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Pengbo Guo, Yumin Qiu, Xiaomin Ma, Tao Li, Xiaoxiao Ma, Lihui Zhu, Yueke Lin, Lihui Han
Anoikis-resistance is an essential feature of cancer cells to obtain successful metastasis, whereas the molecular mechanism involved in this process of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells is not fully understood. Here we demonstrated that tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) 31, a new member of the TRIM family, was significantly upregulated in the anchorage-deprived HCC cells compared with their attached counterpart. When we blocked TRIM31 expression by its specific interference RNAs, the anoikis-resistance of HCC cells was significantly reversed...
April 14, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Paulo E da Costa, Wagner L Batista, Miriam S Moraes, Arnold Stern, Hugo P Monteiro
Tumour progression involves the establishment of tumour metastases at distant sites. Resistance to anoikis, a form of cell death that occurs when cells lose contact with the extracellular matrix and with neighbouring cells, is essential for metastases. NO has been associated with anoikis. NO treated HeLa cells and murine melanoma cells in suspension triggered a nitric oxide (NO)-Src kinase signalling circuitry that enabled resistance to anoikis. Two NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (500 µM) and DETANO (125 µM), protected against cell death derived from detachment of a growth permissive surface (experimental anoikis)...
April 13, 2018: Free Radical Research
Alexandre P Sater, Leonard T Rael, Allen H Tanner, Mark J Lieser, David L Acuna, Charles W Mains, David Bar-Or
Within the first few hours of a traumatic brain injury, the activity of extracellular matrix degradative enzymes increases. As a result, the blood brain barrier becomes disrupted as secondary white matter injury increases. Anoikis, a form of apoptosis, results from cells detaching from the extracellular matrix leading to cell death. This "homelessness" (anoikis) of cells hinders recovery progression, exacerbating brain injury while disrupting synaptic plasticity and other central nervous system functions...
April 5, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Xiaochun Wang, David Goldstein, Philip J Crowe, Jia-Lin Yang
The 5-year survival rate for metastatic sarcoma is 16%. Although the phosphorylated human epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR/HER1) has been shown to be an independent predictor of overall survival in patients with sarcoma, we have previously demonstrated that sarcoma cell lines exhibit resistance, despite gefitinib blocking p-EGFR and signal transducers in EGFR downstream pathways. Gefitinib failed to decrease the ratio of phosphorylated (p-)signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3)/p-STAT1, suggesting that relative STAT3 abundance and activation may be involved in drug resistance...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Pierre H Vachon
Caspase-dependent apoptosis, including its distinct cell death subroutine known as anoikis, perform essential roles during organogenesis, as well as in the maintenance and repair of tissues. To this effect, the continuous renewal of the human intestinal/colon epithelium is characterized by the exfoliation by anoikis of differentiated cells, whereas immature/undifferentiated cells may occasionally undergo apoptosis in order to evacuate daughter cells that are damaged or defective. Dysregulated epithelial apoptosis is a significant component of inflammatory bowel diseases...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Nicoletta Zoppi, Nicola Chiarelli, Marco Ritelli, Marina Colombi
The αvβ3 integrin, an endothelial cells' receptor-binding fibronectin (FN) in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of blood vessels, regulates ECM remodeling during migration, invasion, angiogenesis, wound healing and inflammation, and is also involved in the epithelial mesenchymal transition. In vitro-grown human control fibroblasts organize a fibrillar network of FN, which is preferentially bound on the entire cell surface to its canonical α5β1 integrin receptor, whereas the αvβ3 integrin is present only in rare patches in focal contacts...
March 26, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ke Wang, Xue Zhu, Yu Chen, Yongxiang Yin, Tao Ma
Metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has poor outcome with conventional chemotherapy regimens due to its aggressive behavior. The acquisition of anoikis resistance, a programmed cell death process triggered by substratum detachment, is an important mechanism in TNBC metastasis. Therefore, agents that can restore the sensitivity of cancer cells to anoikis may be helpful for the treatment of metastatic TNBC. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of Tubeimosides V (TBMS-V), a cyclic bisdesmoside isolated from the ethanol extracts of tubers of B...
March 23, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Majid Momeny, Hassan Yousefi, Haniyeh Eyvani, Farima Moghaddaskho, Ali Salehi, Fatemeh Esmaeili, Zivar Alishahi, Farinaz Barghi, Somaye Vaezijoze, Sahar Shamsaiegahkani, Ghazaleh Zarrinrad, Ghazaleh Sankanian, Zahra Sabourinejad, Sepideh Hamzehlou, Davood Bashash, Elaheh S Aboutorabi, Parisa Ghaffari, Ahmad R Dehpour, Seyyed M Tavangar, Javad Tavakkoly-Bazzaz, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh, Seyed H Ghaffari
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has exhibited marginal improvement in survival rate, despite advances in surgical debulking and chemotherapy regimens. Although the majority of EOC patients achieve a clinical remission after induction therapy, over 80% relapse and succumb to chemoresistant disease. In this regard, it is of paramount importance to elucidate molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways which promote therapy resistance in EOC in order to devise novel and more effective treatment strategies. In this study, we showed that activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is significantly higher in therapy-resistant EOC cells compared to chemosensitive counterparts, which was positively associated with resistance to cisplatin, carboplatin, paclitaxel and erlotinib...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Jianhui Zhang, Hong Sun, Richard Salvi, Dalian Ding
Paraquat (PQ), one of the most widely used herbicides, is extremely dangerous because it generates the highly toxic superoxide radical. When paraquat was applied to cochlear organotypic cultures, it not only damaged the outer hair cells (OHCs) and inner hair cells (IHCs), but also caused dislocation of the hair cell rows. We hypothesized that the dislocation arose from damage to the support cells (SCs) that anchors hair cells within the epithelium. To test this hypothesis, rat postnatal cochlear cultures were treated with PQ...
March 13, 2018: Hearing Research
Cameron A Wade, Natasha Kyprianou
The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival and invasion via resistance to anoikis...
March 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yijuan Xu, Wenzhe Wang, Minmin Wang, Xuejiao Liu, Mee-Hyun Lee, Mingfu Wang, Hao Zhang, Haitao Li, Wei Chen
Diet-related factors are thought to modify the risk of cancers, while the influence of high salt intake remains largely uncharacterized. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In the present study, we examined the effect of salt intake on breast cancer by using a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model. Unexpectedly, both the fitness and the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice were improved by high salt intake. Similarly, high salt intake suppressed the primary tumor growth as well as metastasis to lung in mice...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Christine D Plant, Giles W Plant
Biomaterials can be utilized to assist in the transplantation of Schwann cells to the central and peripheral nervous system. The biomaterials can be natural or man-made, and can have preformed shapes or injectable formats. Biomaterials can play multiple roles in cellular transplantation; for example, they can assist with cellular integration and protect Schwann cells from cell death initiated by the lack of a substrate, an occurrence known as "anoikis." In addition, biomaterials can be engineered to increase cell proliferation and differentiation by the addition of ligands bound to the substrate...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jun Won Park, Min-Sik Kim, Dominic C Voon, Su-Jin Kim, Jingi Bae, Dong-Gi Mun, Seung-Ik Ko, Hark Kyun Kim, Sang-Won Lee, Dae-Yong Kim
The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diffuse-type gastric cancer (DGC) have not been adequately explored due to a scarcity of appropriate animal models. A recently developed tool well suited for this line of investigation is the Pdx-1-Cre;Cdh1F/+ ;Trp53F/F ;Smad4F/F (pChe PS) mouse model that spontaneously develops metastatic DGC showing nearly complete E-cadherin loss. Here, we performed a proteogenomic analysis to uncover the molecular changes induced by the concurrent targeting of E-cadherin, p53, and Smad4 loss...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Francesc Castro-Giner, Manuel C Scheidmann, Nicola Aceto
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are defined as those cells that detach from a cancerous lesion and enter the bloodstream. While generally most CTCs are subjected to high shear stress, anoikis signals, and immune attack in the circulatory system, few are able to survive and reach a distant organ in a viable state, possibly leading to metastasis formation. A large number of studies, both prospective and retrospective, have highlighted the association between CTC abundance and bad prognosis in patients with various cancer types...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Ruobing Cao, Weihua Jin, Yeqi Shan, Ju Wang, Ge Liu, Shan Kuang, Chaomin Sun
Tumor cells that acquire metastatic potential have developed resistance to anoikis, a cell death process, after detachment from their primary site to the second organ. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of a novel marine bacterial polysaccharide EPS11 which exerts its cytotoxic effects through affecting cancer cell adhesion and anoikis. Firstly, we found that EPS11 could significantly affect cell proliferation and block cell adhesion in A549 cells. We further demonstrated that the expression of several cell adhesion associated proteins is downregulated and the filiform structures of cancer cells are destroyed after EPS11 treatment...
March 8, 2018: Marine Drugs
Peng Zhang, Yarong Song, Yadong Sun, Xuechao Li, Lifeng Chen, Likun Yang, Yifei Xing
Prostate cancer (PCa) represents one of the most common solid neoplasms, and metastasis is the second leading cause of death in adult males. Anoikis is a programmed cell death that is induced upon cell detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM), which behaves as a critical protective mechanism for anchorage-independent cell growth and metastasis formation. However, in the absence of ECM attachment, shift of metabolic pattern and tolerance to anoikis facilitate the survival of aggressive cancer cells in the circulatory system as well as their metastasis to distant sites...
March 5, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Rumana Akhter, Suraiya Saleem, Akash Saha, Subhas Chandra Biswas
The pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3 domain only (BH3-only) proteins are central regulators of cell death in various physiological and pathological conditions, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Bcl-2 modifying factor (Bmf) is one such BH3-only protein that is implicated in various death paradigms such as anoikis, seizures, cancer and autoimmunity. It also co-operates with other BH3-only proteins such as Bim in various death paradigms. However, its role in neurodegeneration is under-investigated. Here, we report for the first time the essential role of Bmf and its co-operativity with direct activator BH3-only proteins Bim and Puma in neuron death induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity or NGF deprivation...
February 27, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Rajesh Guruswamy Damodaran, Patrick Vermette
Diabetes Mellitus involves the loss of function and/or absolute numbers of insulin-producing β-cells in pancreatic islets. Islet transplantation is currently being investigated as a potential cure, and advances in tissue engineering methods can be used to improve pancreatic islets survival and functionality. Transplanted islets experience anoikis, hypoxia and inflammation-mediated immune response, leading to early damage and subsequent failure of the graft. Recent development in tissue engineering enables the use of decellularized organs as scaffolds for cell therapies...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Wenjing Zhao, Shaobo Chen, Xianming Hou, Ge Chen, Yupei Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cell cycle checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) performs essential cellular functions and might be associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Here, we explored the function and molecular mechanisms of CHK2 in the progression of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). METHODS: The expression levels of both total CHK2 and activated CHK2 (p-CHK2) in tissues from 100 PTC patients were detected and evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The roles of CHK2 on cell proliferation, invasion, migration, apoptosis and cancer stem cell (CSC) markers were investigated by CCK-8, Transwell, flow cytometry, western blot and ALDEFLOUR assay...
February 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Marc Schulte, Johannes Köster, Sven Rahmann, Alexander Schramm
The notion of cancer as a complex evolutionary system has been validated by in-depth molecular analyses of tumor progression over the last years. While a complex interplay of cell-autonomous programs and cell-cell interactions determines proliferation and differentiation during normal development, intrinsic and acquired plasticity of cancer cells allow for evasion of growth factor limitations, apoptotic signals, or attacks from the immune system. Treatment-induced molecular selection processes have been described by a number of studies already, but understanding of those events facilitating metastatic spread, organ-specific homing, and resistance to anoikis is still in its early days...
February 24, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
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