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Sijie Ge, Sujing Wang, Qiang Xu, Thomas Ho
Emergency shutdowns of chemical plants (ESCP) inevitably generate intensive and huge amounts of VOCs and NOx emissions through flaring that can cause highly localized and transient air pollution events with elevated ozone concentrations. However, quantitative studies of regional ozone impact due to ESCP, in terms of how ESCP would affect and to what extent ESCP could impact, are still lacking. This paper reports a systematic study on regional air quality impact from an olefin plant emergency shutdown due to the sudden failure of its cracked gas compressor (CGC)...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Raúl Cassia, Macarena Nocioni, Natalia Correa-Aragunde, Lorenzo Lamattina
Here, we review information on how plants face redox imbalance caused by climate change, and focus on the role of nitric oxide (NO) in this response. Life on Earth is possible thanks to greenhouse effect. Without it, temperature on Earth's surface would be around -19°C, instead of the current average of 14°C. Greenhouse effect is produced by greenhouse gasses (GHG) like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxides (Nx O) and ozone (O3 ). GHG have natural and anthropogenic origin. However, increasing GHG provokes extreme climate changes such as floods, droughts and heat, which induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress in plants...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sue Kimbrough, R Chris Owen, Michelle Snyder, Jennifer Richmond-Bryant
The nitrogen dioxide/oxides of nitrogen (NO2 /NOX ) ratio is an important surrogate for NO to NO2 chemistry in dispersion models when estimating NOX impacts in a near-road environment. Existing dispersion models use different techniques and assumptions to represent NO to NO2 conversion and do not fully characterize all of the important atmospheric chemical and mechanical processes. Thus, "real-world" ambient measurements must be analyzed to assess the behavior of NO2 /NOX ratios near roadways. An examination of NO2 /NOX ratio data from a field study conducted in Las Vegas, Nevada (NV), from mid-December, 2008 through mid-December, 2009 provides insights into the appropriateness of assumptions about the NO2 /NOX ratio included in dispersion models...
September 7, 2017: Atmospheric Environment
Juliana Brum Moraes, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, George Anderson, Marta Kubera, Andre F Carvalho, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Early life trauma (ELT) may increase the risk towards bipolar disorder (BD) and major depression (MDD), disorders associated with activated neuro-oxidative and neuro-nitrosative stress (O&NS) pathways. It has remained elusive whether ELTs are associated with O&NS and which ELTs are associated with distinct affective disorder phenotypes. This case-control study examined patients with BD (n = 68) and MDD (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 66). The Child Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess specific ELT...
March 14, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Prabha R Nair, Revathy S Ajayakumar, Liji Mary David, Imran A Girach, Kavitha Mottungan
This paper presents the first observational results from an Indian station on the long-term changes in surface ozone (O3 )-a major environmental pollutant and green house gas-over a period of about 40 years. It is based on the in situ measurements carried out during 1973-1975, 1983-1985, 1997-1998 and 2004-2014 at the tropical coastal station, Thiruvananthapuram. From 1973 to 1997, surface O3 shows a slow increase of ~ 0.1 ppb year-1 and a faster increase of 0.4 ppb year-1 afterwards till 2009 after which it showed a levelling off till 2012 followed by a minor decrease...
March 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Laura Lopez-Sanz, Susana Bernal, Carlota Recio, Iolanda Lazaro, Ainhoa Oguiza, Ana Melgar, Luna Jimenez-Castilla, Jesus Egido, Carmen Gomez-Guerrero
Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or impaired antioxidant defenses is closely related to the development of diabetic vascular complications, including nephropathy and atherosclerosis. Chronic activation of Janus kinase/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway contributes to diabetic complications by inducing expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of endogenous JAK/STAT regulators is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention...
March 14, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Fan Wu, Jinying Zhang
Epidemiological studies have confirmed that ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the underlying mechanisms in PM2.5 exposure-induced heart injury are largely unknown. It has been acknowledged that NADPH oxidase (Nox) 4 plays a critical role in CVD development. To investigate the acute effects of PM2.5 on the mouse heart and the role of Nox4 in PM2.5 exposure-induced cardiac injury, C57BL/6J mice were instilled with saline or 1.5, 3.0, 6...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Shuyu Zhan, Baoyue Ding, Yu-Er Ruan, Xuan Huang, Guoqiang Liu, Xiaoqing Lv, Xiong Huang, Mingjuan Li, Ninghua Jiang, Qing Shao
Microdialysis is a powerful in vivo sampling technique for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling of drugs in pre-clinical and clinical studies. However, the noticeable limitations of previous studies using microdialysis were that animals anesthesia in the whole experiment and the combination of microdialysis and blood sampling for drug and (or) effect detection, which can obviously influence PK and PD behavior of drugs. In this study, a simple blood microdialysis sampling system in freely-moving rats was established for simultaneous study of PK and PD of Shengmai injection (SMI) effect on inducing real-time nitric oxide (NO) release on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial ischemia rats...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sira Sriswasdi, Supaksorn Thika, Sunee Sirivichayakul, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, Marta Kubera, Michael Maes
Deficit schizophrenia is characterized by neurocognitive impairments and changes in the patterning of IgA/IgM responses to plasma tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). In the current study, supervised pattern recognition methods, including logistic regression analysis (LRA), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), were used to examine whether deficit schizophrenia is a discrete diagnostic class with respect to Consortium To Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) tests and IgA/IgM responses to noxious (NOX) and generally more protective (PRO) TRYCATs...
March 11, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Daniel C Anderson, Julie M Nicely, Glenn M Wolfe, Thomas F Hanisco, Ross J Salawitch, Timothy P Canty, Russell R Dickerson, Eric C Apel, Sunil Baidar, Thomas J Bannan, Nicola J Blake, Dexian Chen, Barbara Dix, Rafael P Fernandez, Samuel R Hall, Rebecca S Hornbrook, L Gregory Huey, Beatrice Josse, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas E Kinnison, Theodore K Koenig, Michael LeBreton, Virginie Marécal, Olaf Morgenstern, Luke D Oman, Laura L Pan, Carl Percival, David Plummer, Laura E Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Andrea Stenke, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Kirk Ullmann, Rainer Volkamer, Andrew J Weinheimer, Guang Zeng
Formaldehyde (HCHO) directly affects the atmospheric oxidative capacity through its effects on HOx . In remote marine environments, such as the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), it is particularly important to understand the processes controlling the abundance of HCHO because model output from these regions is used to correct satellite retrievals of HCHO. Here, we have used observations from the CONTRAST field campaign, conducted during January and February 2014, to evaluate our understanding of the processes controlling the distribution of HCHO in the TWP as well as its representation in chemical transport/climate models...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Ying Huang, Gui-Quan Cai, Jian-Ping Peng, Chao Shen
Based on the results from our previous study, dexamethasone (Dex) increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and subsequently induces cell death and matrix catabolism in chondrocytes. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NADPH) oxidase 4 (NOX4) is one of the major enzymes responsible for intracellular ROS production during the inflammatory process. The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of NOX4 in Dex-induced ROS over-production...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Nathalie Lejal, Sandrine Truchet, Edna Bechor, Edwige Bouguyon, Vijay Khedkar, Nicolas Bertho, Jasmina Vidic, Pierre Adenot, Stéphanie Solier, Edgar Pick, Anny Slama-Schwok
BACKGROUND: Targeting cells of the host immune system is a promising approach to fight against Influenza A virus (IAV) infection. Macrophage cells use the NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX2) enzymatic complex as a first line of defense against pathogens by generating superoxide ions O2 - and releasing H2 O2 . Herein, we investigated whether targeting membrane -embedded NOX2 decreased IAV entry via raft domains and reduced inflammation in infected macrophages. METHODS: Confocal microscopy and western blots monitored levels of the viral nucleoprotein NP and p67phox , NOX2 activator subunit, Elisa assays quantified TNF-α levels in LPS or IAV-activated mouse or porcine alveolar macrophages pretreated with a fluorescent NOX inhibitor, called nanoshutter NS1...
March 7, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
L de Bari, M Favia, A Bobba, R Lassandro, L Guerra, A Atlante
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated to impaired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) channel also causing decreased glutathione (GSH) secretion, defective airway bacterial clearance and inflammation. Here we checked the main ROS-producing and ROS-scavenging enzymes as potential additional factors involved in CF pathogenesis. We found that CFBE41o-cells, expressing F508del CFTR, have increased NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity and expression level, mainly responsible of the increased ROS production, and decreased glutathione reductase (GR) activity, not dependent on GR protein level decrease...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Paul O Wennberg, Kelvin H Bates, John D Crounse, Leah G Dodson, Renee C McVay, Laura A Mertens, Tran B Nguyen, Eric Praske, Rebecca H Schwantes, Matthew D Smarte, Jason M St Clair, Alexander P Teng, Xuan Zhang, John H Seinfeld
Isoprene carries approximately half of the flux of non-methane volatile organic carbon emitted to the atmosphere by the biosphere. Accurate representation of its oxidation rate and products is essential for quantifying its influence on the abundance of the hydroxyl radical (OH), nitrogen oxide free radicals (NOx ), ozone (O3 ), and, via the formation of highly oxygenated compounds, aerosol. We present a review of recent laboratory and theoretical studies of the oxidation pathways of isoprene initiated by addition of OH, O3 , the nitrate radical (NO3 ), and the chlorine atom...
March 9, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Masaaki Chiwa, Lucy J Sheppard, Ian D Leith, Sarah R Leeson, Y Sim Tang, J Neil Cape
Little information exists concerning the long-term interactive effect of nitrogen (N) addition with phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on Sphagnum N status. This study was conducted as part of a long-term N manipulation on Whim bog in south Scotland to evaluate the long-term alleviation effects of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) on N saturation of Sphagnum (S. capillifolium). On this ombrotrophic peatland, where ambient deposition was 8 kg N ha-1 yr-1 , 56 kg N ha-1 yr-1 of either ammonium (NH4 + , Nred ) or nitrate (NO3 - , Nox ) with and without P and K, were added over 11 years...
March 3, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ceyda Ozfidan-Konakci, Evren Yildiztugay, Mustafa Bahtiyar, Mustafa Kucukoduk
The using of bio-stimulant in plants grown under stress conditions for enhancing nutrition efficiency and crop quality traits is an effective approach. One of the bio-stimulants, humus material, is defined as humic acid (HA). HA application as a promotion of plant growth to plants grown in the heavy metals-contaminated soils has promised hope in terms of effects on plants but the its limiting effect is the application dose. Therefore, the wheat seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 d and the various concentrations of humic acid (HA; 750 or 1500 mg L-1 ) were treated alone or in combination with cadmium (Cd) stress (100 or 200 μM) for 7 d...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Seyit Ali Büyüktuna, Halef Okan Doğan, Mehmet Bakir, Nazif Elaldi, Mustafa Gökhan Gözel, Aynur Engin
INTRODUCTION: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease. Reactive oxygen species that are mainly generated by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) enzyme family have a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. The serum levels of NOX isoforms in patients with CCHF have yet to be assessed. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted at Cumhuriyet University, Turkey. Only patients with CCHF confirmed by the National Reference Virology Laboratory were enrolled in the study...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Jing Li, Shuai Wang, Jie Bai, Xiao-Lei Yang, Yun-Long Zhang, Yi-Lin Che, Hui-Hua Li, Yan-Zong Yang
Angiotensin II (Ang II) and inflammation are associated with pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of these events remain unknown. The immunoproteasome has emerged as a critical regulator of inflammatory responses. Here, we investigated its role in Ang II-induced AF in immunosubunit PSMB10 (also known as β2i or LMP10) knockout (KO) mice. AF was induced by Ang II infusion (2000 ng/min per kg). PSMB10 expression and trypsin-like activity were increased in atrial tissues and serum from Ang II-treated mice or serum from patients with AF...
March 5, 2018: Hypertension
Fabrizio Minichilli, Fabrizio Bianchi, Carla Ancona, Marco Cervino, Gianluigi De Gennaro, Cristina Mangia, Michele Santoro, Elisa Bustaffa
OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the associations among the emissions produced by "Centro olio Val d'Agri" (COVA), with mortality and hospitalization of residents in the Viggiano and Grumento Nova Municipalities, located in Val d'Agri (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy). DESIGN: residential cohort study. SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Lagrangians dispersion models to estimate the level of exposure at the address of residence to NOX concentrations as tracers of COVA emissions...
January 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Vikram Ravi, Allan H Gao, Natalie B Martinkus, Michael P Wolcott, Brian K Lamb
Forest residue is a major potential feedstock for second generation biofuel, however little knowledge exists about environmental impacts of development and production of biofuel from such a feedstock. Using a high-resolution regional air quality model, we estimate the air quality impacts of an aviation biofuel supply chain scenario in the Pacific Northwest of the United States that uses forest residue as the feedstock. Pollutant emissions for the major supply chain components including feedstock harvesting, transportation, and biorefinery operations were compiled...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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