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Axonal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239341/delayed-degeneration-of-an-injured-spinothalamic-tract-in-a-patient-with-diffuse-axonal-injury
#1
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239261/white-matter-tract-integrity-an-indicator-of-axonal-pathology-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Sohae Chung, Els Fieremans, Xiuyuan Wang, Nuri E Kucukboyaci, Charles J Morton, James S Babb, Prin Amorapanth, Farng-Yang Foo, Dmitry S Novikov, Steven R Flanagan, Joseph F Rath, Yvonne W Lui
We seek to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology of injury sustained after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) using multi-shell diffusion MRI, deriving compartment-specific WM tract integrity (WMTI) metrics. WMTI allows a more biophysical interpretation of WM changes by describing microstructural characteristics in both intra- and extra-axonal environments. Thirty-two patients with MTBI within 30 days of injury and twenty-one age- and sex-matched controls were imaged on a 3T MR scanner. Multi-shell diffusion acquisition was performed with 5 b-values (250 - 2500 s/mm<sup>2</sup>) along 6 - 60 diffusion encoding directions...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239014/cortical-electrical-stimulation-in-female-rats-with-a-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-to-promote-axonal-outgrowth
#3
Andrew S Jack, Caitlin Hurd, Juan Forero, Andrew Nataraj, Keith Fenrich, Armin Blesch, Karim Fouad
Electrical stimulation (ES) to promote corticospinal tract (CST) repair after spinal cord injury (SCI) is underinvestigated. This study is the first to detail intracortical ES of the injured CST. We hypothesize that cortical ES will promote CST collateralization and regeneration, prevent dieback, and improve recovery in an SCI rat model. The CST was transected at the the fourth cervical level in adult female Lewis rats trained in a stairwell grasping task. Animal groups included (a) ES333 (n = 14; 333 Hz, biphasic pulse for 0...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238462/mechanisms-of-spinal-cord-injury-regeneration-in-zebrafish-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Zeynab Noorimotlagh, Mahla Babaie, Mahdi Safdarian, Tahereh Ghadiri, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
Objectives: To determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish. Materials and Methods: Medical databases of PubMed and Scopus were searched with following key words: Zebrafish; spinal cord injuries; regeneration; recovery of function. The map of mechanisms was performed using Xmind software. Results: Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, L1.1, L1.2, Major vault protein (MVP), contactin-2 and High mobility group box1 (HMGB1) had positive promoting effects on axonal re-growth while Ptena had an inhibitory effect...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238071/app-upregulation-contributes-to-retinal-ganglion-cell-degeneration-via-jnk3
#5
Chao Liu, Cheng-Wu Zhang, Yi Zhou, Wan Qing Wong, Liying Corinne Lee, Wei Yi Ong, Sung Ok Yoon, Wanjin Hong, Xin-Yuan Fu, Tuck Wah Soong, Edward H Koo, Lawrence W Stanton, Kah-Leong Lim, Zhi-Cheng Xiao, Gavin S Dawe
Axonal injury is a common feature of central nervous system insults. Upregulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is observed following central nervous system neurotrauma and is regarded as a marker of central nervous system axonal injury. However, the underlying mechanism by which APP mediates neuronal death remains to be elucidated. Here, we used mouse optic nerve axotomy (ONA) to model central nervous system axonal injury replicating aspects of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in optic neuropathies. APP and APP intracellular domain (AICD) were upregulated in retina after ONA and APP knockout reduced Tuj1+ RGC loss...
December 13, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236326/knockdown-of-ski-decreased-the-reactive-astrocytes-proliferation-in-vitro-induced-by-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation
#6
Xin Zhao, Kai-Sheng Zhou, Zhong-Hao Li, Wei Nan, Jing Wang, Ya-Yi Xia, Hai-Hong Zhang
Glia scar is a pathological marker in late phase of brain ischemia disease, which constitutes a major physical biochemical barrier to impede axonal regrowth. Astrocytes are known to be critically involved in the formation of glial scar. However, their response to ischemia and their role in neuroprotection after central nervous system (CNS) injury are not completely clear. Recently, we have demonstrated for the first time that Ski was up-regulated in reactive astrocytes after spinal cord injury in vivo and in vitro, which indicates Ski may be a new molecule that control astrocytes biologic properties after CNS injury...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234527/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-modulates-cntf-induced-axonal-growth-and-neuroprotection-in-the-mouse-visual-system
#7
Sandrine Joly, Deniz Dalkara, Vincent Pernet
The lack of axonal regeneration and neuronal cell death causes permanent neurological deficits in the injured CNS. Using the classical CNS injury model of optic nerve crush in mice, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) was found to stimulate retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axonal growth, but in an incomplete fashion. The elucidation of molecular mechanisms impairing CNTF-induced axonal regeneration is paramount to promote visual recovery. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the contribution of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) to the neuroprotective and regenerative effects of CNTF...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234276/functional-reintegration-of-sensory-neurons-and-transitional-dendritic-reduction-of-mitral-tufted-cells-during-injury-induced-recovery-of-the-larval-xenopus-olfactory-circuit
#8
Sara J Hawkins, Lukas Weiss, Thomas Offner, Katarina Dittrich, Thomas Hassenklöver, Ivan Manzini
Understanding the mechanisms involved in maintaining lifelong neurogenesis has a clear biological and clinical interest. In the present study, we performed olfactory nerve transection on larval Xenopus to induce severe damage to the olfactory circuitry. We surveyed the timing of the degeneration, subsequent rewiring and functional regeneration of the olfactory system following injury. A range of structural labeling techniques and functional calcium imaging were performed on both tissue slices and whole brain preparations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230603/amp-activated-protein-kinase-activation-in-mediating-phenylalanine-induced-neurotoxicity-in-experimental-models-of-phenylketonuria
#9
Lihua Lu, Xiaoming Ben, Lingling Xiao, Min Peng, Yongjun Zhang
Phenylketonuria (PKU), one of the most prevalent autosomal recessive disorders of amino acid metabolism, is characterized by abnormal accumulation of phenylalanine, which can lead to intellectual disability. The main pathologic changes in the central nervous system of untreated phenylketonuric patients are reductions in the number of axons, dendrites, and synapses in the brain. Such alterations are thought to be mainly associated with the toxic effects caused by phenylalanine. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230560/non-functionalized-soft-alginate-hydrogel-promotes-locomotor-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-rat-hemimyelonectomy-model
#10
Kerim Hakan Sitoci-Ficici, Marina Matyash, Ortrud Uckermann, Roberta Galli, Elke Leipnitz, Robert Later, Chrysanthy Ikonomidou, Michael Gelinsky, Gabriele Schackert, Matthias Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) and the consecutive devastating neurological sequelae have an enormous individual and economic impact. Implantation of functionalized hydrogels is a promising approach, because they can serve as a matrix for the regenerating tissue, carry and release bioactive molecules and various cell types. We already demonstrated that non-functionalized soft alginate hydrogel supported axonal outgrowth and protected neurons against oxidative stress in vitro. Here, we investigated the effects of such soft alginate hydrogels on locomotor recovery in small and large spinal cord lesions...
December 11, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229841/predicting-glycosaminoglycan-surface-protein-interactions-and-implications-for-studying-axonal-growth
#11
Adam R Griffith, Claude J Rogers, Gregory M Miller, Ravinder Abrol, Linda C Hsieh-Wilson, William A Goddard
Cell-surface carbohydrates play important roles in numerous biological processes through their interactions with various protein-binding partners. These interactions are made possible by the vast structural diversity of carbohydrates and the diverse array of carbohydrate presentations on the cell surface. Among the most complex and important carbohydrates are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which display varied stereochemistry, chain lengths, and patterns of sulfation. GAG-protein interactions participate in neuronal development, angiogenesis, spinal cord injury, viral invasion, and immune response...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229552/caspase-6-is-a-dispensable-enabler-of-adult-mammalian-axonal-degeneration
#12
V Woo, C Cheng, A Duraikannu, A Chandrasekhar, K Purdy, J A Martinez, D W Zochodne
The progress of axonal degeneration (AxD) following injury or insult impacts both recovery from axonal transection and protection of axons from diverse insults, or axonopathy. Here we provide evidence that increases in capase-6 (Casp6) expression and action contribute to the progression of AxD. The expression of Casp6 protein and mRNA in distal branches of sensory axons undergoing AxD was confirmed. We developed and utilized a new model of axonopathy in live mice by serially visualizing the viability of cutaneous axons in the ear pinna that expressed an axonal YFP transgene, in response to capasaicin-induced AxD...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228863/parallel-evaluation-of-two-potassium-channel-blockers-in-restoring-conduction-in-mechanical-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat
#13
Jessica Page, Jonghyuck Park, Zhe Chen, Peng Cao, Riyi Shi
Myelin damage is a hallmark of spinal cord injury (SCI) and potassium channel blocker (PCB) is proven effective to restore axonal conduction and regain neurological function. Aiming to improve this therapy beyond the FDA-approved 4-AP, we have developed multiple new PCBs, with 4-AP-3-MeOH being the most potent and effective. The current study evaluated two PCBs, 4-AP-3-MeOH and 4-AP, in parallel in both ex vivo and in vivo rat mechanical SCI models. Specifically, 4-AP-3-MeOH induced significantly greater augmentation of axonal conduction than 4-AP in both acute and chronic injury...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228020/transplantation-of-canine-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-producing-chondroitinase-abc-promotes-chondroitin-sulphate-proteoglycan-digestion-and-axonal-sprouting-following-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Darren Carwardine, Jonathan Prager, Jacob Neeves, Elizabeth M Muir, James Uney, Nicolas Granger, Liang-Fong Wong
Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation is a promising strategy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI), as has been demonstrated in experimental SCI models and naturally occurring SCI in dogs. However, the presence of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans within the extracellular matrix of the glial scar can inhibit efficient axonal repair and limit the therapeutic potential of OECs. Here we have used lentiviral vectors to genetically modify canine OECs to continuously deliver mammalian chondroitinase ABC at the lesion site in order to degrade the inhibitory chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in a rodent model of spinal cord injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226485/immunohistologic-analysis-of-spontaneous-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-reinnervation-in-a-rat-model
#15
Andrew J Rosko, Robbi A Kupfer, Sang S Oh, Catherine T Haring, Eva L Feldman, Norman D Hogikyan
OBJECTIVE: After recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (RLN), spontaneous reinnervation of the larynx occurs with input from multiple sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the timing and efficiency of reinnervation across a resected RLN segment in a rat model of RLN injury. STUDY DESIGN: Animal study. METHODS: Twelve male 60-day-old Sprague Dawley rats underwent resection of a 5-mm segment of the right RLN. Rats were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks after nerve injury to harvest the larynx and trachea for immunohistologic analysis...
December 11, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224279/-overexpression-of-trpv1-after-periphery-nerve-injury-attenuates-nerve-regeneration-in-rats
#16
J Bai, Y Zhang, Y F Wang, J Lan, X Q Li
Objective: To observe the effect of the expressive or functional blockage of TRPV1 on nerve regeneration after sciatic trans-section injury. Methods: AMG-517, a kind of TRPV1 inhibitor, was injected into the surrounding area of the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia while unilateral sciatic nerve was transected. A total of 24 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, injury only group, injury+ AMG-517 150 μg/kg group, injury+ AMG-517 300 μg/kg group. The injury only group was injected the same volume of medium...
December 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223350/%C3%AE-6-and-%C3%AE-1-integrin-heterodimer-mediates-schwann-cell-interactions-with-axons-and-facilitates-axonal-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#17
In Ae Chang, Ki Joong Kim, Uk Namgung
Several isoforms of integrin subunits are expressed in Schwann cells and mediate Schwann cell interactions with axons. Here, we identify α6 and β1 integrins as heterodimeric proteins expressed in Schwann cells and define their functions in axonal regeneration. α6 and β1 integrins are induced in Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve after a crush injury, and the blocking of integrin activity by siRNA expression and by treatment with anti-integrin antibodies attenuates Schwann cell contact with cultured neurons and decreases neurite outgrowth...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223322/systemic-administration-of-epothilone-d-improves-functional-recovery-of-walking-after-rat-spinal-cord-contusion-injury
#18
Jörg Ruschel, Frank Bradke
Central nervous system (CNS) injuries cause permanent impairments of sensorimotor functions as mature neurons fail to regenerate their severed axons. The poor intrinsic growth capacity of adult CNS neurons and the formation of an inhibitory lesion scar are key impediments to axon regeneration. Systemic administration of the microtubule stabilizing agent epothilone B promotes axon regeneration and recovery of motor function by activating the intrinsic axonal growth machinery and by reducing the inhibitory fibrotic lesion scar...
December 6, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222774/preparation-of-adult-rat-sensory-neuron-cultures-and-their-application-to-growth-cone-turning-assays
#19
Christine A Webber, Douglas W Zochodne
The directional trajectory of growing peripheral nerve axons in the adult impacts their successful regeneration to denervated target tissues. Misdirected axons in neuromas, injured nerve trunks, or nerves with attempted repair diminish the success of regeneration. The behavior of adult rodent peripheral sensory neurons in vitro, in turn, is helpful in predicting axonal behavior in vivo. Here, we describe the adaptation of embryonic neuron growth cone turning assays, an important technique in developmental neurobiology, to adult rat sensory neurons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219268/-application-of-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-in-the-identification-of-hemorrhagic-diffuse-axonal-injury
#20
W Li
OBJECTIVES: To explore the application value of susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) in the forensic identification of hemorrhagic diffuse axonal injury (DAI). METHODS: The forensic identification materials of 20 DAI cases were analyzed retrospectively. The sequence image materials of T1WI, T2WI, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) were analyzed statistically...
August 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
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