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J Durgan, O Florey
Entosis is a form of epithelial cell engulfment and cannibalism prevalent in human cancer. Until recently, the only known trigger for entosis was loss of attachment to the extracellular matrix, as often occurs in the tumour microenvironment. However, two new studies now reveal that entosis can also occur among adherent epithelial cells, induced by mitosis or glucose starvation. Together, these findings point to the intriguing notion that certain hallmark properties of cancer cells, including anchorage independence, aberrant proliferation and metabolic stress, can converge on the induction of cell cannibalism, a phenomenon so frequently observed in tumours...
June 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Anastasiia S Garanina, Olga P Kisurina-Evgenieva, Maria V Erokhina, Elena A Smirnova, Valentina M Factor, Galina E Onishchenko
Entosis, or cell death by invading another cell, is typical for tumor epithelial cells. The formation of cell-in-cell structures is extensively studied in suspension cultures, but remains poorly understood in substrate-dependent cells. Here, we used electron, confocal and time-lapse microscopy in combination with pharmacological inhibition of intracellular components to study the kinetics of entosis using two human substrate-dependent tumor cultures, A431 and MCF7. In total, we identified and characterized five consecutive stages of entosis, which were common for both examined cell lines...
October 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jens C Hamann, Michael Overholtzer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
Franziska Püschel, Cristina Muñoz-Pinedo
Entosis is an atypical form of cell death that occurs when a cell engulfs and kills another cell. A recent article by Overholtzer and colleagues indicates that glucose deprivation promotes entosis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in the loser cells triggers their engulfment and elimination by winner cells, which endure starvation.
October 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Laura Soto Hinojosa, Manuel Holst, Christian Baarlink, Robert Grosse
Entosis is a nonapoptotic form of cell death initiated by actomyosin-dependent homotypic cell-in-cell invasion that can be observed in malignant exudates during tumor progression. We previously demonstrated formin-mediated actin dynamics at the rear of the invading cell as well as nonapoptotic plasma membrane (PM) blebbing in this cellular motile process. Although the contractile actin cortex involved in bleb-driven motility is well characterized, a role for transcriptional regulation in this process has not been studied...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Joanne Durgan, Yun-Yu Tseng, Jens C Hamann, Marie-Charlotte Domart, Lucy Collinson, Alan Hall, Michael Overholtzer, Oliver Florey
Entosis is a form of epithelial cell cannibalism that is prevalent in human cancer, typically triggered by loss of matrix adhesion. Here, we report an alternative mechanism for entosis in human epithelial cells, driven by mitosis. Mitotic entosis is regulated by Cdc42, which controls mitotic morphology. Cdc42 depletion enhances mitotic deadhesion and rounding, and these biophysical changes, which depend on RhoA activation and are phenocopied by Rap1 inhibition, permit subsequent entosis. Mitotic entosis occurs constitutively in some human cancer cell lines and mitotic index correlates with cell cannibalism in primary human breast tumours...
July 11, 2017: ELife
Jens C Hamann, Alexandra Surcel, Ruoyao Chen, Carolyn Teragawa, John G Albeck, Douglas N Robinson, Michael Overholtzer
Entosis is a mechanism of cell death that involves neighbor cell ingestion. This process occurs in cancers and promotes a form of cell competition, where winner cells engulf and kill losers. Entosis is driven by a mechanical differential that allows softer cells to eliminate stiffer cells. While this process can be induced by matrix detachment, whether other stressors can activate entosis is unknown. Here, we find that entosis is induced in adherent cells by glucose withdrawal. Glucose withdrawal leads to a bimodal distribution of cells based on their deformability, where stiffer cells appear in a manner requiring the energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
Isabelle Martins, Syed Qasim Raza, Laurent Voisin, Haithem Dakhli, Frédéric Law, Dorine De Jong, Awatef Allouch, Maxime Thoreau, Catherine Brenner, Eric Deutsch, Jean-Luc Perfettini
The present review summarizes recent experimental evidences about the existence of the non-cell-autonomous death entosis in physiological and pathophysiological contexts, discusses some aspects of this form of cell death, including morphological, biochemical and signaling pathways that distinguish non-cell-autonomous demises from other death modalities and propose to define this new modality of death as type IV programmed cell death.
June 2017: Biomedical Journal
Nisar Ahmed, Ping Yang, Yufei Huang, Hong Chen, Tengfei Liu, Lingling Wang, Fazul Nabi, Yi Liu, Qiusheng Chen
The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that in vivo entosis is a novel pathway for eliminating spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules (ST) during hibernation of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of LAMP1 in the testis was significantly higher during hibernation than that during non-hibernation. Immunohistochemistry reaction showed that LAMP1-positive substance was distributed within the Sertoli cells of the testis. Further examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), many degraded spermatozoa being enwrapped within large entotic vacuoles in Sertoli cells...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Nidhi Gupta, Kiran Jadhav, Vandana Shah
There are intense published data in literature related to cell engulfment phenomena such as emperipolesis, entosis and cell cannibalism. All these are closely related phenomena with a very fine line of differences. Its correct identification has a significant diagnostic and prognostic value. After extensive literature search, a gap of knowledge was found in concept designing and clarity about understanding of aforementioned terminologies. The authors have attempted to review data of these closely knit terminologies and further organize its characteristic appearances, pathogenetic aspects and prognostic implications...
January 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Francesco Sottile, Francesco Aulicino, Ilda Theka, Maria Pia Cosma
Homotypic and heterotypic cell-to-cell fusion are key processes during development and tissue regeneration. Nevertheless, aberrant cell fusion can contribute to tumour initiation and metastasis. Additionally, a form of cell-in-cell structure called entosis has been observed in several human tumours. Here we investigate cell-to-cell interaction between mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). MSCs represent an important source of adult stem cells since they have great potential for regenerative medicine, even though they are also involved in cancer progression...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Shan Wang, Meifang He, Linmei Li, Zhihua Liang, Zehong Zou, Ailin Tao
PURPOSE: Cell-in-cell structures are created by one living cell entering another homotypic or heterotypic living cell, which usually leads to the death of the internalized cell, specifically through caspase-dependent cell death (emperitosis) or lysosome-dependent cell death (entosis). Although entosis has attracted great attention, its occurrence is controversial, because one cell line used in its study (MCF-7) is deficient in caspase-3. METHODS: We investigated this issue using MCF-7 and A431 cell lines, which often display cell-in-cell invasion, and have different levels of caspase-3 expression...
September 2016: Journal of Breast Cancer
Shefali Krishna, Wilhelm Palm, Yongchan Lee, Wendy Yang, Urmi Bandyopadhyay, Haoxing Xu, Oliver Florey, Craig B Thompson, Michael Overholtzer
The scavenging of extracellular macromolecules by engulfment can sustain cell growth in a nutrient-depleted environment. Engulfed macromolecules are contained within vacuoles that are targeted for lysosome fusion to initiate degradation and nutrient export. We have shown that vacuoles containing engulfed material undergo mTORC1-dependent fission that redistributes degraded cargo back into the endosomal network. Here we identify the lipid kinase PIKfyve as a regulator of an alternative pathway that distributes engulfed contents in support of intracellular macromolecular synthesis during macropinocytosis, entosis, and phagocytosis...
September 12, 2016: Developmental Cell
Gregory Adams, Jiajia Zhou, Wenwen Wang, Huihui Wu, Jie Quan, Yingying Liu, Peng Xia, Zhikai Wang, Shu Zhou, Jiying Jiang, Fei Mo, Xiaoxuan Zhuang, Kelwyn Thomas, Donald L Hill, Felix O Aikhionbare, Ping He, Xing Liu, Xia Ding, Xuebiao Yao
Cell migration is orchestrated by dynamic interactions of microtubules with the plasma membrane cortex. How these interactions facilitate these dynamic processes is still being actively investigated. TIP150 is a newly characterized microtubule plus end tracking protein essential for mitosis and entosis (Ward, T., Wang, M., Liu, X., Wang, Z., Xia, P., Chu, Y., Wang, X., Liu, L., Jiang, K., Yu, H., Yan, M., Wang, J., Hill, D. L., Huang, Y., Zhu, T., and Yao, X. (2013) Regulation of a dynamic interaction between two microtubule-binding proteins, EB1 and TIP150, by the mitotic p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) orchestrates kinetochore microtubule plasticity and chromosome stability during mitosis...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bowen Ke, Mao Tian, Jingjing Li, Bo Liu, Gu He
Evasion of cell death is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, beginning with long-established apoptosis and extending to other new forms of cell death. An elaboration of cell death pathways thus will contribute to a better understanding of cancer pathogenesis and therapeutics. With the recent substantial biochemical and genetic explorations of cell death subroutines, their classification has switched from primarily morphological to more molecular definitions. According to their measurable biochemical features and intricate mechanisms, cell death subroutines can be divided into apoptosis, autophagic cell death, mitotic catastrophe, necroptosis, parthanatos, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, pyronecrosis, anoikis, cornification, entosis, and NETosis...
November 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
Qiang Sun, Hongyan Huang, Michael Overholtzer
The engulfment of live cells may represent a mechanism of cell death. We reported that E-cadherin (epithelial cadherin) expression in human cancer cells favors the formation of cell-in-cell structures through the mechanism known as entosis, and that entosis contributes to a form of cellular competition in heterogeneous cancer cell populations.
October 2015: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Jacques Gilloteaux, Carston Ruffo, James M Jamison, Jack L Summers
Ultrastructural data compiled from DU145 human prostate carcinoma cells growing in vivo and, more often in vitro or after treatment by pro-oxidant reactants, can induce and encompass several processes of cell internalization or entosis. These events were observed after tumor cells were essentially undergoing autoschizic injuries and other cell deaths without externalization of phosphatidylserine. Based on other previous observations made on DU145 cells, one hypothesizes that, as a means of survival, tumor cells find sources of nutrients through phagocytosis of apparently intact, injured cells, corpses, and cell debris by cannibalism...
September 2016: Ultrastructural Pathology
Shefali Krishna, Michael Overholtzer
Multiple mechanisms have emerged where the engulfment of whole live cells, leading to the formation of what are called 'cell-in-cell' structures, induces cell death. Entosis is one such mechanism that drives cell-in-cell formation during carcinogenesis and development. Curiously, entotic cells participate actively in their own engulfment, by invading into their hosts, and are then killed non-cell-autonomously. Here we review the mechanisms of entosis and entotic cell death and the consequences of entosis on cell populations...
June 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
A S Garanina, L A Khashba, G E Onishchenko
Entosis is a type of cell cannibalism during which one cell penetrates into another cell and usually dies inside it. Researchers mainly pay attention to initial and final stages of entosis. Besides, tumor cells in suspension are the primary object of studies. In the present study, we investigated morphological changes of both cells-participants of entosis during this process. The substrate-dependent culture of human normal keratinocytes HaCaT was chosen for the work. A combination of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy was used to prove that one cell was completely surrounded by the plasma membrane of another cell...
November 2015: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
O Florey, S E Kim, M Overholtzer
Entosis is a cell-in-cell formation mechanism that targets viable cells for uptake in epithelial cell cultures and human tumors. Entotic cells control their own engulfment, by invading into their hosts in a Rho-GTPase and actomyosin-dependent manner. Although entotic cells are internalized while alive, most eventually undergo a non-apoptotic form of cell death, called entotic cell death, that is executed non-cell-autonomously by autophagy proteins and lysosomes. Here we review the current understanding of entosis and entotic cell death and discuss the potential roles of this process in cancer...
2015: Current Molecular Medicine
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