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Intestinal neuroendocrine tumors

Danielle E Jenkins, Dharshini Sreenivasan, Fiona Carman, Samal Babru, Lee E Eiden, Stephen J Bunn
The pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β/α modulate catecholamine secretion, and long-term gene regulation, in chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Since interleukin-6 (IL6) also plays a key integrative role during inflammation, we have examined its ability to affect both tyrosine hydroxylase activity and adrenomedullary gene transcription in cultured bovine chromaffin cells. IL6 caused acute tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and serine/tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Maria G Kuba, Allison Wasserman, Cindy L Vnencak-Jones, Julia A Bridge, Lan Gellert, Omar Hameed, Giovanna A Giannico
OBJECTIVES: Primary carcinoid tumor of the renal pelvis is a rare neoplasm with few cases reported in the literature. Here we present the clinical and histopathologic findings of a primary carcinoid tumor arising in the left renal pelvis of a horseshoe kidney in a 61-year-old female patient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pathologic features were evaluated with standard hematoxylin and eosin sections and immunohistochemical studies. A literature review was performed to place our case in context to previous reports...
October 7, 2016: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Simon Schimmack, Ben Lawrence, Barton Kenney, Hubertus Schmitz-Winnenthal, Irvin M Modlin, Mark Kidd
BACKGROUND: Small intestinal neuroendocrine neoplasm (SI-NEN) proliferation is quantified by Ki67 measurements which capture G1-G2M phases of the cell cycle. G0 and early G1 phases, typical of slow-growing cells, can be detected by minichromosome maintenance protein (MCM) expression. We hypothesized that these replication licensing markers may provide clinically relevant information to augment Ki67 in low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasia. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining (IHC), Western blot analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and copy number variations of MCM2, MCM3, and Ki67 were undertaken in SI-NENs (n = 22)...
October 2016: Translational Oncology
María Del Carmen Blasco, F Giuliano Boselli O, Carmelo Blasco
Carcinoid tumors belong to the families of neuroendocrine tumors. The major sites are the gastrointestinal tract 65% and lungs 25%. The small intestine, specifically the ileum, is the most common. These tumors although rare, are more common in tumors of neuroendocrine origin gastro-entero-pancreatic. In both cases we observe the different clinical presentations that may have carcinoid tumor; in case 1 ulceration of the tumor mass causing the elimination of melena, and severe diarrhea caused by neuroendocrine secretion...
July 2016: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Cynthia R Fata, Raul S Gonzalez, Eric Liu, Justin M Cates, Chanjuan Shi
Mesenteric tumor deposits (MTDs) are not included in the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for midgut small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). We examined the prognostic significance of MTDs associated with midgut NETs. Hematoxylin and eosin slides from 132 resected jejunal/ileal NETs were reviewed for AJCC tumor stage, lymph node (LN) metastasis, MTDs, and hepatic metastases. MTDs were defined as discrete irregular mesenteric tumor nodules discontinuous from the primary tumor. Clinical or pathologic evidence of metastases and survival data were abstracted from electronic medical records...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Andres M Acosta, Elizabeth Louise Wiley
Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (MANECs) are composite neoplasms with areas of adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma intermingled with neuroendocrine carcinoma or neuroendocrine tumor, each composing at least 30% of the neoplasm. MANECs are very infrequent overall, and they are more commonly diagnosed in the appendix, colon, and stomach. Biliary MANECs are particularly rare, and their histogenesis is debated because neuroendocrine cells are seldom identified in the normal biliary tract. They can show one of the 3 different architectural patterns described in Lewin's original classification: collision tumors, combined lesions, or amphicrine neoplasms...
October 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Zhi Rong Qian, Tingting Li, Monica Ter-Minassian, Juhong Yang, Jennifer A Chan, Lauren K Brais, Yohei Masugi, Arunthathi Thiaglingam, Nichole Brooks, Reiko Nishihara, Mireille Bonnemarie, Atsuhiro Masuda, Kentaro Inamura, Sun A Kim, Kosuke Mima, Yasutaka Sukawa, Ruoxu Dou, Xihong Lin, David C Christiani, Fabien Schmidlin, Charles S Fuchs, Umar Mahmood, Shuji Ogino, Matthew H Kulke
OBJECTIVE: Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), products of gene superfamily SSTR1-5, are commonly expressed in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) bind to SSTRs and are used as therapeutic agents in patients with advanced NETs. We hypothesized that tumor SSTR expression status would be associated with clinical outcomes in NET. METHODS: Expression of the 5 SSTRs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, using tissue microarrays comprising 173 primary NETs, 24 matched metastases, and 22 metastatic NETs from 195 patients...
November 2016: Pancreas
Arnaud Pasquer, Thomas Walter, Pascal Rousset, Valérie Hervieu, Julien Forestier, Catherine Lombard-Bohas, Gilles Poncet
BACKGROUND: More than half of small bowel neuroendocrine tumors (SB-NETs) are metastatic at diagnosis, but complete resection of the primary tumor and lymph node (LN) is recommended by most authors. Our aim was to describe the pattern of involved LN after an extensive LN resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2013 and December 2015, all consecutive patients who underwent resection of at least one SB-NET in our European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society Center of Excellence were prospectively included, while patients with duodenal SB-NETs were excluded...
September 9, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Naris Nilubol, Esther M Freedman, Martha M Quezado, Dhaval Patel, Electron Kebebew
CONTEXT: The vasoactive intestinal peptide-secreting neuroendocrine tumor (VIPoma) is a very rare pancreatic tumor. We report the first case of a patient with VIPoma that co-secreted dopamine and had pulmonary emboli. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 67-year-old woman presented with 2 months of watery diarrhea, severe generalized weakness,6.8 kg of weight loss, a facial rash, and hypokalemia. Colonoscopy did not reveal the cause of the chronic diarrhea. Initial biochemical testing showed markedly elevated serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pancreatic polypeptide...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Johann Dréanic, Céline Lepère, Mostafa El Hajjam, Hervé Gouya, Philippe Rougier, Romain Coriat
VIPoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with a high potential to develop hepatic metastases and poor prognosis. The primitive tumor is nonsymptomatic and usually localized within the pancreas. Liver metastasis drives the prognosis and induces profuse watery diarrhea or renal failure. We herein present severe renal failure or diarrhea in two patients hospitalized in intensive care justifying emergency treatment of liver metastasis. The two patients experienced severe diarrhea due to a hypersecretion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) from liver metastasis released into the blood circulation...
September 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
Matias Riihimäki, Akseli Hemminki, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist, Kari Hemminki
The epidemiology of metastases in neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is virtually unknown. The present novel approach took use of two nationwide Swedish registers to assess the distribution of metastatic sites in comparison to adenocarcinoma. 7,334 patients with NET were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Metastatic sites were identified from the National Patient and Cause of Death Registries. Sites of metastasis were investigated depending on the primary site of NET. The metastatic potential of NET was assessed...
December 15, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Myriam Wartski
The existing recommendations for fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) use in digestive cancers (excluding neuroendocrine tumours) are summarized in the present article. FDG-PET/CT is nowadays a routine imaging modality for digestive malignancies and its use is currently increasing. FDG-PET/CT is considered to be a crucial tool in pretherapeutic assessment of esophageal, localized pancreatic and anal cancer. It represents a key exam in suspicion of recurrence of colorectal cancer in case of elevated serum tumor markers...
September 2016: La Presse Médicale
B Bencsiková
BACKGROUND: Somatostatin analogs (SSAs) are antisecretory agents that have been used to control hormonal syndromes associated with neuroendocrine tumors for more than 20 years. Recent phase III randomized, placebo controlled trials demonstrated their antiproliferative effects. The PROMID study showed that octreotide LAR (long-acting repeatable) treatment had anti-tumor effects. CLARINET, an international multicenter controlled study, provides new evidence that lanreotide has antiproliferative effects...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
William Y Chey, Wendy L Frankel, Sashwati Roy, Soma Datta, Chandan K Sen, Mary Dillhoff, Peter Muscarella, Konrad H Soergel, Ronald K Tompkins, Ta-Min Chang, Edward L Bradley, Edwin Christopher Ellison
OBJECTIVES: To document the existence of primary pancreatic secretinoma in patients with watery diarrhea syndrome (WDS) and achlorhydria and establish secretin as a diarrheogenic hormone. BACKGROUND: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been widely accepted as the main mediator of WDS. However, in 1968, Zollinger et al reported 2 female patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, WDS, and achlorhydria. During surgery on the first, a 24-year-old patient, they noticed distended duodenum filled with fluid and a dilated gallbladder containing dilute bile with high bicarbonate concentration...
August 5, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Yeting Du, Monica Ter-Minassian, Lauren Brais, Nichole Brooks, Amanda Waldron, Jennifer A Chan, Xihong Lin, Peter Kraft, David C Christiani, Matthew H Kulke
The etiology of neuroendocrine tumors remains poorly defined. Although neuroendocrine tumors are in some cases associated with inherited genetic syndromes, such syndromes are rare. The majority of neuroendocrine tumors are thought to be sporadic. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify potential genetic risk factors for sporadic neuroendocrine tumors. Using germline DNA from blood specimens, we genotyped 909,622 SNPs using the Affymetrix 6.0 GeneChip, in a cohort comprising 832 neuroendocrine tumor cases from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Massachusetts General Hospital and 4542 controls from the Harvard School of Public Health...
August 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Oriol Calvete, Andrea Varro, D Mark Pritchard, Alicia Barroso, Marta Oteo, Miguel Ángel Morcillo, Pierfrancesco Vargiu, Steven Dodd, Miriam Garcia, José Reyes, Sagrario Ortega, Javier Benitez
By whole exome sequencing, we recently identified a missense mutation (p.R703C) in the human ATP4a gene, which encodes the proton pump responsible for gastric acidification. This mutation causes an aggressive familial type I gastric neuroendocrine tumor in homozygous individuals. Affected individuals show an early onset of the disease, characterized by gastric hypoacidity, hypergastrinemia, iron-deficiency anemia, gastric intestinal metaplasia and, in one case, an associated gastric adenocarcinoma. Total gastrectomy was performed as the definitive treatment in all affected individuals...
September 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Lauren Murray, Chelsey Haley, Cristóbal S Berry-Cabán, Almond Toledo
OBJECTIVE: Neuroendocrine tumors are neoplasms derived from endocrine cells, most commonly occurring in the gastrointestinal tract. Duodenal neuroendocrine tumors are rare tumors averaging 1.2-1.5 cm, and most are asymptomatic. Common presentation is abdominal pain, upper gastrointestinal bleed, constipation, anemia, and jaundice. METHODS: An adult, Black, male patient with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department with elevated liver function test and fatigue...
2016: SAGE Open Med Case Rep
Motohiro Kojima, Koji Ikeda, Norio Saito, Naoki Sakuyama, Kenichi Koushi, Shingo Kawano, Toshiaki Watanabe, Kenichi Sugihara, Masaaki Ito, Atsushi Ochiai
A new histological classification of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) was established in WHO 2010. ENET and NCCN proposed treatment algorithms for colorectal NET. Retrospective study of NET of the large intestine (colorectal and appendiceal NET) was performed among institutions allied with the Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum, and 760 neuroendocrine tumors from 2001 to 2011 were re-assessed using WHO 2010 criteria to elucidate the clinicopathological features of NET in the large intestine. Next, the clinicopathological relationship with lymph node metastasis was analyzed to predict lymph node metastasis in locally resected rectal NET...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
Omid Fotouhi, Hanna Kjellin, Catharina Larsson, Jamileh Hashemi, Jorge Barriuso, C Christofer Juhlin, Ming Lu, Anders Höög, Laura G Pastrián, Angela Lamarca, Victoria Heredia Soto, Jan Zedenius, Marta Mendiola, Janne Lehtiö, Magnus Kjellman
CONTEXT: Somatostatin analogs are established in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) including small intestinal NET; however, the molecular mechanisms are not well known. Here, we examined the direct effects of lanreotide in NET cell line models. SETTING AND DESIGN: The cell lines HC45 and H727 were treated with 10nM lanreotide for different time periods and alterations of the proteome were analyzed by in-depth high-resolution isoelectric focusing tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Makoto Tomatsu, Jun Isogaki, Takahiro Watanabe, Kiyoshige Yajima, Takuya Okumura, Kimihiro Yamashita, Kenji Suzuki, Akihiro Kawabe, Akira Komiyama, Seiichi Hirota
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are relatively common in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF 1) patients. Approximately 90% of GISTs associated with NF 1 are located in the small intestine, while sporadic GISTs are most commonly located in the stomach. Here we report an extremely rare case of an NF 1 patient with multiple gastric GITs (90 or more) but without multiple small intestinal tumors. A 63-year-old female patient who had a history of NF 1 underwent surgery for a gastric neuroendocrine tumor and gastric submucosal tumor (SMT)...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
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