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Axonal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045878/homodimeric-kinesin-2-kif3cc-promotes-microtubule-dynamics
#1
Stephanie Guzik-Lendrum, Ivan Rayment, Susan P Gilbert
KIF3C is one subunit of the functional microtubule-based kinesin-2 KIF3AC motor, an anterograde cargo transporter in neurons. However, KIF3C has also been implicated as an injury-specific kinesin that is a key regulator of axonal growth and regeneration by promoting microtubule dynamics for reorganization at the neuronal growth cone. To test its potential role as a modulator of microtubule dynamics in vitro, an engineered homodimeric KIF3CC was incorporated into a dynamic microtubule assay and examined by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045834/a-latent-propriospinal-network-can-restore-diaphragm-function-after-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Jared M Cregg, Kevin A Chu, Lydia E Hager, Rachel S J Maggard, Daimen R Stoltz, Michaela Edmond, Warren J Alilain, Polyxeni Philippidou, Lynn T Landmesser, Jerry Silver
Spinal cord injury (SCI) above cervical level 4 disrupts descending axons from the medulla that innervate phrenic motor neurons, causing permanent paralysis of the diaphragm. Using an ex vivo preparation in neonatal mice, we have identified an excitatory spinal network that can direct phrenic motor bursting in the absence of medullary input. After complete cervical SCI, blockade of fast inhibitory synaptic transmission caused spontaneous, bilaterally coordinated phrenic bursting. Here, spinal cord glutamatergic neurons were both sufficient and necessary for the induction of phrenic bursts...
October 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044770/effects-of-forced-passive-and-voluntary-exercise-on-spinal-motoneurons-changes-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#3
Ariadna Arbat-Plana, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina
After peripheral nerve injury, there are important changes at the spinal level that can lead to disorganization of the central circuitry and thus, compromise functional recovery even if axons are able to successfully regenerate and reinnervate their target organs. Physical rehabilitation is a promising strategy to modulate these plastic changes and thus, to improve functional recovery after damage of the nervous system. Forced exercise in a treadmill is able to partially reverse the synaptic stripping and the loss of perineuronal nets that motoneurons suffer after peripheral nerve injury in animal models...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044129/priming-with-fgf2-stimulates-human-dental-pulp-cells-to-promote-axonal-regeneration-and-locomotor-function-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Kosuke Nagashima, Takahiro Miwa, Hitomi Soumiya, Daisuke Ushiro, Tomoko Takeda-Kawaguchi, Naritaka Tamaoki, Saho Ishiguro, Yumi Sato, Kei Miyamoto, Takatoshi Ohno, Masatake Osawa, Takahiro Kunisada, Toshiyuki Shibata, Ken-Ichi Tezuka, Shoei Furukawa, Hidefumi Fukumitsu
Human dental pulp cells (DPCs), adherent cells derived from dental pulp tissues, are potential tools for cell transplantation therapy. However, little work has been done to optimize such transplantation. In this study, DPCs were treated with fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) for 5-6 consecutive serial passages and were transplanted into the injury site immediately after complete transection of the rat spinal cord. FGF2 priming facilitated the DPCs to promote axonal regeneration and to improve locomotor function in the rat with spinal cord injury (SCI)...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042562/cis-p-tau-is-induced-in-clinical-and-preclinical-brain-injury-and-contributes-to-post-injury-sequelae
#5
Onder Albayram, Asami Kondo, Rebekah Mannix, Colin Smith, Cheng-Yu Tsai, Chenyu Li, Megan K Herbert, Jianhua Qiu, Michael Monuteaux, Jane Driver, Sandra Yan, William Gormley, Ava M Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Brandon Lucke-Wold, Julian Bailes, William Meehan, Mark Zeidel, Kun Ping Lu, Xiao Zhen Zhou
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by acute neurological dysfunction and associated with the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) and Alzheimer's disease. We previously showed that cis phosphorylated tau (cis P-tau), but not the trans form, contributes to tau pathology and functional impairment in an animal model of severe TBI. Here we found that in human samples obtained post TBI due to a variety of causes, cis P-tau is induced in cortical axons and cerebrospinal fluid and positively correlates with axonal injury and clinical outcome...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038240/%C3%AE-ii-spectrin-forms-a-periodic-cytoskeleton-at-the-axon-initial-segment-and-is-required-for-nervous-system-function
#6
Claire Yu-Mei Huang, Chuansheng Zhang, Tammy Szu-Yu Ho, Juan Oses-Prieto, Alma L Burlingame, Joshua Lalonde, Jeffrey L Noebels, Christophe Leterrier, Matthew N Rasband
Spectrins form a submembranous cytoskeleton proposed to confer strength and flexibility to neurons and to participate in ion channel clustering at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Neuronal spectrin cytoskeletons consist of diverse β subunits and αII spectrin. Although αII spectrin is found in neurons in both axonal and somatodendritic domains, using proteomics, biochemistry, and super-resolution microscopy we show that αII and βIV spectrin interact and form a periodic AIS cytoskeleton...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037851/cobalamin-associated-superoxide-scavenging-in-neuronal-cells-is-a-potential-mechanism-for-vitamin-b12-deprivation-optic-neuropathy
#7
Wesley Chan, Mohammadali Almasieh, Maria-Magdalena Catrinescu, Leonard A Levin
Chronic deficiency of vitamin B12 is the only nutritional deficiency definitively proven to cause optic neuropathy and loss of vision. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Optic neuropathies are associated with death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), neurons that project their axons along the optic nerve to the brain. Injury to RGC axons causes a burst of intracellular superoxide, which then signals RGC apoptosis. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) was recently shown to be a superoxide scavenger, with a rate constant similar to superoxide dismutase...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033188/ppp1cc-is-associated-with-astrocyte-and-microglia-proliferation-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#8
Xiaojuan Liu, Shen Huang, Chun Liu, Xia Liu, Yuntian Shen, Zhiming Cui
Reactive astrogliosis and microgliosis after spinal cord injury (SCI) contribute to glial scar formation that impedes axonal regeneration. The mechanisms underlying reactive astrocyte and microglia proliferation upon injury remain partially understood. Protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme (PPP1CC) participates in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. However, the expression and functions of PPP1CC following SCI are still unknown. In this study, an acute spinal cord contusion injury model in adult rats was established to investigate the potential role of PPP1CC during the pathological process of SCI...
September 28, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032776/neuropsychological-recovery-trajectories-in-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-influence-of-patient-characteristics-and-diffuse-axonal-injury
#9
Amanda R Rabinowitz, Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Junghoon Kim
OBJECTIVES: The goal of the present study was to elucidate the influence of demographic and neuropathological moderators on the longitudinal trajectory neuropsychological functions during the first year after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition to examining demographic moderators such as age and education, we included a measure of whole-brain diffuse axonal injury (DAI), and examined measures of processing speed (PS), executive function (EF), and verbal learning (VL) separately...
October 16, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030922/the-role-of-mitochondria-in-axon-development-and-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
George M Smith, Gianluca Gallo
Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that undergo transport, fission and fusion. The three main functions of mitochondria are to generate ATP, buffer cytosolic calcium and generate reactive oxygen species. A large body of evidence indicates that mitochondria are either primary targets for neurological disease states and nervous system injury, or are major contributors to the ensuing pathologies. However, the roles of mitochondria in the development and regeneration of axons have just begun to be elucidated. Advances in the understanding of the functional roles of mitochondria in neurons had been largely impeded by insufficient knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms that regulate mitochondrial transport, stalling, fission/fusion and a paucity of approaches to image and analyze mitochondria in living axons at the level of the single mitochondrion...
October 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030051/determinants-of-axon-growth-plasticity-and-regeneration-in-the-context-of-spinal-cord-injury
#11
REVIEW
Angela R Filous, Jan M Schwab
The mechanisms that underlie recovery after injury of the central nervous system have rarely been definitively established. Axon re-growth remains the major prerequisite for plasticity, regeneration, circuit formation, and eventually functional recovery. The attributed functional relevance of axon regrowth however will depend on a number of subsequent conditional neurobiological modifications, including myelination and synapse formation but also pruning of aberrant connectivity. Despite the ability to revamp axon outgrowth by altering an increasing number of extracellular and intracellular targets, disentangling which axons are responsible for the recovery of function from those that are functionally silent, or even contributing to aberrant functions, remains a crucial link between enhancing axonal growth profiles to functional improvement...
October 10, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028764/the-prognostic-value-of-mri-in-moderate-and-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Hourmazd Haghbayan, Amélie Boutin, Mathieu Laflamme, François Lauzier, Michèle Shemilt, Lynne Moore, Ryan Zarychanski, Vincent Douville, Dean Fergusson, Alexis F Turgeon
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of death and disability, yet many predictors of outcome are not precise enough to guide initial clinical decision-making. Although increasingly used in the early phase following traumatic brain injury, the prognostic utility of MRI remains uncertain. We thus undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the predictive value of acute MRI lesion patterns for discriminating clinical outcome in traumatic brain injury...
October 12, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025926/enhancing-spinal-plasticity-amplifies-the-benefits-of-rehabilitative-training-and-improves-recovery-from-stroke
#13
Anna M Wiersma, Karim Fouad, Ian R Winship
The limited recovery that occurs following stroke happens almost entirely in the first weeks post injury. Moreover, the efficacy of rehabilitative training is limited beyond this narrow time frame. Sprouting of spared corticospinal tract axons in the contralesional spinal cord makes a significant contribution to sensorimotor recovery, but this structural plasticity is also limited to the first few weeks after stroke. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inducing plasticity in the spinal cord during chronic stroke could improve recovery from persistent sensorimotor impairment...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025157/chronic-pain-after-traumatic-brain-injury-pathophysiology-and-pain-mechanisms
#14
Karen-Amanda Irvine, J David Clark
Background: Traumatic brain injury refers to a broad range of neurological, cognitive, and emotional factors that result from the application of an external force to the head. Individuals recovering from traumatic brain injury will frequently experience acute and chronic pain. Objective: The objective of this paper is to discuss the pathophysiological changes resulting from traumatic brain injury and how these may be involved in the development and persistence of pain after injury...
August 29, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024560/enhanced-stem-cell-differentiation-and-immunopurification-of-genome-engineered-human-retinal-ganglion-cells
#15
Valentin M Sluch, Xitiz Chamling, Melissa M Liu, Cynthia A Berlinicke, Jie Cheng, Katherine L Mitchell, Derek S Welsbie, Donald J Zack
Human pluripotent stem cells have the potential to promote biological studies and accelerate drug discovery efforts by making possible direct experimentation on a variety of human cell types of interest. However, stem cell cultures are generally heterogeneous and efficient differentiation and purification protocols are often lacking. Here, we describe the generation of clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats(CRISPR)-Cas9 engineered reporter knock-in embryonic stem cell lines in which tdTomato and a unique cell-surface protein, THY1...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024435/efect-of-longitudinally-oriented-collagen-conduit-combined-with-nerve-growth-factor-on-nerve-regeneration-after-dog-sciatic-nerve-injury
#16
Yao Yao, Yi Cui, Yannan Zhao, Zhifeng Xiao, Xing Li, Sufang Han, Bing Chen, Yongxiang Fang, Piao Wang, Juli Pan, Jianwu Dai
The research on artificial nerve conduits has become a focus of study in peripheral nerve reconstruction so as a possible replacement for the treatment of autologous nerve grafts in clinics. In this study, we used longitudinally oriented collagen conduit (LOCC) combined with nerve growth factor (NGF) to reconstruct long distance of sciatic nerve defects (35 mm) in adult dog model. The long term follow-up evaluation demonstrated that the LOCC/NGF conduit allowed functional and morphological nerve regeneration at the transection site of the injured sciatic nerve...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022237/dysfunction-of-membrane-trafficking-leads-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-after-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#17
REVIEW
Dong Yuan, Chunli Liu, Bingren Hu
Neurons require an extraordinarily high level of membrane trafficking activities because of enriched axonal terminals and dendritic branches. For that reason, defects in the membrane trafficking pathway are a hallmark of most, and may be all, neurodegenerative disorders. A major cellular membrane trafficking pathway is the Golgi apparatus (Golgi hereafter)-late endosome-lysosome axis for supplying lysosomal enzymes. This pathway is regulated by N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) ATPase. This review article is to discuss a novel hypothesis that brain ischemia inactivates NSF ATPase, resulting in a cascade of events of disruption of the Golgi-endosome-lysosome pathway, release of cathepsin B (CTSB), and induction of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) during the postischemic phase...
October 11, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020717/ulnar-nerve-injury-on-removal-of-a-contraceptive-implant
#18
Eva E O'Grady, Dominic M Power
The close proximity of contraceptive implant placement to the course of the ulnar nerve can result in injury. Several factors have been implicated in this complication including: low BMI, erroneous placement of the implant, implantation over the brachial groove, and migration of the implant from its original insertion. Clinicians should familiarise themselves with the vulnerable neurovascular structures in the area and refer promptly to a specialist if any neurological symptoms develop during placement or removal of these devices...
December 2016: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018286/complement-protein-c3-suppresses-axon-growth-and-promotes-neuron-loss
#19
Sheri L Peterson, Hal X Nguyen, Oscar A Mendez, Aileen J Anderson
The inflammatory response to spinal cord injury (SCI) involves localization and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells and proteins, including the complement cascade. Complement C3 is important for the classical, alternative, and lectin pathways of complement activation, and its cleavage products C3a and C3b mediate several functions in the context of inflammation, but little is known about the potential functions of C3 on regeneration and survival of injured neurons after SCI. We report that 6 weeks after dorsal hemisection with peripheral conditioning lesion, C3(-/-) mice demonstrated a 2-fold increase in sensory axon regeneration in the spinal cord in comparison to wildtype C3(+/+) mice...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017388/pathophysiological-bases-of-comorbidity-tbi-and-ptsd
#20
Gary B Kaplan, Kimberly A Leite-Morris, Lei Wang, Kendra K Rumbika, Stephen C Heinrichs, Xiang Zeng, Liquan Wu, Danielle T Arena, Yang D Teng
The high rates of TBI and PTSD diagnoses encountered in recent years by the U.S. Veterans Affairs Healthcare System have increased public awareness and research investigation into these conditions. In this review, we analyze the neural mechanisms underlying the TBI/PTSD comorbidity. TBI and PTSD present with common neuropsychiatric symptoms including anxiety, irritability, insomnia, personality changes and memory problems and this overlap complicates diagnostic differentiation. Interestingly, both TBI and PTSD can be produced by overlapping pathophysiological changes that disrupt neural connections termed the "connectome"...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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