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Axonal injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535586/an-experimental-infarct-targeting-the-internal-capsule-histopathological-and-ultrastructural-changes
#1
Chang-Woo Han, Kyung-Hwa Lee, Myung Giun Noh, Jin-Myung Kim, Hyung-Seok Kim, Hyung-Sun Kim, Ra Gyung Kim, Jongwook Cho, Hyoung-Ihl Kim, Min-Cheol Lee
BACKGROUND: Stroke involving the cerebral white matter (WM) has increased in prevalence, but most experimental studies have focused on ischemic injury of the gray matter. This study was performed to investigate the WM in a unique rat model of photothrombotic infarct targeting the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), focusing on the identification of the most vulnerable structure in WM by ischemic injury, subsequent glial reaction to the injury, and the fundamental histopathologic feature causing different neurologic outcomes...
May 2017: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535416/the-role-of-timing-in-the-treatment-of-spinal-cord-injury
#2
REVIEW
Amene Saghazadeh, Nima Rezaei
Regeneration failure after primary spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to diverse clinical complications in a severity- and level of SCI-dependent manner. The cost of treating both of them (initial regeneration failure and following complications) would be prohibitive, particularly in less developed nations. The well-recognized circumstances arose from primary SCI include excitotoxicity and inflammation. SCI increases concentrations of extracellular amino acids (EAAs) in the severity-dependent manner and the maximum level of EAAs at the injury site will be reduced by distance from the injury site...
May 20, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534262/inflammatory-changes-in-paravertebral-sympathetic-ganglia-in-two-rat-pain-models
#3
Ai-Ling Li, Jing-Dong Zhang, Wenrui Xie, Judith A Strong, Jun-Ming Zhang
Injury to peripheral nerves can lead to neuropathic pain, along with well-studied effects on sensory neurons, including hyperexcitability, abnormal spontaneous activity, and neuroinflammation in the sensory ganglia. Neuropathic pain can be enhanced by sympathetic activity. Peripheral nerve injury may also damage sympathetic axons or expose them to an inflammatory environment. In this study, we examined the lumbar sympathetic ganglion responses to two rat pain models: ligation of the L5 spinal nerve, and local inflammation of the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which does not involve axotomy...
May 22, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534077/white-matter-injury-in-the-preterm-infant-pathology-and-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Stephen A Back
The human preterm brain is particularly susceptible to cerebral white matter injury (WMI) that disrupts the normal progression of developmental myelination. Advances in the care of preterm infants have resulted in a sustained reduction in the severity of WMI that has shifted from more severe focal necrotic lesions to milder diffuse WMI. Nevertheless, WMI remains a global health problem and the most common cause of chronic neurological morbidity from cerebral palsy and diverse neurobehavioral disabilities. Diffuse WMI involves maturation-dependent vulnerability of the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage with selective degeneration of late oligodendrocyte progenitors (preOLs) triggered by oxidative stress and other insults...
May 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532352/understanding-glaucomatous-optic-neuropathy-the-synergy-between-clinical-observation-and-investigation
#5
Harry A Quigley
Glaucoma is a complex disorder of aging defined by the death of retinal ganglion cells and remodeling of connective tissues at the optic nerve head. Intraocular pressure-induced axonal injury at the optic nerve head leads to apoptosis. Loss of retinal ganglion cells follows a slowly progressive sequence. Clinical features of the disease have suggested and corroborated pathological events. The death of retinal ganglion cells causes secondary loss of neurons in the brain, but only as a by-product of injury to the retinal ganglion cells...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530470/cd73-controls-extracellular-adenosine-generation-in-the-trigeminal-nociceptive-nerves
#6
X Liu, L Ma, S Zhang, Y Ren, R T Dirksen
Purinergic signaling is involved in pain generation and modulation in the nociceptive sensory nervous system. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) induces pain via activation of ionotropic P2X receptors while adenosine mediates analgesia via activation of metabotropic P1 receptors. These purinergic signaling are determined by ecto-nucleotidases that control ATP degradation and adenosine generation. Using enzymatic histochemistry, we detected ecto-AMPase activity in dental pulp, trigeminal ganglia (TG) neurons, and their nerve fibers...
June 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527111/human-placenta-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-loaded-on-linear-ordered-collagen-scaffold-improves-functional-recovery-after-completely-transected-spinal-cord-injury-in-canine
#7
Sufang Han, Zhifeng Xiao, Xing Li, Huan Zhao, Bin Wang, Zhixue Qiu, Zhi Li, Xin Mei, Bai Xu, Caixia Fan, Bing Chen, Jin Han, Yanzheng Gu, Huilin Yang, Qin Shi, Jianwu Dai
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a major challenge in the clinic. In this study, we sought to examine the synergistic effects of linear ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) and human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) when transplanted into completely transected beagle dogs. After 36 weeks observation, we found that LOCS+hPMSCs implants promoted better hindlimb locomotor recovery than was observed in the non-treatment (control) group and LOCS group. Histological analysis showed that the regenerated tissue after treatment was well integrated with the host tissue, and dramatically reduced the volume of cystic and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) expression...
May 16, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524074/neurotrauma-the-crosstalk-between-neurotrophins-and-inflammation-in-the-acutely-injured-brain
#8
REVIEW
Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles, Daniel Simon, Andrea Regner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of neurotrauma is crucial for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. After the trauma occurs, immediate neurologic damage is produced by the traumatic forces; this primary injury triggers a secondary wave of biochemical cascades together with metabolic and cellular changes, called secondary neural injury. In the scenario of the acutely injured brain, the ongoing secondary injury results in ischemia and edema culminating in an uncontrollable increase in intracranial pressure...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522972/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-bipolar-rod-shaped-microglia-and-their-roles-in-neurodegeneration
#9
Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522294/activating-transcription-factor-3-promotes-spinal-cord-regeneration-of-adult-zebrafish
#10
Lin-Fang Wang, Shu-Bing Huang, Hou-De Zhao, Chun-Jie Liu, Li Yao, Yan-Qin Shen
Zebrafish is an excellent model to study the mechanisms underlying successful central nervous system (CNS) regeneration. Previous study shows that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) promotes neurite outgrowth and is involved in optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish. Here, we used zebrafish model to investigate the role of ATF3 in regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ hybridization revealed that ATF3 mRNA levels increased at 12 h and 6 d following SCI...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522263/serum-concentrations-of-the-axonal-injury-marker-neurofilament-light-protein-are-not-influenced-by-blood-brain-barrier-permeability
#11
Marie Kalm, Martina Boström, Åsa Sandelius, Yohanna Eriksson, C Joakim Ek, Kaj Blennow, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, Henrik Zetterberg
A blood biomarker to monitor individual susceptibility to neuronal injury from cranial radiotherapy could potentially help to individualize radiation treatment and thereby reduce the incidence and severity of late effects. An important feature of such a blood biomarker is that its concentration is not confounded by varying degrees of release from the brain into the blood across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we investigated serum neurofilament light protein (NFL) concentrations in 21-day old mice following a single dose of cranial irradiation (8 Gy)...
May 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518122/dorsal-root-ganglion-injection-and-dorsal-root-crush-injury-as-a-model-for-sensory-axon-regeneration
#12
Menghon Cheah, James W Fawcett, Melissa R Andrews
Achieving axon regeneration after nervous system injury is a challenging task. As different parts of the central nervous system (CNS) differ from each other anatomically, it is important to identify an appropriate model to use for the study of axon regeneration. By using a suitable model, we can formulate a specific treatment based on the severity of injury, the neuronal cell type of interest, and the desired spinal tract for assessing regeneration. Within the sensory pathway, DRG neurons are responsible for relaying sensory information from the periphery to the CNS...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516065/mir-142-5p-disrupts-neuronal-morphogenesis-underlying-porcine-hemagglutinating-encephalomyelitis-virus-infection-by-targeting-ulk1
#13
Zi Li, Yungang Lan, Kui Zhao, Xiaoling Lv, Ning Ding, Huijun Lu, Jing Zhang, Huiqing Yue, Junchao Shi, Deguang Song, Feng Gao, Wenqi He
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) invades the central nervous system (CNS) and causes neurodegenerative disease in suckling piglets, but the understanding of its neuropathogenicity for neurological dysfunction remains limited. Here, we report that miR-142-5p is localized to neurons and negatively regulates neuronal morphogenesis in porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis (PHE). This phenotype was mediated by miR-142-5p inhibition of an mRNA encoding unc-51-like-kinase1 (Ulk1), which controls axon outgrowth and dendrite formation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515367/association-of-impaired-neuronal-migration-with-cognitive-deficits-in-extremely-preterm-infants
#14
Ken-Ichiro Kubo, Kimiko Deguchi, Taku Nagai, Yukiko Ito, Keitaro Yoshida, Toshihiro Endo, Seico Benner, Wei Shan, Ayako Kitazawa, Michihiko Aramaki, Kazuhiro Ishii, Minkyung Shin, Yuki Matsunaga, Kanehiro Hayashi, Masaki Kakeyama, Chiharu Tohyama, Kenji F Tanaka, Kohichi Tanaka, Sachio Takashima, Masahiro Nakayama, Masayuki Itoh, Yukio Hirata, Barbara Antalffy, Dawna D Armstrong, Kiyofumi Yamada, Ken Inoue, Kazunori Nakajima
Many extremely preterm infants (born before 28 gestational weeks [GWs]) develop cognitive impairment in later life, although the underlying pathogenesis is not yet completely understood. Our examinations of the developing human neocortex confirmed that neuronal migration continues beyond 23 GWs, the gestational week at which extremely preterm infants have live births. We observed larger numbers of ectopic neurons in the white matter of the neocortex in human extremely preterm infants with brain injury and hypothesized that altered neuronal migration may be associated with cognitive impairment in later life...
May 18, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514764/trim32-affects-the-recovery-of-motor-function-following-spinal-cord-injury-through-regulating-proliferation-of-glia
#15
Qiang Fu, Ming-Ming Zou, Jian-Wei Zhu, Yan Zhang, Wen-Jin Chen, Mei Cheng, Chun-Feng Liu, Quan-Hong Ma, Ru-Xiang Xu
Both the extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic neuronal mechanisms limit the axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we identify tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is barely detected in glial cells in the normal uninjured spinal cord, exhibits strong expression in both astrocytes and microglia following SCI. We further observe that deficiency of TRIM32 results in increased numbers of astrocytes and microglia, which is accompanied by enhanced proliferation of both cells and increased secretion of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-10...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514188/the-invisibility-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-impaired-cognitive-performance-as-a-silent-symptom
#16
Leore R Heim, Miaad Badar, Shahaf Edut, Lital Rachmany, Renana Baratz, Ran Lin, Aviya Elpaz, Doaa Qubty, Lior Bikovski, Vardit Rubovitch, Shaul Schreiber, Chaim G Pick
The present study was designed to tackle two notorious features of mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) - heterogeneity and invisibility - by characterizing the full scope of mTBI symptoms. Mice were exposed to brain injuries of different intensities utilizing a weight-drop model (10, 30, 50, and 70g), and subsequently subjected to a comprehensive battery of behavioral tests at different time points, and immunohistochemical examination of cortical slices. While the physiological, neurological, emotional, and motor function of mTBI mice, i...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512739/normal-develompent-of-spinal-axons-in-early-embryo-stages-and-posterior-locomotor-function-is-independent-of-gal-1
#17
Juana M Pasquini, Francisco J Barrantes, Héctor R Quintá
It was recently described that Galectin-1 (Gal-1) promotes axonal growth after spinal cord injury. This effect depends on protein dimerization, since monomeric Gal-1 fails to stimulate axonal re-growth. Gal-1 is expressed in vivo at concentrations that favor the monomeric species. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether endogenous Gal-1 is required for spinal axon development and normal locomotor behavior in mice. In order to characterize axonal development, we used a novel combination of 3-DISCO technique with 1-photon microscopy and epifluorescence microscopy under high power LED illumination, followed by serial image section deconvolution and 3-D reconstruction...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512649/purification-and-characterization-of-schwann-cells-from-adult-human-skin-and-nerve
#18
Jo Anne Stratton, Ranjan Kumar, Sarthak Sinha, Prajay Shah, Morgan Stykel, Yuval Shapira, Rajiv Midha, Jeff Biernaskie
Despite its modest capacity for regeneration, peripheral nervous system injury often results in significant long-term disability. Supplementing peripheral nervous system injury with autologous Schwann cells (SCs) may serve to rejuvenate the postinjury environment to enhance regeneration and ultimately improve functional outcomes. However, human nerve-derived SC (hN-SC) collection procedures require invasive surgical resection. Here, we describe the characterization of SCs from adult human skin (hSk-SCs) of four male donors ranging between 27 and 46 years old...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511287/generation-and-characterization-of-highly-purified-canine-schwann-cells-from-spinal-nerve-dorsal-roots-as-potential-new-candidates-for-transplantation-strategies
#19
Nicole Steffensen, Annika Lehmbecker, Ingo Gerhauser, Yimin Wang, Regina Carlson, Andrea Tipold, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Veronika M Stein
Schwann cells (SCs) are promising candidates for transplantation-strategies in the central nervous system by promoting axonal regeneration. The dog represents a translational model for human spinal cord injury (SCI) for studies with new repair strategies after intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH). To overcome the necessity for an additional surgical procedure, for the first time a protocol for isolation, and purification of canine SCs from spinal-nerve-biopsies during standard hemilaminectomy in IVDH affected paraplegic dogs for potential transplantation was developed...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506533/schwann-cell-precursors-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-myelin-repair
#20
Han-Seop Kim, Jungwoon Lee, Da Yong Lee, Young-Dae Kim, Jae Yun Kim, Hyung Jin Lim, Sungmin Lim, Yee Sook Cho
Schwann cells play a crucial role in successful nerve repair and regeneration by supporting both axonal growth and myelination. However, the sources of human Schwann cells are limited both for studies of Schwann cell development and biology and for the development of treatments for Schwann cell-associated diseases. Here, we provide a rapid and scalable method to produce self-renewing Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), using combined sequential treatment with inhibitors of the TGF-β and GSK-3 signaling pathways, and with neuregulin-1 for 18 days under chemically defined conditions...
May 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
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