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Axonal injury

Lourdes Mateos-Hernández, Margarita Villar, Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Marco Trevisan-Herraz, Ángel García-Forcada, Francisco Romero Ganuza, Jesús Vázquez, José de la Fuente
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune-mediated peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause. However, about a quarter of GBS patients have suffered a recent bacterial or viral infection, and axonal forms of the disease are especially common in these patients. Proteomics is a good methodological approach for the discovery of disease biomarkers. Until recently, most proteomics studies of GBS and other neurodegenerative diseases have focused on the analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, serum represents an attractive alternative to CSF because it is easier to sample and has potential for biomarker discovery...
October 20, 2016: Oncotarget
Ming-Liang Wang, Wen-Bin Li
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is closely related to increased incidence of cognitive impairment from the acute phase to chronic phase. At present, the pathological mechanism leading to cognitive impairment after TBI is still not fully understood. We hypothesize that neuron loss, diffuse axonal injury, microbleed, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption altogether contribute to the development of cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the disruption of structural and functional neural network related to the cognitive function might bring about the final step in the occurrence of cognitive impairment after TBI...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Xiangbing Wu, Chandler L Walker, Qingbo Lu, Wei Wu, Daniel B Eddelman, Jonathan M Parish, Xiao-Ming Xu
Activation of RhoA/Rho kinase leads to growth cone collapse and neurite retraction. Although RhoA/Rho kinase inhibition has been shown to improve axon regeneration, remyelination and functional recovery, its role in neuronal cell death remains unclear. To determine whether RhoA/Rho kinase played a role in neuronal death after injury, we investigated the relationship between RhoA/Rho kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), a lipase that mediates inflammation and cell death, using an in vitro neuronal death model and an in vivo contusive spinal cord injury model performed at the 10th thoracic (T10) vertebral level...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Hyunkyoung Lee, Jiyeon Baek, Hyunjung Min, Ik-Hyun Cho, Seong-Woo Yu, Sung Joong Lee
OBJECTIVE: It is well known that Schwann cells play an important role in Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve injury. Previously, we reported that toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is expressed on Schwann cells, implicating its role in Schwann cell activation during Wallerian degeneration. In this study, we tested this possibility using TLR3 knock-out mice. METHODS: Sciatic nerve-crush injury was induced in wild-type and TLR3 knock-out mice. Histological sections of the sciatic nerve were analyzed for Wallerian degeneration on days 3 and 7 after injury...
October 22, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
Orna Gera, Efrat Shavit-Stein, Doron Bushi, Sagi Harnof, Marina Ben Shimon, Ronen Weiss, Valery Golderman, Amir Dori, Nicola Maggio, Kate Finegold, Joab Chapman
Thrombin and activated protein C (aPC) bound to the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) both activate protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) generating either harmful or protective signaling respectively. In the present study we examined the localization of PAR-1 and EPCR and thrombin activity in Schwann glial cells of normal and crushed peripheral nerve and in Schwannoma cell lines. In the sciatic crush model nerves were excised 1 hour, 1, 4, and 7 days after the injury. Schwannoma cell lines produced high levels of prothrombin which is converted to active thrombin and expressed both EPCR and PAR-1 which co-localized...
October 19, 2016: Neuroscience
In Ae Chang, Hee Don Lim, Ki Joong Kim, Hwachul Shin, Uk Namgung
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological symptoms, and recent experimental studies have begun to provide evidence showing its protective effects on neural cells. Yet, its function for the regenerative responses of axons in the peripheral nerve after injury is not known. AIM OF THE STUDY: The primary objective of the present study was to explore that BYHWD is involved in growth-promoting activity of the peripheral nerve axons after injury...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Christine Altmann, Verica Vasic, Stefanie Hardt, Juliana Heidler, Annett Häussler, Ilka Wittig, Mirko H H Schmidt, Irmgard Tegeder
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury is a frequent cause of lasting motor deficits and chronic pain. Although peripheral nerves are capable of regrowth they often fail to re-innervate target tissues. RESULTS: Using newly generated transgenic mice with inducible neuronal progranulin overexpression we show that progranulin accelerates axonal regrowth, restoration of neuromuscular synapses and recovery of sensory and motor functions after injury of the sciatic nerve...
October 22, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
So Hyun Ahn, In Ae Chang, Ki-Joong Kim, Chul-Jung Kim, Uk Namgung, Chung-Sik Cho
BACKGROUND: Bogijetong decoction (BGJTD) is a herbal drug formulation used in the traditional Asian medicine to treat neuropathic insults associated with diabetes and anticancer therapy. To understand the biological basis of BGJTD on protective effects against neuropathy, we investigated physiological and biochemical responses of the sciatic nerves deranged by taxol injection or crush injury in the rats. METHODS: Dissociated Schwann cells and neurons were prepared from the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) respectively and were treated with taxol and BGJTD...
October 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Ravinder Bamba, Thanapong Waitayawinyu, Ratnam Nookala, David Colton Riley, Richard B Boyer, Kevin W Sexton, Chinnakart Boonyasirikool, Sunyarn Niempoog, Nathaniel D Kelm, Mark D Does, Richard D Dortch, Robert Bruce Shack, Wesley P Thayer
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury can have a devastating impact on our military and veteran population. Current strategies for peripheral nerve repair include techniques such as nerve tubes, nerve grafts, tissue matrices, and nerve growth guides to enhance the number of regenerating axons. Even with such advanced techniques, it takes months to regain function. In animal models, polyethylene glycol (PEG) therapy has shown to improve both physiologic and behavioral outcomes after nerve transection by fusion of a portion of the proximal axons to the distal axon stumps...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Kerui Gong, Peter T Ohara, Luc Jasmin
Patch clamp studies from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) neurons have increased our understanding of the peripheral nervous system. Currently, the majority of recordings are conducted on dissociated DRG neurons, which is a standard preparation for most laboratories. Neuronal properties, however, can be altered by axonal injury resulting from enzyme digestion used in acquiring dissociated neurons. Further, dissociated neuron preparations cannot fully represent the microenvironment of the DRG since loss of contact with satellite glial cells that surround the primary sensory neurons is an unavoidable consequence of this method...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Johanna Flygt, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
BACKGROUND: Injury to the white matter may lead to impaired neuronal signaling and is commonly observed following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although endogenous repair of TBI-induced white matter pathology is limited, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may be stimulated to proliferate and regenerate functionally myelinating oligodendrocytes. Even though OPCs are present throughout the adult brain, little is known about their proliferative activity following axonal injury caused by TBI...
October 17, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Wei Bu, Huiling Ren, Yunping Deng, Nobel Del Mar, Natalie M Guley, Bob M Moore, Marcia G Honig, Anton Reiner
We have previously reported that mild TBI created by focal left-side cranial blast in mice produces widespread axonal injury, microglial activation, and a variety of functional deficits. We have also shown that these functional deficits are reduced by targeting microglia through their cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptors using 2-week daily administration of the CB2 inverse agonist SMM-189. CB2 inverse agonists stabilize the G-protein coupled CB2 receptor in an inactive conformation, leading to increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and thus bias activated microglia from a pro-inflammatory M1 to a pro-healing M2 state...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Xiang He, Ling Jiang, Qi-Qin Dan, Qiang Lv, Yue Hu, Jia Liu, Ting-Hua Wang, Shu-Fen Wang
Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2), an important protein involved in axonal growth and the maintenance of neuronal membrane integrity, has proved to be altered in nervous system diseases. This study was aimed to investigate the role of CRMP2 in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) treating rats with cerebral ischemia. BMSCs were isolated from shaft of the femurs, tibiae, and humeri and was intra-carotid administrated immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Modified Neurological Severity Scores (mNSS) was conducted at 3, 7, 14 dpo and the electrophysiologic evaluation was evaluated at 14 dpo...
October 17, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Naseem Jamnia, Janice H Urban, Grace Beth Stuzmann, Sarah Chiren, Emily Reisenbigler, Robert Marr, Daniel A Peterson, Dorothy A Kozlowski
Repeat concussions (RC) can result in significant long-term neurological consequences and increased risk for neurodegenerative disease compared to single concussion (SC). Mechanisms underlying this difference are poorly understood and best elucidated using an animal model. To the best of our knowledge, there is no closed-head model in the adult rat using a commercially available device. We developed a novel and clinically relevant closed-head injury (CHI) model of both single and multiple concussions in the adult rat using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Mingyong Gao, Paul Lu, Dan Lynam, Bridget Bednark, W Marie Campana, Jeff Sakamoto, Mark Tuszynski
OBJECTIVE: We combined implantation of multi-channel templated agarose scaffolds with growth factor gene delivery to examine whether this combinatorial treatment can enhance peripheral axonal regeneration through long sciatic nerve gaps. APPROACH: 15 mm long scaffolds were templated into highly organized, strictly linear channels, mimicking the linear organization of natural nerves into fascicles of related function. Scaffolds were filled with syngeneic bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) secreting the growth factor brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and lentiviral vectors expressing BDNF were injected into the sciatic nerve segment distal to the scaffold implantation site...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Katelyn N Benthall, Ryan A Hough, Andrew D McClellan
Following spinal cord injury (SCI) in the lamprey, there is virtually complete recovery of locomotion within a few weeks, but interestingly, axonal regeneration of reticulospinal (RS) neurons is mostly limited to short distances caudal to the injury site. To explain this situation, we hypothesize that descending propriospinal (PS) neurons relay descending drive from RS neurons to indirectly activate spinal central pattern generators (CPGs). In the present study, the contributions of PS neurons to locomotor recovery were tested in the lamprey following SCI...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Ariel Haimovici, Pablo Balenzuela, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Synchronization of brain activity fluctuations is believed to represent communication between spatially distant neural processes. These inter-areal functional interactions develop in the background of a complex network of axonal connections linking cortical and sub-cortical neurons, termed the human "structural connectome". Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence support the view that the human brain can be modeled as a system operating at a critical point between ordered (sub-critical) and disordered (super-critical) phases...
October 19, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Kei Ando, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Koji Nishida, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: Self-assembling peptide gel (SPG-178) provides new evidence for the role of a scaffold for treatment of the spinal cord through induction of neuroprotective factors. OBJECTIVE: To verify the reproducibility of SPG-178 as scaffold after spinal cord injury, we examine the characteristics of SPG-178 and protective effect on neural cells in vitro and in vivo. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The central nervous system extracellular matrix may play a role in maintenance of the neuronal network by inhibiting axonal growth and suppressing formation of additional inadequate synapses...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Volkan Solmaz, Selçuk Yavuz, Ahmet İnanr, Dürdane Aksoy, Elmas Pektaş, Aslan Tekataş, Semiha Gulsum Kurt
INTRODUCTION: our aim was to determine if there are electro diagnostic (EDX) differences between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), CTS+hypothyroidism (HT), CTS+fibromyalgia (FMS), CTS+rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and idiopathic CTS cases by comparing nerve conduction studies (NCS). METHOD: This research examined electrophysiological studies of untreated 47 HT+CTS, 47 DM+CTS, 49 RA+CTS, 52 FMS+CTS, 50 idiopathic CTS cases, and a healthy control group of 50 individuals (total of 293 patients and 433 hands with CTS)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Abdurrahman Emir, Yıldıray Kalkan, Habib Bostan
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the histopathological effects of metamizole sodium (MS) on the sciatic nerve. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed using 48 adult male Wistar albino rats. Ten groups were constituted with 6 rats in each group. MS injection into the sciatic nerve (group 1), MS injection into the muscle [group 3 (50 mg/kg, 0.4 ml) and group 5 (50 mg/kg, 0.8 ml)], MS injection into the muscle cavity in the vicinity of the sciatic nerve [group 2 (50 mg/kg, 0...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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