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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222401/combination-of-sitagliptin-and-silymarin-ameliorates-liver-fibrosis-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride-in-rats
#1
Samia Salem Sokar, Magda El-Sayed El-Sayad, Mai El-Sayed Ghoneim, Abdelhadi Mohamed Shebl
Liver fibrosis is a common pathological condition that occurs in most conditions associated with chronic liver injury. Silymarin is a herbal product widely used for its hepatoprotective effect. Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4-I), is clinically used as an oral antidiabetic agent. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Sitagliptin, Silymarin, and their combination on established liver fibrosis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) rat model. Male albino rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl4 three times a week for 7 weeks, as well as daily oral treatments of Sitagliptin (100mg/kg) or Silymarin (100mg/kg) or their combination during the 7 weeks of intoxication...
February 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221773/air-quality-impacts-of-electrifying-vehicles-and-equipment-across-the-united-states
#2
Uarporn Nopmongcol, John Grant, Eladio Knipping, Mark Alexander, Rob Schurhoff, David Young, Jaegun Jung, Tejas Shah, Greg Yarwood
U.S.-wide air quality impacts of electrifying vehicles and off-road equipment are estimated for 2030 using 3-D photochemical air quality model and detailed emissions inventories. Electrification reduces tailpipe emissions and emissions from petroleum refining, transport, and storage, but increases electricity demand. The Electrification Case assumes approximately 17% of light duty and 8% of heavy duty vehicle miles traveled and from 17% to 79% of various off-road equipment types considered good candidates for electrification is powered by electricity...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219107/chronic-blood-pressure-reductions-and-increments-in-plasma-nitric-oxide-bioavailability
#3
Crisieli M Tomeleri, Alexandre J Marcori, Alex Silva Ribeiro, Aline Mendes Gerage, Camila de Souza Padilha, Durcelina Schiavoni, Mariana F Souza, Jerry L Mayhew, Matheus Amarante do Nascimento, Danielle Venturini, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino
This study analyzed the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) on resting blood pressure (BP) and plasma levels of nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) in pre- and hypertensive older women, and evaluated the relationship between these 2 parameters. Thirty-five older women (68.2±5.7 years, 70.0±14.4 kg, 157.1±6.4 cm, 28.3±5.0 kg.m(-2)) were randomly allocated into a training group (TG; n=17), which performed a 12-week RT program, and a control group (CG; n=18), which did not perform any physical exercise...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219063/elevated-nitrosative-stress-in-children-with-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria
#4
Fatih Dilek, Deniz Ozceker, Emin Ozkaya, Eray Metin Guler, Mebrure Yazici, Zeynep Tamay, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Nermin Guler
BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is an idiopathic condition that seriously affects quality of life. It is well known that oxidative stress and nitrosative stress (NS) are generally involved in many chronic inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the possible role of NS in the pathogenesis of CSU. METHODS: Thirty-two children with CSU and 22 healthy control subjects were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical features were defined, and disease activity was quantified using the urticaria activity score (UAS)...
February 21, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216386/serotonin-disturbs-colon-epithelial-tolerance-of-commensal-e-coli-by-increasing-nox-2-derived-superoxide
#5
Suhrid Banskota, Sushil Chandra Regmi, Jaya Gautam, Pallavi Gurung, Yu-Jeong Lee, Sae Kwang Ku, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee, Hyeun Wook Chang, Sang Joon Park, Jung-Ae Kim
Adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression are increased in the gut of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. However, the underlying mechanism of such changes has not been determined. In the current study, it was examined whether gut serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) can induce adherent-invasive E. coli colonization and increase TLR expression. In a co-culture system, commensal E. coli strain (BW25113, BW) adhered minimally to colon epithelial cells, but this was significantly enhanced by 5-HT to the level of a pathogenic strain (EDL933)...
February 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214942/an-analytical-investigation-of-ozone-episodes-in-bangu-rio-de-janeiro
#6
Claudio Gabriel Pinheiro Geraldino, Eduardo Monteiro Martins, Cleyton Martins da Silva, Graciela Arbilla
This study investigated the potential factors that contribute to frequent high levels of ozone as well as ozone episodes in Bangu, one of the most critical areas in the city of Rio de Janeiro regarding ozone levels. For 74 days in a two-year period (10.3%), the national air quality standard was exceeded. For the same period, a total of 378 days (51.8%) had ozone concentrations that were between 80 and 160 µg m(-3). A statistical analysis of pollutant concentrations and meteorological data as well as a kinetic and mechanistic analysis of VOC reactivity showed that the high ozone concentrations did not seem to be closely related to local emissions but, rather, were related to pollutant transport and triggered by photochemical activity...
February 18, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214453/reciprocal-regulation-of-enos-h2s-and-co-synthesizing-enzymes-in-human-atheroma-correlation-with-plaque-stability-and-effects-of-simvastatin
#7
Fragiska Sigala, Panagiotis Efentakis, Dimitra Karageorgiadi, Konstadinos Filis, Paraskevas Zampas, Efstathios K Iliodromitis, George Zografos, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Ioanna Andreadou
The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying plaque destabilization remain obscure. We sought to elucidate the correlation between NO, H2S and CO-generating enzymes, nitro-oxidative stress and plaque stability in carotid arteries. Carotid atherosclerotic plaques were collected from 62 patients who had undergone endarterectomy due to internal artery stenosis. Following histological evaluation the plaques were divided into stable and unstable ones. To investigate the impact of simvastatin we divided patients with stable plaques, into those receiving and to those not receiving simvastatin...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212864/gpr43-activation-enhances-psoriasis-like-inflammation-through-epidermal-upregulation-of-il-6-and-dual-oxidase-2-signaling-in-a-murine-model
#8
Ahmed Nadeem, Sheikh F Ahmad, Naif O Al-Harbi, Ahmed M El-Sherbeeny, Mohammed M Al-Harbi, Talal S Almukhlafi
The gut is densely inhabited by commensal bacteria, which metabolize dietary fibers/undigested carbohydrates and produce short-chain fatty acids such as acetate. GPR43 is one of the receptors to sense short-chain fatty acids, and expressed in various immune and non-immune cells. Acetate/GPR43 signaling has been shown to affect various inflammatory diseases through Th17 responses and NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, no study has previously explored the effects of GPR43 activation during psoriasis-like inflammation...
February 14, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208054/high-glucose-induced-hypomethylation-promotes-binding-of-sp-1-to-myo-inositol-oxygenase-implication-in-the-pathobiology-of-diabetic-tubulopathy
#9
Isha Sharma, Rajesh K Dutta, Neel K Singh, Yashpal S Kanwar
The catabolic enzyme myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) is expressed in proximal tubules and up-regulated in the diabetic state. Previously, we reported its transcriptional and translation regulation by high glucose (HG), osmolytes, and fatty acids. However, its epigenetic regulation is unknown. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that both human and mouse MIOX promoters, enriched with CpG sites, are hypomethylated and unmethylated under HG ambience and hyperglycemic states associated with increased MIOX expression. Eletrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed increased binding of unmethylated oligos with nucleoproteins of cells maintained under HG...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205630/synthesis-of-pt-k2co3-mgalox-reduced-graphene-oxide-hybrids-as-promising-nox-storage-reduction-catalysts-with-superior-catalytic-performance
#10
Xueyi Mei, Qinghua Yan, Peng Lu, Junya Wang, Yuhan Cui, Yu Nie, Ahmad Umar, Qiang Wang
Pt/K2CO3/MgAlOx-reduced graphene oxide (Pt/K/MgAlOx-rGO) hybrids were synthesized, characterized and tested as a promising NOx storage and reduction (NSR) catalyst. Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were grown on rGO via in situ hydrothermal crystallization. The structure and morphology of samples were thoroughly characterized using various techniques. Isothermal NOx adsorption tests indicated that MgAlOx-rGO hybrid exhibited better NOx trapping performance than MgAlOx, from 0.44 to 0.61 mmol · g(-1), which can be attributed to the enhanced particle dispersion and stabilization...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202267/large-eddy-simulation-of-reactive-pollutants-in-a-deep-urban-street-canyon-coupling-dynamics-with-o3-nox-voc-chemistry
#11
Jian Zhong, Xiao-Ming Cai, William James Bloss
A large eddy simulation (LES) model coupled with O3-NOx-VOC chemistry is implemented to simulate the coupled effects of emissions, mixing and chemical pre-processing within an idealised deep (aspect ratio = 2) urban street canyon under a weak wind condition. Reactive pollutants exhibit significant spatial variations in the presence of two vertically aligned unsteady vortices formed in the canyon. Comparison of the LES results from two chemical schemes (simple NOx-O3 chemistry and a more comprehensive Reduced Chemical Scheme (RCS) chemical mechanism) shows that the concentrations of NO2 and Ox inside the street canyon are enhanced by approximately 30-40% via OH/HO2 chemistry...
February 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202239/vehicle-emission-trends-in-china-s-guangdong-province-from-1994-to-2014
#12
Yong-Hong Liu, Wen-Yuan Liao, Li Li, Yu-Ting Huang, Wei-Jia Xu
Exploring vehicle emission trends within and outside the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during a long period was scientific and practical, for the economic rapid unbalanced development, continuous implements of severe reducing vehicle emissions measures in Guangdong province. Multi-year inventories of vehicle emissions from 1994 to 2014 were estimated based on the emissions factors of different emissions standards and vehicle kilometers travelled for all types of vehicles. The trends and characteristics of the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), fine particulate matter (PM2...
February 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196859/dietary-nitrite-reverses-features-of-postmenopausal-metabolic-syndrome-induced-by-high-fat-diet-and-ovariectomy-in-mice
#13
Kazuo Ohtake, Nobuyuki Ehara, Hiroshige Chiba, Genya Nakano, Kunihiro Sonoda, Junta Ito, Hiroyuki Uchida, Jun Kobayashi
Menopausal women are at greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome with reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Hormone replacement therapy increases eNOS activity and normalizes some characteristics of metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that nitric oxide (NO) supplementation should have a therapeutic effect in this syndrome. We examined the effect of dietary nitrite on mice model with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome induced by ovariectomy (OVX) with high fat diet (HF). C57BL/6 female mice were divided into five groups, sham+normal fat diet (NF), sham+ HF, OVX+HF without or with sodium nitrite (50mg and 150mg/L) in drinking water...
February 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193546/contribution-of-guanine-nucleotide-exchange-factor-vav2-to-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-mouse-podocytes-during-hyperhomocysteinemia
#14
Sabena M Conley, Justine M Abais-Battad, Xinxu Yuan, Qinghua Zhang, Krishna M Boini, Pin-Lan Li
NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to mediate the activation of NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes in podocytes in response to elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcys). However, it remains unknown how NLRP3 inflammasome activation is triggered by NOX. The present study tested whether the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav2 mediates Rac1-mediated NOX activation in response to elevated Hcys leading to NLRP3 inflammasome activation in podocytes and consequent glomerular injury...
February 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192673/the-benefit-of-a-supplement-with-the-antioxidant-melatonin-on-redox-status-and-muscle-damage-in-resistance-trained-athletes
#15
Roberto C Leonardo-Mendonça, Javier Ocaña-Wilhelmi, Tomás de Haro, Carlos de Teresa-Galván, Eduardo Guerra-Hernández, Iryna Rusanova, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, Ramy Ka Sayed, Germaine Escames, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
Previous data showed that the administration of high doses of melatonin improved the circadian system in athletes. Here, we investigated in the same experimental paradigm whether the antioxidant properties of melatonin has also beneficial effects against exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage in athletes. Twenty-four athletes were treated with 100 mg.day-1 of melatonin or placebo 30 min before bedtime during four weeks in a randomized double-blind scheme. Exercise intensity was higher during the study that before starting it...
February 13, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192231/hypotensive-and-vasorelaxant-effect-of-diapocynin-in-normotensive-rats
#16
Simone R Potje, Jéssica A Troiano, Murilo E Graton, Valdecir F Ximenes, Ana Claúdia M S Nakamune, Cristina Antoniali
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NAD(P)H-oxidase) is a multicomponent enzyme system that generates superoxide anion by one-electron reduction of molecular oxygen and represents the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vascular cells. Apocynin has been extensively used as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX) in phagocytic cells and as an antioxidant in non-phagocytic cells. In phagocytes cells, due to the presence of myeloperoxidase, apocynin can be the converted to diapocynin, which is supposed to be the active form of this phytochemical...
February 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189072/modeling-the-intraurban-variation-in-nitrogen-dioxide-in-urban-areas-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#17
Anobha Gurung, Jonathan I Levy, Michelle L Bell
BACKGROUND: With growing urbanization, traffic has become one of the main sources of air pollution in Nepal. Understanding the impact of air pollution on health requires estimation of exposure. Land use regression (LUR) modeling is widely used to investigate intraurban variation in air pollution for Western cities, but LUR models are relatively scarce in developing countries. In this study, we developed LUR models to characterize intraurban variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in urban areas of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, one of the fastest urbanizing areas in South Asia...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188926/redox-modification-of-caveolar-proteins-in-the-cardiovascular-system-role-in-cellular-signalling-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Kristen J Bubb, Asa Birna Birgisdottir, Owen Tang, Thomas Hansen, Gemma A Figtree
Rapid and coordinated release of a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2(.-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxynitrite, in specific microdomains, play a crucial role in cell signalling in the cardiovascular system. These reactions are mediated by reversible and functional modifications of a wide variety of key proteins. Dysregulation of this oxidative signalling occurs in almost all forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including at the very early phases. Despite the heavily publicized failure of "antioxidants" to improve CVD progression, pharmacotherapies such as those targeting the renin-angiotensin system, or statins, exert at least part of their large clinical benefit via modulating cellular redox signalling...
February 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187941/photocatalytic-degradation-properties-of-v-doped-tio2-to-automobile-exhaust
#19
Tong Wang, Dongya Shen, Tao Xu, Ruiling Jiang
To improve the photocatalytic degradation properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) used as raw materials for purifying automobile exhaust (AE), the vanadium (V)-doped TiO2 samples were prepared. The photocatalytic degradation efficiencies of V-doped TiO2 to each component in AE were evaluated under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation, respectively. Results indicated that the photocatalytic activity of V-doped TiO2 to AE was higher than that of pure TiO2, and the optimal V dopant content of TiO2 was 1...
February 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186566/c-c-motif-ligand-2-inhibition-with-emapticap-pegol-nox-e36-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-albuminuria
#20
Jan Menne, Dirk Eulberg, Diana Beyer, Matthias Baumann, Frantisek Saudek, Zsuzsanna Valkusz, Andrzej Więcek, Hermann Haller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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