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Axonal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818097/two-drosophila-model-neurons-can-regenerate-axons-from-the-stump-or-from-a-converted-dendrite-with-feedback-between-the-two-sites
#1
Kavitha S Rao, Melissa M Rolls
BACKGROUND: After axon severing, neurons recover function by reinitiating axon outgrowth. New outgrowth often originates from the remaining axon stump. However, in many mammalian neurons, new axons initiate from a dendritic site when the axon is injured close to the cell body. METHODS: Drosophila sensory neurons are ideal for studying neuronal injury responses because they can be injured reproducibly in a variety of genetic backgrounds. In Drosophila, it has been shown that a complex sensory neuron, ddaC, can regenerate an axon from a stump, and a simple sensory neuron, ddaE, can regenerate an axon from a dendrite...
August 17, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817801/a-sensitized-igf1-treatment-restores-corticospinal-axon-dependent-functions
#2
Yuanyuan Liu, Xuhua Wang, Wenlei Li, Qian Zhang, Yi Li, Zicong Zhang, Junjie Zhu, Bo Chen, Philip R Williams, Yiming Zhang, Bin Yu, Xiaosong Gu, Zhigang He
A major hurdle for functional recovery after both spinal cord injury and cortical stroke is the limited regrowth of the axons in the corticospinal tract (CST) that originate in the motor cortex and innervate the spinal cord. Despite recent advances in engaging the intrinsic mechanisms that control CST regrowth, it remains to be tested whether such methods can promote functional recovery in translatable settings. Here we show that post-lesional AAV-assisted co-expression of two soluble proteins, namely insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and osteopontin (OPN), in cortical neurons leads to robust CST regrowth and the recovery of CST-dependent behavioral performance after both T10 lateral spinal hemisection and a unilateral cortical stroke...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816099/sex-differences-of-steroid-receptor-coactivator-1-expression-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#3
Jiayu Xiao, Jiqiang Zhang, Yangang Zhao, Wenjie Huang, Zhikai Guo, Bingyin Su, Qiang Guo
OBJECTIVE: The neural functional recovery of female is often better than that of male after spinal cord injury (SCI). Evidences show that estrogen can attenuate inflammation and promote the neural survival and regeneration after SCI. SRC-1 is an essential initiation factor for the estrogen-regulated target gene transcription and plays a key role in regulating estrogen activity. However, it is not known whether and how SRC-1 mediates the neural regeneration promoted by estrogen after SCI...
August 17, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813843/addition-of-forelimb-training-reduces-gains-from-robotic-gait-training-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Nathan D Neckel, Haining Dai, Olga C Rodriguez
To restore locomotor function following spinal cord injury the disrupted descending supraspinal drive needs to be re-connected to regions caudal to the injury. Robotic gait training aims to facilitate recovery by stimulating the proprioceptive networks of the legs in a coordinated walking pattern while the descending supraspinal connections are re-established. In incomplete injuries, it is believed that the interneuronal networks near the injury site form relay circuits to reroute the supraspinal signals through the spared tissue...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812366/a-combination-of-experimental-measurement-constitutive-damage-model-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-to-characterize-the-mechanical-properties-of-the-human-brain
#5
Alireza Karimi, Seyed Mohammadali Rahmati, Reza Razaghi
Understanding the mechanical properties of the human brain is deemed important as it may subject to various types of complex loadings during the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the brain, there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the human brain tissue and the damage of its axon fibers under the various types of complex loadings during the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the brain, there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the human brain tissue and the damage of its axon fibers under the frontal lobe of the human brain...
August 16, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812113/-pathophysiology-of-intracranial-injuries
#6
REVIEW
D Lahner, G Fritsch
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a heterogeneous condition that affects the most complex organ of the human body. It is commonly classified by its location as focal injury (e.g. epidural hematoma) and diffuse injury (e.g. diffuse axonal shearing injury) as well as by primary and secondary tissue injury. Accordingly, direct mechanical force causes the primary insult. The tissue damage occurring afterwards is subsumed under the term secondary brain damage. Some of these processes are overlapping and include in the early phase local cerebral ischemia resulting in excitotoxicity, which together with the triggered neuroinflammatory cascade causes the formation of cerebral edema and ultimately increased intracranial pressure once the intracranial compliance is exhausted...
August 15, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810542/electroacupuncture-promotes-axonal-regeneration-in-rats-with-focal-cerebral-ischemia-through-the-downregulation-of-nogo-a-ngr-rhoa-rock-signaling
#7
Saie Huang, Danxia Huang, Jiapei Zhao, Lidian Chen
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the axonal regeneration environment following cerebral ischemia injury and to investigate whether it was associated with Nogo-A/Nogo receptor (NgR)/RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) signaling. Using a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, the effects of EA at the Quchi (LI11) and Zusanli (ST36) acupoints on axonal growth inhibitory protein and axonal growth factors were assessed and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806920/specific-ion-channels-contribute-to-key-elements-of-pathology-during-secondary-degeneration-following-neurotrauma
#8
Ryan L O'Hare Doig, Wissam Chiha, Marcus K Giacci, Nathanael J Yates, Carole A Bartlett, Nicole M Smith, Stuart I Hodgetts, Alan R Harvey, Melinda Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Following partial injury to the central nervous system, cells beyond the initial injury site undergo secondary degeneration, exacerbating loss of neurons, compact myelin and function. Changes in Ca(2+) flux are associated with metabolic and structural changes, but it is not yet clear how flux through specific ion channels contributes to the various pathologies. Here, partial optic nerve transection in adult female rats was used to model secondary degeneration. Treatment with combinations of three ion channel inhibitors was used as a tool to investigate which elements of oxidative and structural damage related to long term functional outcomes...
August 14, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806446/sema3a-reduces-sprouting-of-adult-rod-photoreceptors-in-vitro
#9
Frank Kung, Weiwei Wang, Tracy S Tran, Ellen Townes-Anderson
Purpose: Rod photoreceptor terminals respond to retinal injury with retraction and sprouting. Since the guidance cue Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is observed in the retina after injury, we asked whether Sema3A contributes to structural plasticity in rod photoreceptors. Methods: We used Western blots and alkaline phosphatase (AP)-tagged neuropilin-1 (NPN-1) to detect the expression of Sema3A in an organotypic model of porcine retinal detachment. We then examined Sema3A binding to cultured salamander rod photoreceptors using AP-tagged Sema3A...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804736/urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-upa-and-its-receptor-upar-promote-neurorepair-in-the-ischemic-brain
#10
Paola Merino, Ariel Diaz, Manuel Yepes
Despite the fact that ischemic stroke has been considered a leading cause of mortality in the world, recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the ischemic injury and the treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients have led to a sharp decrease in the number of stroke deaths. However, this decrease in stroke mortality has also led to an increase in the number of patients that survive the acute ischemic injury with different degrees of disability. Unfortunately, to this date we do not have an effective therapeutic strategy to promote neurological recovery in these growing population of stroke survivors...
2017: Receptors & Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804608/remyelination-improvement-after-neurotrophic-factors-secreting-cells-transplantation-in-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Shahnaz Razavi, Nazem Ghasemi, Mohammad Mardani, Hossein Salehi
OBJECTIVES: Neurotrophic factors secreting cells (NTS-SCs) may be a superior cell source for cell-based therapy in neurodegenerative diseases. NTS-SCs are able to secrete some neurotrophic Such as nerve growth factor and glia-derived neurotrophic factor. Our primary aim was to assess transplantation of neurotrophic factor secreting cells derived from human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) into the damaged spinal cord rats and determine the potential of these cells in remyelination...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803968/acute-spinal-cord-injury-a-review-of-pathophysiology-and-potential-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-for-pharmacological-intervention
#12
REVIEW
Emrullah Hayta, Hasan Elden
Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the serious central nervous system injuries, which can lead to significant neurological impairments and a reduction in quality of life with loss in sensory and motor functions. Although recent advancements contribute to the understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes developed after SCI, currently, there is limited innovative and effective treatment options besides conventional rehabilitation and management of SCI to alleviate the condition. Improvements in neurological functions of the individuals with SCI depend mainly on the mechanical damage occurring in the primary injury and on pathophysiological alterations associated with secondary damage...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803750/motor-cortex-and-spinal-cord-neuromodulation-promote-corticospinal-tract-axonal-outgrowth-and-motor-recovery-after-cervical-contusion-spinal-cord-injury
#13
N Zareen, M Shinozaki, D Ryan, H Alexander, A Amer, D Truong, N Khadka, A Sarkar, S Naeem, M Bikson, J Martin
Cervical injuries are the most common form of SCI. In this study, we used a neuromodulatory approach to promote skilled movement recovery and repair of the corticospinal tract (CST) after a moderately severe C4 midline contusion in adult rats. We used bilateral epidural intermittent theta burst (iTBS) electrical stimulation of motor cortex to promote CST axonal sprouting and cathodal trans-spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) to enhance spinal cord activation to motor cortex stimulation after injury. We used Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling to direct tsDCS to the cervical enlargement...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801063/chondroitin-sulfates-do-not-impede-axonal-regeneration-in-goldfish-spinal-cord
#14
Akihito Takeda, Soichiro Okada, Kengo Funakoshi
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans produced in glial scar tissue are a major inhibitory factor for axonal regeneration after central nervous system injury in mammals. The inhibition is largely due to chondroitin sulfates, whose effects differ according to the sulfation pattern. In contrast to mammals, fish nerves spontaneously regenerate beyond the scar tissue after spinal cord injury, although the mechanisms that allow for axons to pass through the scar are unclear. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the expression of two chondroitin sulfates with different sulfation variants at the lesion site in goldfish spinal cord...
August 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801041/diagnosis-of-delayed-diffuse-axonal-%C3%A4-njury
#15
Çağri Kokkoz, Mehmet Irik, Halil I Dayangaç, Mustafa Hayran, Adnan Bilge, Musa Çavuş
Diffuse axonal injury is usually caused by head trauma, and patients have significant clinical symptoms during admission to the emergency department. In our case, we present a five-year-old patient who was involved in a car accident. During admission to the emergency department, the patient had no symptoms of trauma. However, 6 h after admission to emergency service, neurological symptoms occurred, and mental status changed. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is characterized by diffuse nerve axon injury in the brain and brainstem...
August 4, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796579/effects-of-localized-x-ray-irradiation-on-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-transected-sciatic-nerve-in-rats
#16
Bo Jiang, Yong Zhang, Jiaju Zhao, Chang She, Xiaozhong Zhou, Qirong Dong, Peiji Wang
Low-dose radiation has been used in clinical and experimental models for the prevention of scarring and for fracture healing. There is evidence that low-dose radiation improves the hormesis of various cell types but little is known about its effects on peripheral nerve tissue. In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of low-dose radiation on the regeneration of transectional peripheral nerve injury in an experimental rat model. Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats received transection injury to the left sciatic nerves, and the nerves were subsequently sutured by epineurium end-to-end anastomosis to restore continuity...
August 10, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795960/advances-in-experimental-optic-nerve-regeneration
#17
Bo Young Chun, Dean M Cestari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in experimental studies of optic nerve regeneration to better understand the pathophysiology of axon regrowth and provide insights into the future treatment of numerous optic neuropathies. RECENT FINDINGS: The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system and cannot regenerate if injured. There are several steps that regenerating axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) must take following optic nerve injury that include: maximizing the intrinsic growth capacity of RGCs, overcoming the extrinsic growth-inhibitory environment of the optic nerve, and optimizing the reinnervation of regenerated axons to their targets in the brain...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795616/the-effects-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Konstantin Rosich, Bishoy Hanna, Rami K Ibrahim, Daniel Joseph Hellenbrand, Amgad Hanna
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition affecting 270,000 people in the United States. The use of growth factors is a potential treatment for reducing secondary damage, promoting axon growth and restoring some of the lost function after SCI. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an important growth factor, because it can affect both neurons and support cells. Here, we give an in depth review of the previously published literature where GDNF was used to treat SCI. The effects of GDNF have been shown to decrease lesion size, improve allodynia, and regenerate axons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795433/schwann-cell-dedifferentiation-associated-demyelination-leads-to-exocytotic-myelin-clearance-in-inflammatory-segmental-demyelination
#19
So Young Jang, Byeol-A Yoon, Yoon Kyung Shin, Seoug Hoon Yun, Young Rae Jo, Yun Young Choi, Meejung Ahn, Taekyun Shin, Joo In Park, Jong Kuk Kim, Hwan Tae Park
Schwann cells (SCs), which form the peripheral myelin sheath, have the unique ability to dedifferentiate and to destroy the myelin sheath under various demyelination conditions. During SC dedifferentiation-associated demyelination (SAD) in Wallerian degeneration (WD) after axonal injury, SCs exhibit myelin and junctional instability, down-regulation of myelin gene expression and autophagic myelin breakdown. However, in inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (IDN), it is still unclear how SCs react and contribute to segmental demyelination before myelin scavengers, macrophages, are activated for phagocytotic myelin digestion...
August 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791751/the-gene-network-underlying-the-glial-regenerative-response-to-central-nervous-system-injury
#20
REVIEW
Kentaro Kato, Maria Losada-Perez, Alicia Hidalgo
Although the central nervous system does not regenerate, injury induces repair and regenerative responses in glial cells. In mammals, activated microglia clear up apoptotic cells and debris resulting from the injury, astrocytes form a scar that contains the lesion, and NG2-glia elicit a prominent regenerative response. NG2-glia regenerate themselves and differentiate into oligodendrocytes, which remyelinate axons leading to some recovery of locomotion. The regenerative response of glial cells is evolutionarily conserved across the animals and Drosophila genetics revealed an underlying gene network...
August 9, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
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