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Axonal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445714/the-toll-like-receptor-2-agonist-pam3csk4-is-neuroprotective-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Nicole S Stivers, Nicolas Pelisch, Ben C Orem, Joshua Williams, Jacqueline M Nally, David P Stirling
Microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with both detrimental and reparative functions. Stimulation of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) has shown to be beneficial following SCI, and it increases axonal regeneration following optic nerve crush. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. As microglia express high levels of TLR2, we hypothesized that modulating the microglial response to injury using a specific TLR2 agonist, Pam3CSK4, would prevent secondary-mediated white matter degeneration following SCI...
April 23, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444817/microtubule-stabilization-promoted-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-spinal-root-avulsion
#2
Heng Li, Wutian Wu
A spinal root avulsion injury disconnects spinal roots with the spinal cord. The rampant motoneuron death, inhibitory CNS/PNS transitional zone (TZ) for axonal regrowth and limited regeneration speed together lead to motor dysfunction. Microtubules rearrange to assemble a new growth cone and disorganized microtubules underline regeneration failure. It's been shown that microtubule-stabilizing drug, Epothilone B, enhanced axonal regeneration and attenuated fibrotic scaring after spinal cord injury. Here, we are reporting that after spinal root avulsion+ re-implantation in adult rats, EpoB treatment improved motor functional recovery and potentiated electrical responses of motor units...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444635/the-leukocentric-theory-of-neurological-disorder-a-manifesto
#3
Robert Fern
Approximately half of the human brain is composed of white matter (WM), a specialized tissue housing the axonal projection of neurons and their necessary supporting glial cells. Axons course long distances from their parent soma, have a delicate structure, large surface area and in many cases are dependent upon a uniquely close morphological arrangement with myelinating oligodendrocyte partners; all factors that may predispose them to injury and disease. WM damage is central to a range of well-characterized disorders including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury and is also makes a significant contribution to disorders often considered to be largely focused in gray matter; for example, in stroke where ~49% of injury by volume is located in WM...
April 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443786/characterization-of-volitional-electromyographic-signals-in-the-lower-extremity-after-motor-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Elizabeth Heald, Ronald Hart, Kevin Kilgore, P Hunter Peckham
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of intact axons across a spinal cord lesion, even in those clinically diagnosed with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). These axons may allow volitional motor signals to be transmitted through the injury, even in the absence of visible muscle contraction. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the presence of volitional electromyographic (EMG) activity below the lesion in motor complete SCI and to characterize this activity to determine its value for potential use as a neuroprosthetic command source...
April 1, 2017: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440805/cell-transplantation-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Peggy Assinck, Greg J Duncan, Brett J Hilton, Jason R Plemel, Wolfram Tetzlaff
Spinal cord injury can lead to severe motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the injured spinal cord. The transplantation of Schwann cells, neural stem cells or progenitor cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells and mesenchymal stem cells has been investigated as potential therapies for spinal cord injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which these individual cell types promote repair and functional improvements...
April 25, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438669/the-effects-of-chinese-medicines-on-camp-pka-signaling-pathway-in-central-nervous-system-dysfunction
#6
REVIEW
Lin Li, Xiang Fan, Xi-Ting Zhang, Shao-Qian Yue, Zuo-Yan Sun, Jin-Qiang Zhu, Jun-Hua Zhang, Xiu-Mei Gao, Han Zhang
Neuropathological injury in adult mammal central nervous system (CNS) may cause axon disruption, neuronal death and produce lasting neurological deficits. Failure of axon regeneration is one of the major challenges for CNS function recovery. Recently, cAMP/PKA signaling pathway has been proven to be a critical regulator for neuronal regeneration, neuroplasticity and learning and memory ability. And previous studies have revealed the effects of Chinese medicines on prevention and treatment of CNS dysfunction medicated by cAMP/PKA signaling pathway partially...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437717/traumatic-axonal-injury-a-clinical-pathological-correlation
#7
N Davceva, A Sivevski
Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is a distinct clinicopathological entity that can cause serious impairment of the brain function and can sometimes be found as a concrete cause of death. It has been discussed from the perspective of its biomechanical importance, and also from the standpoint of certain criteria for the pathological diagnosis of TAI. However, since the time when DAI (diffuse axonal injury) was initially described, there have been few, if any, discussions about the clinical-pathological correlation in TAI...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437223/exercise-and-peripheral-nerve-grafts-as-a-strategy-to-promote-regeneration-after-acute-or-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Catherine C Theisen, Rahul Sachdeva, Scarlett Austin, Danielle Kulich, Victoria Kranz, John D Houle
Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury (SCI) routinely are designed to address multiple aspects of the primary and/or secondary damage that occurs. Exercise has a demonstrated efficacy for post-SCI complications such as cardiovascular dysfunction, neuropathic pain, and chronic inflammation, yet there is little understanding of the mechanisms by which improvements might result from this non-invasive approach. Here we review several of our observations of molecular and cellular changes within the injured spinal cord following acute or delayed exercise regimens that illustrate the potential for positive effects on neuroprotection and rehabilitation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436759/the-roles-of-micrornas-in-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Zhongju Shi, Hengxing Zhou, Lu Lu, Xueying Li, Zheng Fu, Jun Liu, Yi Kang, Zhijian Wei, Bin Pan, Lu Liu, Xiaohong Kong, Shiqing Feng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) involves serious damage that can result in abnormal or absent motor and sensory functions and a disruption of autonomic function, and a series of pathological reactions occur after the injury. As a type of small non-coding RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been verified to inhibit gene expression via posttranscriptional regulation. This review mainly focuses on recent advances regarding the roles of miRNAs following SCI. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were adopted...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434993/effect-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury-hemisection-on-the-ex-vivo-uptake-and-release-of-3-h-noradrenaline-from-a-slice-preparation
#10
Zoltán Borbély, Benedek Krisztián Csomó, Ágnes Kittel, Gábor Gerber, Gábor Varga, E Sylvester Vizi
We measured the ex vivo uptake and release of [(3)H]noradrenaline ([(3)H]NA) from perfused rat spinal cord slice preparations at 1, 3 and 14 days after unilateral hemisection-induced spinal cord injury (SCI) compared with control slice preparations. After surgical hemisection under anaesthesia, the rats showed characteristic signs of hemiplegia, with no movement of the ipsilateral hindlimb. After 3 days, the electron microscopy images showed overall degeneration of neuronal organelles and the myelin sheath, but the synapses seemed to be intact...
April 20, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429407/spinal-cord-injury-induces-widespread-chronic-changes-in-cerebral-white-matter
#11
Tero Ilvesmäki, Eerika Koskinen, Antti Brander, Teemu Luoto, Juha Öhman, Hannu Eskola
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) lead to axonal damage at the trauma site, as well as disconnections within the central nervous system. While the exact mechanisms of the long-term pathophysiological consequences of SCIs are not fully understood, it is known that neuronal damage and degeneration are not limited to the direct proximity of the trauma. Instead, the effects can be detected even in the cerebrum. We examined SCI-induced chronic brain changes with a case-control design using 32 patients and 70 control subjects...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426967/an-intrinsic-epigenetic-barrier-for-functional-axon-regeneration
#12
Yi-Lan Weng, Ran An, Jessica Cassin, Jessica Joseph, Ruifa Mi, Chen Wang, Chun Zhong, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Alfonso Bellacosa, Xinzhong Dong, Ahmet Hoke, Zhigang He, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming
Mature neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system can effectively switch from a dormant state with little axonal growth to robust axon regeneration upon injury. The mechanisms by which injury unlocks mature neurons' intrinsic axonal growth competence are not well understood. Here, we show that peripheral sciatic nerve lesion in adult mice leads to elevated levels of Tet3 and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Functionally, Tet3 is required for robust axon regeneration of DRG neurons and behavioral recovery...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426953/methylock-dna-demethylation-is-the-epigenetic-key-to-axon-regeneration
#13
Scarlett J Barker, Li-Huei Tsai
In this issue of Neuron, Weng et al. (2017) reveal a role for active DNA demethylation in allowing axon regeneration to occur in the mature nervous system following axonal injury.
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425503/nerve-degeneration-and-regeneration-in-the-cephalopod-mollusc-octopus-vulgaris-the-case-of-the-pallial-nerve
#14
Pamela Imperadore, Sameer B Shah, Helen P Makarenkova, Graziano Fiorito
Regeneration is a process that restores structure and function of tissues damaged by injury or disease. In mammals complete regeneration is often unsuccessful, while most of the low phyla animals can re-grow many parts of their body after amputation. Cephalopod molluscs, and in particular Octopus vulgaris, are well known for their capacity to regenerate their arms and other body parts, including central and peripheral nervous system. To better understand the mechanism of recovery following nerve injury in this species we investigated the process of axon regrowth and nerve regeneration after complete transection of the Octopus pallial nerves...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420967/organization-and-plasticity-of-sodium-channel-expression-in-the-mouse-olfactory-and-vomeronasal-epithelia
#15
Florian Bolz, Stephanie Kasper, Bernd Bufe, Frank Zufall, Martina Pyrski
To understand the molecular basis of neuronal excitation in the mammalian olfactory system, we conducted a systematic analysis of the organization of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel subunits in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and vomeronasal organ (VNO) of adult mice. We also analyzed changes in Nav channel expression during development in these two systems and during regeneration of the MOE. Quantitative PCR shows that Nav1.7 is the predominant isoform in both adult MOE and VNO. We detected pronounced immunoreactivity for Nav1...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420963/rna-seq-analysis-of-microglia-reveals-time-dependent-activation-of-specific-genetic-programs-following-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Harun N Noristani, Yannick N Gerber, Jean-Charles Sabourin, Marine Le Corre, Nicolas Lonjon, Nadine Mestre-Frances, Hélène E Hirbec, Florence E Perrin
Neurons have inherent competence to regrow following injury, although not spontaneously. Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a pronounced neuroinflammation driven by resident microglia and infiltrating peripheral macrophages. Microglia are the first reactive glial population after SCI and participate in recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages to the lesion site. Both positive and negative influence of microglia and macrophages on axonal regeneration had been reported after SCI, raising the issue whether their response depends on time post-lesion or different lesion severity...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416800/axon-degeneration-a-receptor-for-injury
#17
Darran Yates
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414769/creation-of-an-intramedullary-cavity-by-hemorrhagic-necrosis-removal-24-h-after-spinal-cord-contusion-in-rats-for-eventual-intralesional-implantation-of-restorative-materials
#18
Gabriel Guizar-Sahagun, Angelina Martinez-Cruz, Rebecca E Franco-Bourland, Eduardo Cruz-García, Alvaro Corona-Juarez, Araceli Diaz-Ruiz, Israel Grijalva, Horacio J Reyes-Alva, Ignacio Madrazo
Intramedullary hemorrhagic necrosis occurs early after spinal cord injury at the site of injury and adjacent segments. It is considered harmful because of its potential to aggravate secondary injury, and to interfere with axonal regeneration; it might also lead to an unfavorable environment for intralesional implants. Removal of hemorrhagic necrosis has been attempted before with variable results. The invasive nature of these procedures carries the risk of exacerbating damage to the injured cord. The overall objective for this study was to test several strategies for non-damaging removal of hemorrhagic necrosis and characterize the resulting cavity looking for a space for future intralesional therapeutic implants in rats with acute cord injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414059/a-mouse-ocular-explant-model-that-enables-the-study-of-living-optic-nerve-head-events-after-acute-and-chronic-intraocular-pressure-elevation-focusing-on-retinal-ganglion-cell-axons-and-mitochondria
#19
Elizabeth C Kimball, Mary E Pease, Matthew R Steinhart, Ericka N Oglesby, Ian Pitha, Cathy Nguyen, Harry A Quigley
We developed an explant model of the mouse eye and optic nerve that facilitates the study of retinal ganglion cell axons and mitochondria in the living optic nerve head (ONH) in an ex vivo environment. Two transgenic mouse strains were used, one expressing yellow fluorescent protein in selected axons and a second strain expressing cyan fluorescent protein in all mitochondria. We viewed an explanted mouse eye and optic nerve by laser scanning microscopy at and behind the ONH, the site of glaucoma injury. Explants from previously untreated mice were studied with the intraocular pressure (IOP) set artificially at normal or elevated levels for several hours...
April 14, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413924/erythropoietin-attenuates-axonal-injury-after-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-mice
#20
Rongliang Wang, Haiping Zhao, Jincheng Li, Yunxia Duan, Zhibin Fan, Zhen Tao, Fei Ju, Feng Yan, Yumin Luo
OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (EPO) confers potent neuroprotection against ischemic injury through a variety of mechanisms. However, the protective effect of EPO on axons after cerebral ischemia in adult mice is rarely covered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of EPO on axons in mice after cerebral ischemia. METHODS: A total of 30 adult male C57 BL/6 mice were treated with EPO (5000 IU/kg) or vehicle after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
April 16, 2017: Neurological Research
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