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combination of dihydropyridins and nondihydropyridins

Carlos L Alviar, Santhosh Devarapally, Girish N Nadkarni, Jorge Romero, Alexandre M Benjo, Fahad Javed, Bryan Doherty, Hyuensok Kang, Sripal Bangalore, Franz H Messerli
BACKGROUND: Dual calcium-channel blocker (CCB) with a dihydropyridine (DHP) and a nondihydropyridine (NDHP) has been proposed for hypertension treatment. However, the safety and efficacy of this approach is not well known. METHODS: A MEDLINE/EMBASE/CENTRAL search for randomized clinical trials published on this topic from 1966 to February 2012 was performed. Efficacy outcomes of decrease in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures from baseline, changes in heart rate (HR), and adverse effects were compared between dual CCB therapy vs...
February 2013: American Journal of Hypertension
Amy Henneman, Krisy-Ann Thornby
PURPOSE: The literature describing the risk of hypotension in patients receiving concomitant therapy with a calcium-channel blocker (CCB) and a macrolide antibiotic is reviewed. SUMMARY: A literature search was conducted to identify studies and reports describing significant drug interactions between CCBs and macrolide antibiotics resulting in hypotension. One retrospective clinical trial, one pharmacokinetics study, and five case reports were found using MEDLINE...
June 15, 2012: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
William J Elliott, C Venkata S Ram
KEY POINTS AND PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: •  Calcium channel blockers, which dilate arteries by reducing calcium flux into cells, effectively lower blood pressure, especially in combination with other drugs, and some formulations of agents of this class are approved for treating angina or cardiac dysrhythmias. •  Calcium channel blockers reduce blood pressure across all patient groups, regardless of sex, race/ethnicity, age, and dietary sodium intake. •  Nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers are more negatively chronotropic and inotropic than the dihydropyridine subclass, which is important for patients with cardiac dysrhythmias or who need β-blockers...
September 2011: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Leonardo P J Oliveira, Christine E Lawless
Hypertension is a prevalent disease worldwide. Its inadequate treatment leads to major cardiovascular complications, such as myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. These conditions decrease life expectancy and are a substantial cost burden to health care systems. Physically active individuals and professional athletes are not risk free for developing this condition. Although the percentage of persons affected is substantially lower than the general population, these individuals still need to be thoroughly evaluated and blood pressure targets monitored to allow safe competitive sports participation...
April 2010: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Matthew R Weir
The prevalence of hypertension is increasing steadily in the US, particularly among African Americans. It is now clear that a large proportion of patients are inadequately controlled, with many patients requiring at least two agents to achieve their target BP. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs), comprising two subclasses--dihydropyridines and nondihydropyridines--have been for many years one of the mainstays of hypertension therapy. However, the use of CCBs as monotherapy has recently been overshadowed by the introduction of newer classes of agents such as angiotensin receptor blockers...
2007: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Anthony J Viera, Alan L Hinderliter
High blood pressure is often difficult to control. Resistant hypertension is blood pressure above goal despite adherence to a combination of at least three antihypertensive medications of different classes, optimally dosed and usually including a diuretic. The approach to blood pressure that is apparently difficult to control begins with an assessment of the patient's adherence to the management plan, including lifestyle modifications and medications. White-coat hypertension may need to be ruled out. Suboptimal therapy is the most common reason for failure to reach the blood pressure goal...
May 15, 2009: American Family Physician
Robert D Toto, Min Tian, Kaffa Fakouhi, Annette Champion, Peter Bacher
Diabetic nephropathy management should include the use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or an angiotensin receptor blocker with additional antihypertensive medications to reduce proteinuria and cardiovascular events. Some studies suggest that adding a nondihydropyridine rather than a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (CCB) may more effectively lower proteinuria. We hypothesized that a trandolapril/verapamil SR (T/V) fixed-dose combination (FDC) was superior to a benazepril/amlodipine (B/A) FDC for reducing albuminuria in 304 hypertensive diabetic nephropathy patients when treated for 36 weeks...
October 2008: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Mark W Bowie, Patricia W Slattum
BACKGROUND: Older individuals experience physiologic changes in organ function related to aging or to specific disease processes. These changes can affect drug pharmacodynamics in older adults. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this article was to review age-related changes in pharmacodynamics and their clinical relevance. METHODS: PubMed and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched (January 1980-June 2006) for the following combination of terms: pharmacodynamic and elderly, geriatric or aged...
September 2007: American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy
Piero Ruggenenti, Annalisa Perna, Maria Ganeva, Bogdan Ene-Iordache, Giuseppe Remuzzi
For assessment of the independent renoprotective effect of BP control and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) therapy, the relationships of baseline BP, BP reduction, and follow-up BP with the incidence of persistent microalbuminuria were evaluated in 1204 hypertensive patients who had type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria and were included in the BErgamo Nephrologic Diabetic Complications Trial (BENEDICT) study and were randomly assigned to 3.6 yr of treatment with the ACEi trandolapril (2 mg/d), the nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (ndCCB) verapamil SR (240 mg/d), their fixed combination Veratran (trandolapril 2 mg/d plus verapamil SR 180 mg/d), or placebo, plus other antihypertensive medications targeted at systolic/diastolic BP <130/80 mmHg...
December 2006: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Udho Thadani
Patients with chronic stable angina (CSA) seek a medical opinion for relief of their symptoms and because of fear of having a heart attack. The underlying lesion responsible for CSA is often a severe narrowing of one or more coronary arteries. In addition, the coronary arteries of patients with CSA contain many more nonobstructive lesions, which progress at variable rates, and are prone to rupture and may manifest as acute coronary syndromes (myocardial infarction , unstable angina , or sudden ischemic death)...
February 2006: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Robert D Toto
Proteinuria is a known risk factor for both cardiovascular disease and progression of established kidney disease. Observational studies and intervention trials have established that even low levels of albuminuria (microalbuminuria) are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in general, and especially in high-risk populations such as those with diabetes mellitus. People with hypertension are at increased risk for proteinuria and arguably should be treated with regimens that not only lower blood pressure but also reduce proteinuria...
October 2005: Current Hypertension Reports
George L Bakris, Matthew R Weir, Michelle Secic, Brett Campbell, Annette Weis-McNulty
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies suggest that the dihydropyridine calcium antagonists (DCAs) and nondihydropyridine calcium antagonists (NDCAs) have differential antiproteinuric effects. Proteinuria reduction is a correlate of the progression of renal disease. In an earlier systematic review, calcium antagonists were shown as effective antihypertensive drugs, but there was uncertainty about their renal benefits in patients with proteinuria and renal insufficiency. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to assess the differential effects of DCAs and NDCAs on proteinuria in hypertensive adults with proteinuria, with or without diabetes, and to determine whether these differential effects translate into altered progression of nephropathy...
June 2004: Kidney International
Robert J Anderson, Rebecca A Alabi, William N Kelly, Robert Diseker, Douglas Roblin
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to determine if there was an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in a high-risk hypertensive diabetic managed care population receiving combination antihypertensive therapy including a dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blocker (CCB). METHODS: A retrospective, population-based, case-control study design was used to determine the risk of MI versus the prescribed antihypertensive drug regimen. During 1997-1999, 6,096 diabetics with hypertension were identified...
January 2003: Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy: JMCP
Franz H Messerli
Vasodilatory edema, a common adverse effect of antihypertensive therapy with vasodilators, is related to several mechanisms, including arteriolar dilatation (causing an increase in intracapillary pressure), stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and fluid volume retention. Vasodilatory edema is dose-dependent and most common with direct arteriolar dilators such as minoxidil or hydralazine, and in decreasing order of frequency with the dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, a-blockers, antiadrenergic drugs, and nondihydropyridine calcium antagonists...
November 2002: Current Cardiology Reports
Geoffrey Boner, Zemin Cao, Mark E Cooper
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major causes of end-stage renal disease and is often associated with other macrovascular complications such as ischemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (AIIR) have both been shown to have a protective effect on the progression of diabetic nephropathy and have thus become the first choice for treatment of hypertension and/or renal involvement in patients with diabetes. However, most of these patients, especially those with type 2 diabetes, require two of more medications in order to reduce their blood pressure to the levels, which have been proposed in recently published consensus papers...
2002: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
A A Taylor, S Sunthornyothin
Tight blood pressure control among diabetic and nondiabetic patients with hypertension is perhaps the single most effective intervention used to delay progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The renoprotective actions of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in patients with diabetic and hypertensive nephropathy is well established. Drugs of this class fairly uniformly reduce glomerulosclerosis, delay the deterioration in renal function, and improve proteinuria, a predictive surrogate marker for renal injury...
October 1999: Current Hypertension Reports
Z Cao, U L Hulthén, T J Allen, M E Cooper
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relative roles of angiotensin II, bradykinin, and calcium-dependent pathways in the genesis of mesenteric vascular hypertrophy in experimental diabetes. DESIGN: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to these treatments for 24 weeks: no treatment; ramipril at a hypotensive dose; ramipril plus the bradykinin type 2 receptor blocker icatibant; icatibant alone; ramipril at a low dose; the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, valsartan; the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, lacidipine; and the nondihydropyridine calcium antagonist mibefradil...
June 1998: Journal of Hypertension
E Grossman, F H Messerli
To evaluate the effects of calcium antagonists on sympathetic activity in hypertensive patients, a MEDLINE search for English language articles published between 1975 and May 1996 using the terms calcium antagonists, sympathetic nervous system, and catecholamines was conducted. Clinical studies only reporting the effects of calcium antagonists on blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels in patients with hypertension were included. Data were combined and analyzed according to class of calcium antagonist (dihydropyridine vs nondihydropyridine), their duration of action (short-acting [SA] vs long-acting [LA]), and treatment duration...
December 1, 1997: American Journal of Cardiology
R G Bretzel
Hypertension occurs about twice as frequently in diabetics as in the general population, with a prevalence of approximately 25% in young patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 50% in patients with newly diagnosed non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Studies strongly suggest that hypertension is involved in the progression and perhaps the onset of diabetic nephropathy, which is a major cause of illness and premature death in diabetic patients, largely through accompanying cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal failure...
September 1997: American Journal of Hypertension
G Bakris, D White
It is clear that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors slow progression of diabetic nephropathy to a greater extent than other antihypertensive agents when blood pressure (BP) is reduced to levels below 140/90 mm Hg. Recent studies also demonstrate that nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (NDCCBs) slow progression of diabetic nephropathy in people with pre-existing renal insufficiency secondary to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The combined effects of both a CCB and ACE inhibitor have recently been examined in both animal models of diabetes as well as patients with established diabetic nephropathy...
January 1997: Journal of Human Hypertension
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