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Axonal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690938/neuropsychological-recovery-trajectories-in-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-influence-of-patient-characteristics-and-diffuse-axonal-injury-erratum
#1
Amanda R Rabinowitz, Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Junghoon Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690927/effects-of-transcranial-led-therapy-on-the-cognitive-rehabilitation-for-diffuse-axonal-injury-due-to-severe-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
João Gustavo Rocha Peixoto Dos Santos, Ana Luiza Costa Zaninotto, Renato Amaro Zângaro, Ana Maria Costa Carneiro, Iuri Santana Neville, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
BACKGROUND: Photobiomodulation describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate or regenerate tissue. It was discovered that near-infrared wavelengths (800-900 nm) and red (600 nm) light-emitting diodes (LED) are able to penetrate through the scalp and skull and have the potential to improve the subnormal cellular activity of compromised brain tissue. Different experimental and clinical studies were performed to test LED therapy for traumatic brain injury (TBI) with promising results...
April 24, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690837/neutralization-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-following-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-mouse-attenuates-the-loss-of-mature-oligodendrocytes
#3
Johanna Flygt, Karsten Ruscher, Amanda Norberg, Anis Mir, Hermann Gram, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly results in injury to the components of the white matter tracts, causing post-injury cognitive deficits. The myelin-producing oligodendrocytes (OLs) are vulnerable to TBI although may plausibly be replaced by proliferating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). The cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key mediator of the complex inflammatory response, and when neutralized in experimental TBI behavioral outcome was improved. To evaluate the role of IL-1β on OL cell death and OPC proliferation, 116 adult male mice subjected to sham injury or the central fluid percussion injury (cFPI) model of traumatic axonal injury, were analyzed at 2, 7 and 14 days post-injury...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690824/performance-evaluation-of-a-multiplex-assay-for-simultaneous-detection-of-four-clinically-relevant-tbi-biomarkers
#4
Frederick Kofi Korley, John K Yue, David Wilson, Kevin Hrusovsky, Ramon Diaz-Arrasta, Adam R Ferguson, Esther Lim Yuh, Pratik Mukherjee, Kevin K W Wang, Alex Valadka, Ava Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Geoffrey Manley
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in heterogeneous pathology affecting multiple cells and tissue types in the brain. It is likely that assessment of such complexity will require simultaneous measurement of multiple molecular biomarkers in a single sample of biological fluid. We measured glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin c-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), neurofilament light chain (NF-L) and total tau in plasma samples obtained from 107 subjects enrolled in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury Pilot (TRACK-TBI Pilot) Study using the Quanterix Simoa 4-Plex assay...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687307/up-regulation-of-cdc37-contributes-to-schwann-cell-proliferation-and-migration-after-sciatic-nerve-crush
#5
Yuxi Liu, Shuyao Wang, Dazhi Ding, Zhaohui Yu, Weiwei Sun, Youhua Wang
Cell division cycle protein 37 (Cdc37), a molecular chaperone takes part in a series of cellular processes including cell signal transduction, cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell motility, oncogenesis and malignant progression. It can not only recruit immature protein kinases to HSP90 but also work alone. Cdc37 was reported to be associated with neurogenesis, neurite outgrowth, axon guidance and myelination. However, the roles of Cdc37 on Schwann cells (SC) after peripheral nerve injury (PNI) remain unknown...
April 23, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686016/neurofilament-as-neuronal-injury-blood-marker-in-preeclampsia
#6
Katrina Suzanne Evers, Andrew Atkinson, Christian Barro, Urs Fisch, Marc Pfister, Evelyn A Huhn, Olav Lapaire, Jens Kuhle, Sven Wellmann
Preeclampsia has been shown to be associated with changes in cerebral structure and cognitive function later in life. Nf (neurofilaments) are specific scaffolding proteins of neurons, and their quantification in serum has been proposed as a biomarker for neuroaxonal injury. We performed a prospective, longitudinal, single-center study at the University Hospital of Basel to determine serum Nf concentrations in pregnant women with singleton pregnancies and with high risk of preeclampsia or with early signs of preeclampsia...
April 23, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682554/differential-expression-patterns-of-eph-receptors-and-ephrin-ligands-in-human-cancers
#7
REVIEW
Chung-Ting Jimmy Kou, Raj P Kandpal
Eph receptors constitute the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which are activated by ephrin ligands that either are anchored to the membrane or contain a transmembrane domain. These molecules play important roles in the development of multicellular organisms, and the physiological functions of these receptor-ligand pairs have been extensively documented in axon guidance, neuronal development, vascular patterning, and inflammation during tissue injury. The recognition that aberrant regulation and expression of these molecules lead to alterations in proliferative, migratory, and invasive potential of a variety of human cancers has made them potential targets for cancer therapeutics...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682033/diagnostic-and-prognostic-capability-of-newer-magnetic-resonance-imaging-brain-sequences-in-diffuse-axonal-injury-patient
#8
Mayank Bansal, Virendra Deo Sinha, Juhi Bansal
Objectives: Diffuse axonal injury is one of the major causes of unconsciousness, profound neurologic deficits and persistent vegetative state after head trauma. In recent years, MR imaging has been gaining popularity as an adjunctive imaging method in patients with DAI. Our study aims to assess the relative diagnostic and prognostic capability of various MRI sequences. Patients and Methods: Retrospective observational study done in 1 year duration on 30 DAI patients...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680179/progress-in-understanding-the-pathophysiology-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
REVIEW
H Zéphir
Multiple sclerosis (MS) arises in people who have a genetic susceptibility to environmental factors and events, which ultimately trigger the disease. It is thought that peripheral immune cells are mobilized and enter the CNS through the impaired blood-brain barrier in the subarachnoid space, as acute lesions show large numbers of macrophages and CD8+ T cells and, to a lesser extent, CD4+ T cells, B cells and plasma cells. Demyelination is mostly localized to focal lesions in early relapsing-remitting (RR) MS, whereas other areas of white matter appear normal...
April 18, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679548/the-effect-of-myelotomy-following-low-thoracic-spinal-cord-compression-injury-in-rats
#10
Carolin Meyer, Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Robin Gensch, Robert Seitz, Gregor Stein, Marilena Manthou, Theodora Papamitsou, Makoto Nakamura, Bertil Bouillon, Mary Galea, Peter Batchelor, Sarah Dunlop, Doychin Angelov
Myelotomy is a surgical procedure allowing removal of extravasated blood and necrotic tissue that is thought to attenuate secondary injury as well as promote recovery in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) models and humans. Here we examined in rat whether myelotomy at 48 h after low-thoracic compressive SCI provided any benefit over a 12 week period. Compared to animals receiving SCI alone, myelotomy worsened BBB scores (p < 0.05) and also did not improve plantar stepping, ladder climbing, urinary bladder voiding or sensory function (thermal latency) during the 12-week period...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679543/retrograde-influences-of-scg-axotomy-on-uninjured-preganglionic-neurons
#11
Sean M Gannon, Kiel Hawk, Brian F Walsh, Aminata Coulibaly, Lori G Isaacson
There is evidence that neuronal injury can affect uninjured neurons in the same neural circuit. The overall goal of this study was to understand the effects of peripheral nerve injury on uninjured neurons located in the central nervous system (CNS). As a model, we examined whether axotomy (transection of postganglionic axons) of the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) affected the uninjured, preganglionic neurons that innervate the SCG. At 7 days post-injury a reduction in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in the SCG, both markers for preganglionic axons, was observed, and this reduction persisted at 8 and 12 weeks post-injury...
April 18, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674624/brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-repair-by-implantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-seeded-onto-polymer-scaffolds
#12
Jeong Eun Shin, Kwangsoo Jung, Miri Kim, Kyujin Hwang, Haejin Lee, Il-Sun Kim, Bae Hwan Lee, Il-Shin Lee, Kook In Park
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and spinal cord injury (SCI) lead to extensive tissue loss and axonal degeneration. The combined application of the polymer scaffold and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has been reported to enhance neural repair, protection and regeneration through multiple modes of action following neural injury. This study investigated the reparative ability and therapeutic potentials of biological bridges composed of human fetal brain-derived NPCs seeded upon poly(glycolic acid)-based scaffold implanted into the infarction cavity of a neonatal HI brain injury or the hemisection cavity in an adult SCI...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669278/sarm1-myd88-5-regulates-neuronal-intrinsic-immune-response-to-traumatic-axonal-injuries
#13
Qi Wang, Shan Zhang, Tingting Liu, Huanhuan Wang, Kaili Liu, Qiujun Wang, Wenwen Zeng
Traumatic injuries can trigger inflammatory reactions, leading to profound neuropathological consequences. However, the immune capacity of neurons, distinct from that of immune cells or glial cells, in response to traumatic insults remains to be fully characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that neurons can detect, cell autonomously, distant axonal damage, resulting in rapid production of a specific collection of cytokines and chemokines. This neuronal immune response appears spatially and temporally separated from injury-induced axon degeneration...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666582/a-novel-approach-to-primary-cell-culture-for-octopus-vulgaris-neurons
#14
Valeria Maselli, Fenglian Xu, Naweed I Syed, Gianluca Polese, Anna Di Cosmo
Octopus vulgaris is a unique model system for studying complex behaviors in animals. It has a large and centralized nervous system made up of lobes that are involved in controlling various sophisticated behaviors. As such, it may be considered as a model organism for untangling the neuronal mechanisms underlying behaviors-including learning and memory. However, despite considerable efforts, Octopus lags behind its other counterparts vis-à-vis its utility in deciphering the cellular, molecular and synaptic mechanisms underlying various behaviors...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666508/intrinsic-mechanisms-of-neuronal-axon-regeneration
#15
REVIEW
Marcus Mahar, Valeria Cavalli
Permanent disabilities following CNS injuries result from the failure of injured axons to regenerate and rebuild functional connections with their original targets. By contrast, injury to peripheral nerves is followed by robust regeneration, which can lead to recovery of sensory and motor functions. This regenerative response requires the induction of widespread transcriptional and epigenetic changes in injured neurons. Considerable progress has been made in recent years in understanding how peripheral axon injury elicits these widespread changes through the coordinated actions of transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers and, to a lesser extent, microRNAs...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665699/characterizing-signals-within-lesions-and-mapping-brain-network-connectivity-after-traumatic-axonal-injury-a-7-tesla-resting-state-fmri-study
#16
Seul Lee, Jonathan R Polimeni, Collin M Price, Brian L Edlow, Jennifer A McNab
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-FMRI) has been widely used to map brain functional connectivity, but it is unclear how to probe connectivity within and around lesions. Here we characterize RS-FMRI signal time-course properties and evaluate different seed placements within and around hemorrhagic traumatic axonal injury lesions. RS-FMRI was performed on a 7 Tesla scanner in a patient who recovered consciousness after traumatic coma and in three healthy controls. Eleven lesions in the patient were characterized in terms of: 1) temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR); 2) physiological noise, through comparison of noise regressors derived from the white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and gray matter (GM); and 3) seed-based functional connectivity...
April 18, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665503/zebrafish-extracellular-matrix-improves-neuronal-viability-and-network-formation-in-a-3-dimensional-culture
#17
Sung-Min Kim, Daniel Ward Long, Michael Wai Kok Tsang, Yadong Wang
Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) has limited capacity for regeneration. CNS injuries cause life-long debilitation and lead to $50 billion in healthcare costs in U.S. alone each year. Despite numerous efforts in the last few decades, CNS-related injuries remain as detrimental as they were 50 years ago. Some functional recovery can occur, but most regeneration are limited by an extracellular matrix (ECM) that actively inhibits axonal repair and promotes glial scarring. In most tissues, the ECM is an architectural foundation that plays an active role in supporting cellular development and regenerative response after injury...
April 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665155/defining-mechanisms-of-neural-plasticity-after-brainstem-ischemia-in-rats
#18
Jens Minnerup, Jan-Kolja Strecker, Lydia Wachsmuth, Maike Hoppen, Antje Schmidt, Dirk M Hermann, Heinz Wiendl, Sven Meuth, Cornelius Faber, Kai Diederich, Wolf Rüdiger Schäbitz
OBJECTIVE: Neurological recovery after stroke mainly depends on the location of the lesion. A substantial portion of strokes affects the brainstem. However, patterns of neural plasticity following brainstem ischemia are almost unknown. METHODS: Here, we established a rat brainstem ischemia model that resembles key features of the human disease and investigated mechanisms of neural plasticity including neurogenesis and axonal sprouting as well as secondary neurodegeneration...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664964/monitoring-for-myelopathic-progression-with-multiparametric-quantitative-mri
#19
Allan R Martin, Benjamin De Leener, Julien Cohen-Adad, Sukhvinder Kalsi-Ryan, David W Cadotte, Jefferson R Wilson, Lindsay Tetreault, Aria Nouri, Adrian Crawley, David J Mikulis, Howard Ginsberg, Eric M Massicotte, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Patients with mild degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) are often managed non-operatively, and surgery is recommended if neurological progression occurs. However, detection of progression is often subjective. Quantitative MRI (qMRI) directly measures spinal cord (SC) tissue changes, detecting axonal injury, demyelination, and atrophy. This longitudinal study compared multiparametric qMRI with clinical measures of progression in non-operative DCM patients. METHODS: 26 DCM patients were followed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664414/enhanced-total-neurite-outgrowth-and-secondary-branching-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-elicited-by-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound
#20
Daniel Michael Ventre, Marissa Puzan, Emily Ashbolt, Abigail Koppes
OBJECTIVE: Despite the prevalence of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI), challenges remain in restoring full functionality to those afflicted. For recovery to occur, axons must extend across the injury site to connect with distal targets, where injury gap size is a critical factor in the probability of restoration of function. Current clinical therapies often achieve limited neural regeneration, motivating the development of new therapeutic interventions such as biophysical stimulation. APPROACH: To investigate the potential for low intensity, pulsed ultrasonic simulation (LIPUS) to impact peripheral nerve regeneration, primary neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurons were examined in vitro in response to ultrasound (US)...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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