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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346888/oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-biomarkers-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#1
Karine Maria Boll, Cristiano Noto, Kamila Landucci Bonifácio, Chiara Cristina Bortolasci, Ary Gadelha, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, Décio Sabbatini Barbosa, Michael Maes, Estefania Gastaldello Moreira
There is evidence that the acute phase of schizophrenia (SCZ) is accompanied by specific changes in oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) biomarkers. There are, however, no firm data regarding these biomarkers in chronic SCZ. Therefore, this study aimed to delineate O&NS biomarkers in patients with chronic SCZ. 125 outpatients with SCZ and 118 controls were enrolled. The markers included lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) activity...
March 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343901/gper-blockers-as-nox-downregulators-a-new-drug-class-to-target-chronic-non-communicable-diseases
#2
Matthias R Meyer, Matthias Barton
Oxidative stress is a hallmark of chronic non-communicable diseases such as arterial hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke. Cardiovascular diseases are characterized by increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NAPDH oxidase 1 (Nox1) and additional Nox isoforms among other sources. Activation of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) can mediate multiple salutary effects on the cardiovascular system. However, GPER also has constitutive activity, e.g. in the absence of specific agonists, that was recently shown to promote hypertension and aging-induced tissue damage by enabling Nox1-derived production of ROS...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338970/woody-plant-ecosystems-under-climate-change-and-air-pollution-response-consistencies-across-zonobiomes
#3
R Matyssek, A R Kozovits, G Wieser, J King, H Rennenberg
Forests store the largest terrestrial pools of carbon (C), helping to stabilize the global climate system, yet are threatened by climate change (CC) and associated air pollution (AP, highlighting ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)). We adopt the perspective that CC-AP drivers and physiological impacts are universal, resulting in consistent stress responses of forest ecosystems across zonobiomes. Evidence supporting this viewpoint is presented from the literature on ecosystem gross/net primary productivity and water cycling...
March 14, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337255/combined-therapy-with-melatonin-and-exendin-4-effectively-attenuated-the-deterioration-of-renal-function-in-rat-cardiorenal-syndrome
#4
Kuan-Hung Chen, Chih-Hung Chen, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Yen-Ta Chen, Chih-Chao Yang, Pei-Hsun Sung, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Yi-Ling Chen, Sarah Chua, Hon-Kan Yip, Jiin-Tsuey Cheng
This study tested the hypothesis that combined therapy with melatonin (Mel) and exendin-4 (Ex4) would be superior to either therapy alone for preventing the deterioration of renal function in cardiorenal syndrome (CRS). Male adult Sprague Dawley rats (n = 48) were randomly and equally divided into sham-control (SC), chronic kidney disease (CKD; induced by 5/6 nephrectomy), CRS (CKD + dilated cardiomyopathy, DCM; induced by doxorubicin 7 mg/kg i.p. every 5 days, 4 doses), CRS-Mel (20 mg/kg/day), CRS-Ex4 (10 µg/kg/day) and CRS-Mel-Ex4...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336812/tgf-%C3%AE-1-stimulates-hdac4-nucleus-to-cytoplasm-translocation-and-nadph-oxidase4-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-in-normal-human-lung-fibroblasts
#5
Weichao Guo, Shigeki Saito, Cecilia G Sanchez, Yan Zhuang, Rafael E Gongora Rosero, Bin Shan, Fayong Luo, Joseph A Lasky
Myofibroblasts are important mediators of fibrogenesis, thus blocking fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation (FMD) may be an effective strategy to treat pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Previously we reported that HDAC4 activity is necessary for TGF-β1-induced human lung FMD. Here we show that TGF-β1 increases NOX4 mRNA and protein expression in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLFs) and causes nuclear export of HDAC4. Application of the NOX family inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), reduces TGF-β1-induced HDAC4 nuclear export, expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and α-SMA fiber formation...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336130/organizers-and-activators-cytosolic-nox-proteins-impacting-on-vascular-function
#6
REVIEW
Katrin Schröder, Norbert Weissmann, Ralf P Brandes
NADPH oxidases of the Nox family are important enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cardiovascular system. Of the 7 members of the Nox family, at least three depend for their activation on specific cytosolic proteins. These are p47phox and its homologue NoxO1 and p67phox and its homologue NoxA1. Also the Rho-GTPase Rac is important but as this protein has many additional functions, it will not be covered here. The Nox1 enzyme is preferentially activated by the combination of NoxO1 with NoxA1, whereas Nox2 gains highest activity with p47phox together with p67phox...
March 20, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330417/involvement-of-nox2-and-nox4-nadph-oxidases-in-early-brain-injury-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#7
Li Zhang, Zhen Li, Dongxia Feng, Haitao Shen, Xiaodi Tian, Haiying Li, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Oxidative stress is responsible for a poor prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Nox2 has been shown to participate in SAH-induced early brain injury (EBI). Nox4 is another major subtype of Nox family widely expressed in CNS. Here, we investigated the role of Nox4 and whether there was a synergistic effect of Nox2 and Nox4 in SAH-induced EBI. Clinical brain biopsies of four patients with traumatic brain injury and perihematomal brain tissue from six subjects with SAH were examined. Gp91ds-tat (a specific inhibitor of Nox2), GKT137831 (a specific inhibitor of Nox4), and apocynin (a non-specific Nox inhibitor) were used to test the role of Nox2 and Nox4...
March 22, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325789/sex-specific-differences-in-mitochondria-biogenesis-morphology-respiratory-function-and-ros-homeostasis-in-young-mouse-heart-and-brain
#8
Abdel Rahman M Khalifa, Engy A Abdel-Rahman, Ali M Mahmoud, Mohamed H Ali, Maha Noureldin, Saber H Saber, Mahmoud Mohsen, Sameh S Ali
Sex-specific differences in mitochondrial function and free radical homeostasis are reported in the context of aging but not well-established in pathogeneses occurring early in life. Here, we examine if sex disparity in mitochondria function, morphology, and redox status starts early and hence can be implicated in sexual dimorphism in cardiac as well as neurological disorders prevalent at young age. Although mitochondrial activity in the heart did not significantly vary between sexes, female brain exhibited enhanced respiration and higher reserve capacity...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324835/flexible-biological-arsenite-oxidation-utilizing-nox-and-o2-as-alternative-electron-acceptors
#9
Jie Wang, Junfeng Wan, Zihao Wu, Hongli Li, Haisong Li, Christophe Dagot, Yan Wang
The feasibility of flexible microbial arsenite (As(III)) oxidation coupled with the reduction of different electron acceptors was investigated. The results indicated the acclimated microorganisms could oxidize As(III) with oxygen, nitrate and nitrite as the alternative electron acceptors. A series of batch tests were conducted to measure the kinetic parameters of As(III) oxidation and to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions including pH and temperature on the activity of biological As(III) oxidation dependent on different electron acceptors...
March 18, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323011/apocynin-protects-against-neurological-damage-induced-by-quinolinic-acid-by-an-increase-in-glutathione-synthesis-and-nrf2-levels
#10
Silvia Cruz-Álvarez, Ricardo Santana-Martínez, Euclides Avila-Chávez, Diana Barrera-Oviedo, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Perla D Maldonado
Apocynin (APO) is a well-known NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor. However, several studies have reported its ability to increase glutathione (GSH) levels. Due to GSH is a major non-enzymatic antioxidant in brain, the aim of this study was to evaluate, in the striatum of control and quinolinic acid (QUIN) injected rats, the effect of APO administration on: (1) GSH levels, (2) activity of some enzymes involved in the GSH metabolism, and (3) nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mRNA levels. Animals received QUIN 240nmol in right striatum and APO (5mg/kg, i...
March 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322340/signalling-mechanisms-mediating-zn-2-induced-trpm2-channel-activation-and-cell-death-in-microglial-cells
#11
Sharifah Syed Mortadza, Joan A Sim, Martin Stacey, Lin-Hua Jiang
Excessive Zn(2+) causes brain damage via promoting ROS generation. Here we investigated the role of ROS-sensitive TRPM2 channel in H2O2/Zn(2+)-induced Ca(2+) signalling and cell death in microglial cells. H2O2/Zn(2+) induced concentration-dependent increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c), which was inhibited by PJ34, a PARP inhibitor, and abolished by TRPM2 knockout (TRPM2-KO). Pathological concentrations of H2O2/Zn(2+) induced substantial cell death that was inhibited by PJ34 and DPQ, PARP inhibitors, 2-APB, a TRPM2 channel inhibitor, and prevented by TRPM2-KO...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322322/global-temperature-change-potential-of-nitrogen-use-in-agriculture-a-50-year-assessment
#12
R K Fagodiya, H Pathak, A Kumar, A Bhatia, N Jain
Nitrogen (N) use in agriculture substantially alters global N cycle with the short- and long-term effects on global warming and climate change. It increases emission of nitrous oxide, which contributes 6.2%, while carbon dioxide and methane contribute 76% and 16%, respectively of the global warming. However, N causes cooling due to emission of NOx, which alters concentrations of tropospheric ozone and methane. NOx and NH3 also form aerosols with considerable cooling effects. We studied global temperature change potential (GTP) of N use in agriculture...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318025/maternal-chronic-hypoxia-increases-expression-of-genes-regulating-lung-liquid-movement-and-surfactant-maturation-in-male-fetuses-in-late-gestation
#13
Erin V McGillick, Sandra Orgeig, Beth J Allison, Kirsty L Brain, Youguo Niu, Nozomi Itani, Katie L Skeffington, Andrew D Kane, Emilio A Herrera, Dino A Giussani, Janna L Morrison
Chronic fetal hypoxaemia is a common pregnancy complication that may arise from maternal, placental and/or fetal factors. Respiratory outcome of the infant at birth likely depends on the duration, timing and severity of the hypoxaemic insult. We have isolated the effect of maternal chronic hypoxia (MCH) for a month in late gestation on fetal lung development. Pregnant ewes were exposed to normoxia (21% O2 ) or hypoxia (10% O2 ) from 105-138 d gestation (term ∼145 d). At 138 d, gene expression in fetal lung tissue was determined by qRT-PCR...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317054/theoretically-derived-mechanisms-of-hpald-photolysis-in-isoprene-oxidation
#14
Zhen Liu, Vinh Son Nguyen, Jeremy Harvey, Jean-François Müller, Jozef Peeters
In this work we identified and theoretically quantified two photolysis mechanisms of HPALDs (hydroperoxy aldehydes) that result from the isomerization of peroxy radicals in the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene at low/moderate NOx. As a first photolysis mechanism, we show that a fraction of the initially excited S1-state HPALDs isomerizes by a near-barrierless 1,5 H-shift at a rate approaching 10(12) s(-1) - competing with the ∼equally fast intersystem crossing to the T2 triplet state - forming an unstable biradical that spontaneously expels an OH (hydroxyl) radical...
March 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315675/low-intensity-training-and-the-c5a-complement-antagonist-nox-d21-rescue-the-mdx-phenotype-through-modulation-of-inflammation
#15
Janek Hyzewicz, Jun Tanihata, Mutsuki Kuraoka, Yuko Nitahara-Kasahara, Teiva Beylier, Urs T Ruegg, Axel Vater, Shin'ichi Takeda
Inflammatory events occurring in dystrophic muscles contribute to the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Low-intensity training (LIT) attenuates the phenotype of mdx mice, an animal model for DMD. Therefore, we postulated that LIT could have anti-inflammatory properties. We assessed levels of inflammatory cytokines and infiltrated immune cells in gastrocnemius muscle of mdx mice after LIT. We detected high levels of complement component C5a, chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, CD68(+) monocytes/macrophages, and proinflammatory M1 macrophages in muscles of mdx mice...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315342/ethanol-induced-erectile-dysfunction-and-increased-expression-of-pro-inflammatory-proteins-in-the-rat-cavernosal-smooth-muscle-are-mediated-by-nadph-oxidase-derived-reactive-oxygen-species
#16
Letícia N Leite, Gabriel T do Vale, Janaina A Simplicio, Bruno S De Martinis, Fernando S Carneiro, Carlos R Tirapelli
Ethanol consumption is associated with an increased risk of erectile dysfunction (ED), but the molecular mechanisms through which ethanol causes ED remain elusive. Reactive oxygen species are described as mediators of ethanol-induced cell toxicity/damage in distinctive tissues. The enzyme NADPH oxidase is the main source of reactive oxygen species in the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells and ethanol is described to increase NADPH oxidase activation and reactive oxygen species generation. This study evaluated the contribution of NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species to ethanol-induced ED, endothelial dysfunction and production of pro-inflammatory and redox-sensitive proteins in the rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM)...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314819/depressive-like-behaviors-are-regulated-by-nox1-nadph-oxidase-by-redox-modification-of-nmda-receptor-1
#17
Masakazu Ibi, Junjie Liu, Noriaki Arakawa, Shiho Kitaoka, Ai Kawaji, Ken-Ichi Matsuda, Kazumi Iwata, Misaki Matsumoto, Masato Katsuyama, Kai Zhu, Satoshi Teramukai, Tomoyuki Furuyashiki, Chihiro Yabe-Nishimura
Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suggested in the development of psychiatric disorders. NOX1 is a non-phagocytic form of NADPH oxidase whose expression in the nervous system is negligible compared with other NOX isoforms. However, NOX1-derived ROS increase inflammatory pain and tolerance to opioid analgesia. To clarify the role of NOX1 in the brain, we examined depressive-like behaviors in mice deficient in Nox1 (Nox1(-/Y)). Depressive-like behaviors induced by chronic social defeat stress or administration of corticosterone (CORT) were significantly ameliorated in Nox1(-/Y) Generation of ROS was significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice administrated with CORT, while NOX1 mRNA was up-regulated only in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) among brain areas responsible for emotional behaviors...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314381/dysregulation-of-alveolar-macrophage-ppar%C3%AE-nadph-oxidases-and-tgf%C3%AE-sub-1-sub-in-otherwise-healthy-hiv-infected-individuals
#18
Samantha M Yeligar, Janine M Ward, Frank L Harris, Lou Ann Brown, David Guidot, Sushma K Cribbs
<u>Rationale:</u> Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), respiratory infections increase mortality in individuals living with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In experimental and clinical studies of chronic HIV infection, alveolar macrophages (AMs) exhibit impaired phagocytosis and bacterial clearance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ, NADPH oxidase (Nox) isoforms Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ<sub>1</sub>) are critical mediators of AM oxidative stress and phagocytic dysfunction...
March 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302957/relationship-between-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-in-umbilical-cord-plasma-and-birth-weight-follows-a-u-shaped-curve
#19
Junji Takaya, Yuko Tanabe, Yuichi Kuroyanagi, Kazunari Kaneko
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a nonselective nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. NO regulates placental blood flow, which plays an important role in fetal growth. Many epidemiological studies have disclosed that restricted fetal growth is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance in adult life. We studied the relationship between ADMA in cord blood and birth size. Nine small for gestational age (SGA) and 32 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants were studied...
March 7, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300621/acute-exposure-to-chlorpyrifos-caused-nadph-oxidase-mediated-oxidative-stress-and-neurotoxicity-in-a-striatal-cell-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#20
Gifty A Dominah, Rachael A McMinimy, Sallay Kallon, Gunnar F Kwakye
We hypothesized that expression of mutant Huntingtin (HTT) would modulate the neurotoxicity of the commonly used organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), revealing cellular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. Using a mouse striatal cell model of HD, we report that mutant HD cells are more susceptible to CPF-induced cytotoxicity as compared to wild-type. This CPF-induced cytotoxicity caused increased production of reactive oxygen species, reduced glutathione levels, decreased superoxide dismutase activity, and increased malondialdehyde levels in mutant HD cells relative to wild-type...
March 11, 2017: Neurotoxicology
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