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Nisar Ahmed, Ping Yang, Yufei Huang, Hong Chen, Tengfei Liu, Lingling Wang, Fazul Nabi, Yi Liu, Qiusheng Chen
The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that in vivo entosis is a novel pathway for eliminating spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules (ST) during hibernation of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of LAMP1 in the testis was significantly higher during hibernation than that during non-hibernation. Immunohistochemistry reaction showed that LAMP1-positive substance was distributed within the Sertoli cells of the testis. Further examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), many degraded spermatozoa being enwrapped within large entotic vacuoles in Sertoli cells...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Nidhi Gupta, Kiran Jadhav, Vandana Shah
There are intense published data in literature related to cell engulfment phenomena such as emperipolesis, entosis and cell cannibalism. All these are closely related phenomena with a very fine line of differences. Its correct identification has a significant diagnostic and prognostic value. After extensive literature search, a gap of knowledge was found in concept designing and clarity about understanding of aforementioned terminologies. The authors have attempted to review data of these closely knit terminologies and further organize its characteristic appearances, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic implications...
January 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Francesco Sottile, Francesco Aulicino, Ilda Theka, Maria Pia Cosma
Homotypic and heterotypic cell-to-cell fusion are key processes during development and tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, aberrant cell fusion can contribute to tumour initiation and metastasis. Additionally, a form of cell-in-cell structure called entosis has been observed in several human tumours. Here we investigate cell-to-cell interaction between mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). MSCs represent an important source of adult stem cells since they have great potential for regenerative medicine, even though they are also involved in cancer progression...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shan Wang, Meifang He, Linmei Li, Zhihua Liang, Zehong Zou, Ailin Tao
PURPOSE: Cell-in-cell structures are created by one living cell entering another homotypic or heterotypic living cell, which usually leads to the death of the internalized cell, specifically through caspase-dependent cell death (emperitosis) or lysosome-dependent cell death (entosis). Although entosis has attracted great attention, its occurrence is controversial, because one cell line used in its study (MCF-7) is deficient in caspase-3. METHODS: We investigated this issue using MCF-7 and A431 cell lines, which often display cell-in-cell invasion, and have different levels of caspase-3 expression...
September 2016: Journal of Breast Cancer
Shefali Krishna, Wilhelm Palm, Yongchan Lee, Wendy Yang, Urmi Bandyopadhyay, Haoxing Xu, Oliver Florey, Craig B Thompson, Michael Overholtzer
The scavenging of extracellular macromolecules by engulfment can sustain cell growth in a nutrient-depleted environment. Engulfed macromolecules are contained within vacuoles that are targeted for lysosome fusion to initiate degradation and nutrient export. We have shown that vacuoles containing engulfed material undergo mTORC1-dependent fission that redistributes degraded cargo back into the endosomal network. Here we identify the lipid kinase PIKfyve as a regulator of an alternative pathway that distributes engulfed contents in support of intracellular macromolecular synthesis during macropinocytosis, entosis, and phagocytosis...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Cell
Gregory Adams, Jiajia Zhou, Wenwen Wang, Huihui Wu, Jie Quan, Yingying Liu, Peng Xia, Zhikai Wang, Shu Zhou, Jiying Jiang, Fei Mo, Xiaoxuan Zhuang, Kelwyn Thomas, Donald L Hill, Felix O Aikhionbare, Ping He, Xing Liu, Xia Ding, Xuebiao Yao
Cell migration is orchestrated by dynamic interactions of microtubules with the plasma membrane cortex. How these interactions facilitate these dynamic processes is still being actively investigated. TIP150 is a newly characterized microtubule plus end tracking protein essential for mitosis and entosis (Ward, T., Wang, M., Liu, X., Wang, Z., Xia, P., Chu, Y., Wang, X., Liu, L., Jiang, K., Yu, H., Yan, M., Wang, J., Hill, D. L., Huang, Y., Zhu, T., and Yao, X. (2013) Regulation of a dynamic interaction between two microtubule-binding proteins, EB1 and TIP150, by the mitotic p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) orchestrates kinetochore microtubule plasticity and chromosome stability during mitosis...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bowen Ke, Mao Tian, Jingjing Li, Bo Liu, Gu He
Evasion of cell death is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, beginning with long-established apoptosis and extending to other new forms of cell death. An elaboration of cell death pathways thus will contribute to a better understanding of cancer pathogenesis and therapeutics. With the recent substantial biochemical and genetic explorations of cell death subroutines, their classification has switched from primarily morphological to more molecular definitions. According to their measurable biochemical features and intricate mechanisms, cell death subroutines can be divided into apoptosis, autophagic cell death, mitotic catastrophe, necroptosis, parthanatos, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, pyronecrosis, anoikis, cornification, entosis, and NETosis...
June 30, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
Qiang Sun, Hongyan Huang, Michael Overholtzer
The engulfment of live cells may represent a mechanism of cell death. We reported that E-cadherin (epithelial cadherin) expression in human cancer cells favors the formation of cell-in-cell structures through the mechanism known as entosis, and that entosis contributes to a form of cellular competition in heterogeneous cancer cell populations.
October 2015: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Jacques Gilloteaux, Carston Ruffo, James M Jamison, Jack L Summers
Ultrastructural data compiled from DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells growing in vivo and, more often in vitro or after treatment by pro-oxidant reactants, can induce and encompass several processes of cell internalization or entosis. These events were observed after tumor cells were essentially undergoing autoschizic injuries and other cell deaths without externalization of phosphatidylserine. Based on other previous observations made on DU145 cells, one hypothesizes that, as a means of survival, tumor cells find sources of nutrients through phagocytosis of apparently intact, injured cells, corpses, and cell debris by cannibalism...
September 2016: Ultrastructural Pathology
Shefali Krishna, Michael Overholtzer
Multiple mechanisms have emerged where the engulfment of whole live cells, leading to the formation of what are called 'cell-in-cell' structures, induces cell death. Entosis is one such mechanism that drives cell-in-cell formation during carcinogenesis and development. Curiously, entotic cells participate actively in their own engulfment, by invading into their hosts, and are then killed non-cell-autonomously. Here we review the mechanisms of entosis and entotic cell death and the consequences of entosis on cell populations...
June 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
A S Garanina, L A Khashba, G E Onishchenko
Entosis is a type of cell cannibalism during which one cell penetrates into another cell and usually dies inside it. Researchers mainly pay attention to initial and final stages of entosis. Besides, tumor cells in suspension are the primary object of studies. In the present study, we investigated morphological changes of both cells-participants of entosis during this process. The substrate-dependent culture of human normal keratinocytes HaCaT was chosen for the work. A combination of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was used to prove that one cell was completely surrounded by the plasma membrane of another cell...
November 2015: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
O Florey, S E Kim, M Overholtzer
Entosis is a cell-in-cell formation mechanism that targets viable cells for uptake in epithelial cell cultures and human tumors. Entotic cells control their own engulfment, by invading into their hosts in a Rho-GTPase and actomyosin-dependent manner. Although entotic cells are internalized while alive, most eventually undergo a non-apoptotic form of cell death, called entotic cell death, that is executed non-cell-autonomously by autophagy proteins and lysosomes. Here we review the current understanding of entosis and entotic cell death and discuss the potential roles of this process in cancer...
2015: Current Molecular Medicine
Y Wang, X-D Wang
By eliminating the unneeded or mutant cells, programmed cell death actively participates in a wide range of biological processes from embryonic development to homeostasis maintenance in adult. Continuing efforts have identified multiple cell death pathways, with apoptosis, necrosis and autophage the mostly studied. Recently a unique cell death pathway called "cell-in-cell death" has been defined. Unlike traditional cell death pathways, cell-in-cell death, characterized by cell death within another cell, is triggered by the invasion of one cell into its neighbor and executed by either lysosome-dependent degradation or caspase-dependent apoptosis...
2015: Current Molecular Medicine
F Lozupone, S Fais
Cancer cell cannibalism is currently defined as a phenomenon in which an ensemble of a larger cell containing a smaller one, often in a big cytoplasmic vacuole, is detected in either cultured tumor cells or a tumor sample. After almost one century of considering this phenomenon as a sort of neglected curiosity, some recent studies have first proposed tumor cell cannibalism as a sort of "aberrant phagocytosis", making malignant cells very similar to professional phagocytes. Later, further research has shown that, differently to macrophages, exclusively ingesting exogenous material, apoptotic bodies, or cell debris, tumor cells are able to engulf other cells, including lymphocytes and erythrocytes, either dead or alive, with the main purpose to feed on them...
2015: Current Molecular Medicine
H Huang, Z Chen, Q Sun
Cell competition was first identified four decades ago as a mechanism to eliminate less fit cells during development in Drosophila melanogaster, and later postulated to be involved in tumorigenesis of human beings. However, evidence for a similar mechanism functional in mammals and tumors was missed until recent years. Like cell competition in fly, multiple forms of competition mechanisms were reported in mammalian system, and some of them were found participating in tumor initiation. Lately, entosis, a mechanism of cell cannibalisms responsible for the formation of cell-in-cell structures in human tumors, was identified as a novel member of ever-expanding family of mammalian cell competitions (MaCCs), and proposed to be able to promote clonal selection and tumor evolution...
2015: Current Molecular Medicine
Manna Wang, Xiangkai Ning, Ang Chen, Hongyan Huang, Chao Ni, Changxi Zhou, Kaitao Yu, Sanchun Lan, Qiwei Wang, Shichong Li, Hong Liu, Xiaoning Wang, Zhaolie Chen, Li Ma, Qiang Sun
Although cell-in-cell structures (CICs) could be detected in a wide range of human tumors, homotypic CICs formed between tumor cells occur at low rate for most of them. We recently reported that tumor cells lacking expression of E- and P-cadherin were incapable of forming homotypic CICs by entosis, and re-expression of E- or P-cadherin was sufficient to induce CICs formation in these tumor cells. In this work, we found that homotypic CICs formation was impaired in some tumor cells expressing high level of E-cadherin due to loss expression of alpha-catenin (α-catenin), a molecular linker between cadherin-mediated adherens junctions and F-actin...
2015: Scientific Reports
Yingju Li, Xiaofei Sun, Sudhansu K Dey
During implantation, uterine luminal epithelial (LE) cells first interact with the blastocyst trophectoderm. Within 30 hr after the initiation of attachment, LE cells surrounding the blastocyst in the implantation chamber (crypt) disappear, allowing trophoblast cells to make direct physical contact with the underneath stroma for successful implantation. The mechanism for the extraction of LE cells was thought to be mediated by apoptosis. Here, we show that LE cells in direct contact with the blastocyst are endocytosed by trophoblast cells by adopting the nonapoptotic cell-in-cell invasion process (entosis) in the absence of caspase 3 activation...
April 21, 2015: Cell Reports
Yuke Kong, Yaojun Liang, Jianqin Wang
We report here an intriguing pattern in nuclear appearance of renal clear cell cancer. In low grade clear cell cancer, detailed examination showed that in many cells, two or more nuclei were within the confines of a single cell membrane. This likely resulted from a cell being contained within its neighboring cell. Consequently, this resulted in appearance of multicellularity. This appearance of the nuclei were not associated with mitotic figures, suggesting that these did not result from nuclear fission. Additionally, the cells containing this nuclei did not show any evidence of cytokinesis including equatorial tapering, suggesting that the process may have resulted from cytokinesis failure...
February 2015: IUBMB Life
F Ishikawa, K Ushida, K Mori, M Shibanuma
Anchorage dependence of cellular growth and survival prevents inappropriate cell growth or survival in ectopic environments, and serves as a potential barrier to metastasis of cancer cells. Therefore, obtaining a better understanding of anchorage-dependent responses in normal cells is the first step to understand and impede anchorage independence of growth and survival in cancer cells and finally to eradicate cancer cells during metastasis. Anoikis, a type of apoptosis specifically induced by lack of appropriate cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, has been established as the dominant response of normal epithelial cells to anchorage loss...
2015: Cell Death & Disease
Guido Kroemer, Jean-Luc Perfettini
Cell-in-cell structures, also referred to as 'entosis', are frequently found in human malignancies, although their prognostic impact remains to be defined. Two articles recently published in Cell Research report the stimulation of entosis by one prominent oncogene, Kras, as well as by one class of tumor suppressors, namely epithelial cadherins E and P, illustrating the complex regulation of this biological process.
November 2014: Cell Research
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