hyun Kim, Jae Hwan Oh, Ji Yeon Baek, Hee Jin Chang, Hee Chul Park, Hee Cheol Kim, Eui Kyu Chie, Taek-Keun Nam, Hong Seok Jang
Purpose: A pooled analysis of multi-institutional trials was performed to analyze the effect of surgical timing on tumor response by comparing short course concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with long course CCRT followed by delayed surgery in locally advanced rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: Three hundred patients with cT3-4N0-2 rectal adenocarcinoma were included. Long course patients from KROG 14-12 (n=150) were matched 1:1 to 150 short course patients from KROG 10-01 (NCT01129700) and KROG 11-02 (NCT01431599) according to stage, age, and other risk factors...
November 21, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153429/optimal-interval-to-surgery-after-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Donglin Du, Zhourong Su, Dan Wang, Wenwen Liu, Zhengqiang Wei
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of a waiting interval of ≥ 8 weeks between the end of preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) and surgery on the outcomes of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of retrospective and prospective studies from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases to investigate the length of the preoperative nCRT-surgery waiting interval and outcomes in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. The primary outcome measure was pathologic complete response (pCR) rate...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137264/preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer-the-sensitizer-role-of-the-association-between-mir-375-and-c-myc
#16
Raquel Conde-Muiño, Carlos Cano, Victoria Sánchez-Martín, Antonio Herrera, Ana Comino, Pedro P Medina, Pablo Palma, Marta Cuadros
Administration of chemoradiation before tumor resection has revolutionized the management of locally advanced rectal cancer, but many patients have proven resistant to this preoperative therapy. Our group recently reported a negative correlation between c-Myc gene expression and this resistance. In the present study, integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles was conducted in 45 pre-treatment rectal tumors in order to analyze the expressions of miRNAs and c-Myc and their relationship with clinicopathological factors and patient survival...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130232/-clinical-study-of-preserving-left-colic-artery-during-laparoscopic-total-mesorectal-excision-for-the-treatment-of-rectal-cancer
#17
Xiaolan You, Yuanjie Wang, Zhiyi Chen, Wenqi Li, Ning Xu, Guiyuan Liu, Xiaojun Zhao, Chuanjiang Huang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, radicality and short-term outcome of preserving left colic artery (LCA) during laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) for the treatment of rectal cancer. METHODS: From January 2013 to December 2016,136 patients with mid-lower rectal cancer received laparoscopic TME in the Gastrointestinal Surgery Department of Taizhou People's Hospital of Jiangsu Province. Patients with rectal tumor within 10 cm to the anal verge were enrolled into the study...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124955/current-issues-of-preoperative-radio-chemo-therapy-and-its-future-evolution-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#18
Bin Ma, Qingzhou Xu, Yongxi Song, Peng Gao, Zhenning Wang
Neoadjuvant therapies are effective for local control and tumor downstaging. Up to date, preoperative long-course chemoradiotherapy and short-course radiotherapy are the two primary guideline-recommended neoadjuvant therapies for locally advanced rectal cancer patients. However, clinicians throughout the world are trying their best to further optimize the regimens and concepts of neoadjuvants. Hence, there is an urgent need to summarize evidence regarding indications of neaoadjuvant therapies and relative merits of current standard regimens...
November 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113729/intensified-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-for-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-in-elderly-patients-toxicity-disease-control-and-survival-outcomes
#19
Francesca De Felice, Karen Llange, Filippo Rubini, Nadia Bulzonetti, Rossella Caiazzo, Daniela Musio, Vincenzo Tombolini
INTRODUCTION: We report the treatment compliance, toxicity rates, and long-term clinical outcomes of elderly patients who received intensified neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified a retrospective cohort of patients aged ≥ 70 years with LARC who received intensified neoadjuvant CRT, followed by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, from 2007 to 2014. Intensified neoadjuvant CRT consisted of radiotherapy (total dose, 50...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108299/serum-mir-143-levels-predict-the-pathological-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#20
Yukiharu Hiyoshi, Takashi Akiyoshi, Ramu Inoue, Keiko Murofushi, Noriko Yamamoto, Yosuke Fukunaga, Masashi Ueno, Hideo Baba, Seiichi Mori, Toshiharu Yamaguchi
Recently, several circulating miRNAs have been reported as promising, minimally invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis or prediction of the prognosis in various types of cancer. However, the utility of circulating miRNAs as predictive markers of the cancer response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer is still unclear. To identify circulating serum miRNAs useful for predicting a pathological good response to nCRT, total 18 serum miRNAs of interest were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 94 rectal cancer patients treated with nCRT and surgery...
October 3, 2017: Oncotarget
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