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Axonal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907795/neural-injuries-induced-by-hydrostatic-pressure-associated-with-mass-effect-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#1
Tingwang Guo, Peng Ren, Xiaofei Li, Tiantian Luo, Yuhua Gong, Shilei Hao, Bochu Wang
Mass effect induced by growing hematoma is one of the mechanisms by which intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may result in brain injuries. Our goal was to investigate the damage mechanism of hydrostatic pressure associated with mass effect and the cooperative effect of hydrostatic pressure plus hemoglobin on neural injuries. Loading hydrostatic pressure on neurons and injecting agarose gel in the right striatum of rats was performed to establish the in vitro and vivo ICH models, respectively. The elevated hydrostatic pressure associated with ICH suppressed neurons and neural tissues viability, and disturbed the axons and dendrites in vitro and vivo...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907154/temporal-changes-in-macrophage-phenotype-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#2
Joy E Tomlinson, Emilija Žygelytė, Jennifer K Grenier, Michael G Edwards, Jonathan Cheetham
BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a key role in peripheral nerve repair and demonstrate complex phenotypes that are highly dependent on microenvironmental cues. METHODS: We determined temporal changes in macrophage gene expression over time using RNA sequencing after fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) macrophage populations from injured peripheral nerve. We identified key upstream regulators and dominant pathways using ingenuity pathway analysis and confirmed these changes with NanoString technology...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905040/-promotion-of-transplanted-collagen-scaffolds-combined-with-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-for-axonal-regeneration-and-motor-function-recovery-in-rats-after-transected-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Xi Chen, Yongheng Fan, Zhifeng Xiao, Xing Li, Bin Yang, Yannan Zhao, Xianglin Hou, Sufang Han, Jianwu Dai
Objective: To evaluate the effect of the combination of collagen scaffold and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the repair of transected spinal cord injury in rats. Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A (sham operation group), T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord was only exposed; group B, 4-mm T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord were resected; group C, 4-mm T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord were resected and linear ordered collagen scaffolds (LOCS) with corresponding length was transplanted into lesion site; group D, 4-mm T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord were resected and LOCS with collagen binding domain (CBD)-BDNF was transplanted into lesion site...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905039/-review-of-the-regeneration-mechanism-of-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Jiayin Li, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Jianwu Dai
Spinal cord injury (SCI), especially the complete SCI, usually results in complete paralysis below the level of the injury and seriously affects the patient's quality of life. SCI repair is still a worldwide medical problem. In the last twenty years, Professor DAI Jianwu and his team pioneered complete SCI model by removing spinal tissue with varied lengths in rodents, canine, and non-human primates to verify therapeutic effect of different repair strategies. Moreover, they also started the first clinical study of functional collagen scaffold on patients with acute complete SCI on January 16th, 2015...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903442/probing-the-neuroanatomy-of-the-cerebellum-using-tractography
#5
Christophe Habas, Mario Manto
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive neuroimaging tool assessing the organization of white-matter tracts and brain microstructure in vivo. The technique takes into account the three-dimensional (3D) direction of diffusion of water in space, the brownian movements of water being constrained by the brain microstructure. The main direction of diffusion in the brain is extracted to obtain the principal direction of axonal projection within a given voxel. Overall, the diffusion tensor is a mathematic analysis of the magnitude/directionality (anisotropy) of the movement of water molecules in 3D space...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901458/dating-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-forensic-cases-using-immunohistochemical-markers-i-neurofilaments-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-precursor-protein
#6
María de Los Ángeles Romero Tirado, José Manuel Blanco Pampin, Rosalía Gallego Gómez
Studies about head trauma are experimental or have a clinical or prognosis purpose. In this study, we used samples from human autopsies to answer common medical-legal questions.We studied 21 problem cases and 4 controls. Samples were obtained directly from the injured area, fixed in 10% formalin during 24 hours and then preserved in 70% ethanol. This procedure optimizes the immunohistochemical technique.The neurofilament antibody shows beaded axons since the first moment; over time, they increase their density and diameter as survival time also increases...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901416/intravenous-infusion-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-alters-motor-cortex-gene-expression-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Tsutomu Oshigiri, Toru Sasaki, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Masahito Nakazaki, Shinichi Oka, Tomonori Morita, Ryosuke Hirota, Mitsunori Yoshimoto, Toshihiko Yamashita, Kazue Hashimoto-Torii, Osamu Honmou
Recent evidence has demonstrated that remote responses in the brain can be induced after spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as local responses in the injured spinal cord. Intravenous infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to provide functional improvements in SCI through local therapeutic mechanisms that provide neuroprotection, stabilization of the blood-spinal cord barrier, remyelination, and axonal sprouting. In the present study, we examined the brain response that might be associated with the functional improvements induced by the infused MSCs after SCI...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899247/history-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf-and-its-use-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#8
REVIEW
Melissa J Walker, Xiao-Ming Xu
Following an initial mechanical insult, traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a secondary wave of injury, resulting in a toxic lesion environment inhibitory to axonal regeneration. This review focuses on the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its application, in combination with other factors and cell transplantations, for repairing the injured spinal cord. As studies of recent decades strongly suggest that combinational treatment approaches hold the greatest therapeutic potential for the central nervous system (CNS) trauma, future directions of combinational therapies will also be discussed...
June 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896101/activation-of-a2a-receptor-by-pdrn-reduces-neuronal-damage-and-stimulates-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-driven-neurogenesis-in-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Natasha Irrera, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Federica Mannino, Giovanna Vermiglio, Giovanni Pallio, Letteria Minutoli, Gianluca Bagnato, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Emanuela Mazzon, Placido Bramanti, Francesco Squadrito, Domenica Altavilla, Alessandra Bitto
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex clinical and progressive condition characterized by neuronal loss, axonal destruction and demyelination. In the last few years, adenosine receptors have been studied as a target for many diseases, including neurodegenerative conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist, PDRN, in an experimental model of SCI. Moreover, since adenosine receptors stimulation may also activate the Wnt pathway, we wanted to study PDRN effects on Wnt signaling following SCI...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895691/caspase-1-inhibition-prevents-glial-inflammasome-activation-and-pyroptosis-in-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Brienne A McKenzie, Manmeet K Mamik, Leina B Saito, Roobina Boghozian, Maria Chiara Monaco, Eugene O Major, Jian-Qiang Lu, William G Branton, Christopher Power
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS of unknown cause that remains incurable. Inflammasome-associated caspases mediate the maturation and release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and activate the pore-forming protein gasdermin D (GSDMD). Inflammatory programmed cell death, pyroptosis, was recently shown to be mediated by GSDMD. Here, we report molecular evidence for GSDMD-mediated inflammasome activation and pyroptosis in both myeloid cells (macrophages/microglia) and, unexpectedly, in myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (ODCs) in the CNS of patients with MS and in the MS animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
June 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893910/brief-electrical-stimulation-promotes-nerve-regeneration-following-experimental-in-continuity-nerve-injury
#11
Yuval Shapira, Vanessa Sammons, Joanne Forden, Gui Fang Guo, Alexander Kipp, Jill Girgulis, Tanmay Mishra, Jacob Daniel de Villers Alant, Rajiv Midha
BACKGROUND: Brief electrical stimulation (ES) therapy to the nerve may improve outcome in lacerated, repaired nerves. However, most human nerve injuries leave the nerve in continuity with variable and often poor functional recovery from incomplete axon regeneration and reinnervation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of brief ES in an experimental model for neuroma-in-continuity (NIC) injuries in rodents. METHODS: Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: NIC injury immediately followed by brief (1 h) ES; NIC injury without ES; sham-operated controls; sciatic nerve transection without repair...
June 11, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891731/local-bdnf-delivery-to-the-injured-cervical-spinal-cord-using-an-engineered-hydrogel-enhances-diaphragmatic-respiratory-function
#12
Biswarup Ghosh, Zhicheng Wang, Jia Nong, Mark W Urban, Zhiling Zhang, Victoria A Trovillion, Megan C Wright, Yinghui Zhong, Angelo C Lepore
We developed an innovative biomaterial-based approach to repair the critical neural circuitry that controls diaphragm activation by locally delivering brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to injured cervical spinal cord. BDNF can be used to restore respiratory function via a number of potential repair mechanisms; however, widespread BDNF biodistribution resulting from delivery methods such as systemic injection or lumbar puncture can lead to inefficient drug delivery and adverse side effects. As a viable alternative, we developed a novel hydrogel-based system loaded with polysaccharide-BDNF particles self-assembled by electrostatic interactions that can be safely implanted in the intrathecal space for achieving local BDNF delivery with controlled dosing and duration...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891729/nos3-inhibition-confers-post-ischemic-protection-to-young-and-aging-white-matter-integrity-by-conserving-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-miro-2-levels
#13
Chinthasagar Bastian, Jane Zaleski, Katharine Stahon, Brandon Parr, Andrew McCray, Jerica Day, Sylvain Brunet, Selva Baltan
White matter (WM) damage following a stroke underlies a majority of the neurological disability that is subsequently observed. Although ischemic injury mechanisms are age-dependent, conserving axonal mitochondria provides consistent post-ischemic protection to young and aging WM. Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) activation is a major cause of oxidative and mitochondrial injury in gray matter during ischemia; therefore, we used a pure WM tract, isolated male mouse optic nerve, to investigate whether NOS inhibition provides post-ischemic functional recovery by preserving mitochondria...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889084/phenelzine-a-small-organic-compound-mimicking-the-functions-of-cell-adhesion-molecule-l1-promotes-functional-recovery-after-mouse-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Rong Li, Sudhanshu Sahu, Melitta Schachner
BACKGROUND: Neural cell adhesion molecule L1 contributes to nervous system development and maintenance by promoting neuronal survival, neuritogenesis, axonal regrowth/sprouting, myelination, and synapse formation and plasticity. L1 also enhances recovery after spinal cord injury and ameliorates neurodegenerative processes in experimental rodent models. Aiming for clinical translation of L1 into therapy we screened for and functionally characterized in vitro the small organic molecule phenelzine, which mimics characteristic L1 functions...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889081/hypoglossal-facial-nerve-side-to-side-neurorrhaphy-for-facial-paralysis-resulting-from-closed-temporal-bone-fractures
#15
Diya Su, Dezhi Li, Shiwei Wang, Hui Qiao, Ping Li, Binbin Wang, Hong Wan, Michael Schumacher, Song Liu
BACKGROUND: Closed temporal bone fractures due to cranial trauma often result in facial nerve injury, frequently inducing incomplete facial paralysis. Conventional hypoglossal-facial nerve end-to-end neurorrhaphy may not be suitable for these injuries because sacrifice of the lesioned facial nerve for neurorrhaphy destroys the remnant axons and/or potential spontaneous innervation. OBJECTIVE: we modified the classical method by hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-side neurorrhaphy using an interpositional predegenerated nerve graft to treat these injuries...
June 6, 2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883625/transplantation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-that-overexpress-nt-3-produce-motor-improvements-without-axonal-regeneration-following-complete-spinal-cord-transections-in-rats
#16
Andrew N Stewart, Griffin Kendziorski, Zachary M Deak, Nathanial C Bartosek, Brooke E Rezmer, Kenneth Jenrow, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Transplanting stem cells engineered to overexpress trophic factors can improve motor abilities and facilitate axon regeneration following spinal cord injury. This study compared several transplantation paradigms using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that overexpress the multi-neurotrophin, NT-3/D15A (NT-3-MSCs), to determine if different grafting strategies can elicit improved axon regeneration and/or behavioral outcomes following a complete T9 spinal transection. At one week post-transection, NT-3-MSCs were transplanted above, and at several locations below, the lesion site...
June 5, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882418/olfactory-ensheathing-cells-for-spinal-cord-injury-sniffing-out-the-issues
#17
R Yao, M Murtaza, J Tello Velasquez, M Todorovic, A Rayfield, J Ekberg, M Barton, J St John
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are glia reported to sustain the continuous axon extension and successful topographic targeting of the olfactory receptor neurons responsible for the sense of smell (olfaction). Due to this distinctive property, OECs have been trialed in human cell transplant therapies to assist in the repair of central nervous system injuries, particularly those of the spinal cord. Though many studies have reported neurological improvement, the therapy remains inconsistent and requires further improvement...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882081/cortical-reorganization-of-sensorimotor-systems-and-the-role-of-intracortical-circuits-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
REVIEW
Hisham Mohammed, Edmund R Hollis
The plasticity of sensorimotor systems in mammals underlies the capacity for motor learning as well as the ability to relearn following injury. Spinal cord injury, which both deprives afferent input and interrupts efferent output, results in a disruption of cortical somatotopy. While changes in corticospinal axons proximal to the lesion are proposed to support the reorganization of cortical motor maps after spinal cord injury, intracortical horizontal connections are also likely to be critical substrates for rehabilitation-mediated recovery...
June 7, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881335/cell-adhesion-molecule-close-homolog-of-l1-chl1-guides-the-regrowth-of-regenerating-motor-axons-and-regulates-synaptic-coverage-of-motor-neurons
#19
Daria Guseva, Igor Jakovcevski, Andrey Irintchev, Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Vladimir Sytnyk, Evgeni Ponimaskin, Melitta Schachner
The close homolog of L1 (CHL1) is a cell adhesion molecule involved in regulation of neuronal differentiation and survival, neurite outgrowth and axon guidance during development. In the mature nervous system, CHL1 regulates synaptic activity and plasticity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of CHL1 on peripheral nerve regeneration after trauma. Using the established model of mouse femoral nerve regeneration, CHL1 knock-out mice were investigated in comparison to the wild type littermates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879365/bone-marrow-stromal-cells-promote-innervation-of-bioengineered-teeth
#20
M Strub, L Keller, Y Idoux-Gillet, H Lesot, F Clauss, N Benkirane-Jessel, S Kuchler-Bopp
Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMDCs) into a denervated side of the spinal cord was reported to be a useful option for axonal regeneration. The innervation of teeth is essential for their function and protection but does not occur spontaneously after injury. Cultured reassociations between dissociated embryonic dental mesenchymal and epithelial cells and implantation lead to a vascularized tooth organ regeneration. However, when reassociations were coimplanted with a trigeminal ganglion (TG), innervation did not occur...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
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