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Lipids and chronic kidney disease

Claudia Kruger, Susan J Burke, J Jason Collier, Trang-Tiffany Nguyen, J Michael Salbaum, Krisztian Stadler
Early podocyte loss is characteristic of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in obesity and diabetes. Since treatments for hyperglycemia and hypertension do not prevent podocyte loss, there must be additional factors causing podocyte depletion. The role of oxidative stress has been implicated in CKD but it is not known how exactly free radicals affect podocyte physiology. To assess this relationship, we investigated the effects of lipid radicals on podocytes, as lipid peroxidation is a major form of oxidative stress in diabetes...
March 6, 2018: Redox Biology
Chou-Yueh Chang, Horng-Rong Chang, Hsing-Chun Lin, Han-Hsin Chang
Objective Vegetarian diets have been shown to increase the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies, such as iron. As a number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Taiwan are lacto-ovo vegetarians, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different proportions and sources of protein in lacto-ovo vegetarian and omnivorous diets, as well as the influence of adequate dietary protein intake, on renal function and nutritional status of Taiwanese patients with stage 3 to stage 5 CKD. Methods This is a cross-sectional study...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Jiye Sun, Xuemei Chen, Ting Liu, Xushun Jiang, Yue Wu, Shan Yang, Wei Hua, Zhengdong Li, Huizhe Huang, Xiongzhong Ruan, Xiaogang Du
BACKGROUND Increased lipid accumulation in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) contributes to their injury and dysfunction and progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Berberine (BBR), a natural plant alkaloid isolated from traditional medicine herbs, is effective in lowing serum lipid, and has a protective effect on chronic kidney disease (CKD) with dyslipidemia, including diabetic nephropathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BBR on palmitate (PA)-induced lipid accumulation and apoptosis in TECs...
March 12, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Peter P Toth, Jamie P Dwyer, Christopher P Cannon, Helen M Colhoun, Daniel J Rader, Ashish Upadhyay, Michael J Louie, Andrew Koren, Alexia Letierce, Jonas Mandel, Maciej Banach
Individuals with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease. Among them, many with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are unable to achieve optimal LDL-C on statins and require additional lipid-lowering therapy. To study this, we compared the LDL-C-lowering efficacy and safety of alirocumab in individuals with hypercholesterolemia with impaired renal function, defined as eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 , to those without impaired renal function eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1...
March 8, 2018: Kidney International
M Majerczyk, P Kocełak, P Choręza, H Arabzada, A J Owczarek, M Bożentowicz-Wikarek, A Brzozowska, A Szybalska, M Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, T Grodzicki, A Więcek, M Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, J Chudek
PURPOSE: Elevated plasma concentration of retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) has recently emerged as a potential risk factor as a component of developing metabolic syndrome (MS). Therefore, this study aimed to analyse the relationship between components of MS and concentrations of plasma RBP4 in a population of subjects 65 years and older. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 3038 (1591 male) participants of the PolSenior study, aged 65 years and older. Serum lipid profile, concentrations of RBP4, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, IL-6, and activity of aminotransferases were measured...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Hsiang-Hsin Chen, Tsung-Tse Lee, Ann Chen, Yeukuang Hwu, Cyril Petibois
Determining the filtration function and biochemical status of kidney at the single glomerulus level remains hardly accessible, even from biopsies. Here, we provide evidence that IR spectro-microscopy is a suitable method to account for the filtration capacity of individual glomeruli along with related physio-pathological condition. A ~4-µm voxel resolution 3D IR image reconstruction is built from consecutive tissue sections, thus providing a 3D IR spectrum matrix of an individual glomerulus. The filtration capacity of glomeruli was quantitatively determined after BaSO4 perfusion, and additional chemical data could be used to determined oxidative stress effects and fibrosis, thus combining functional and biochemical information from the same 3D IR spectrum matrix...
March 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Eoin P Brennan, Muthukumar Mohan, Aaron McClelland, Christos Tikellis, Mark Ziemann, Antony Kaspi, Stephen P Gray, Raelene Pickering, Sih Min Tan, Syed Tasadaque Ali-Shah, Patrick J Guiry, Assam El-Osta, Karin Jandeleit-Dahm, Mark E Cooper, Catherine Godson, Phillip Kantharidis
Background The failure of spontaneous resolution underlies chronic inflammatory conditions, including microvascular complications of diabetes such as diabetic kidney disease. The identification of endogenously generated molecules that promote the physiologic resolution of inflammation suggests that these bioactions may have therapeutic potential in the context of chronic inflammation. Lipoxins (LXs) are lipid mediators that promote the resolution of inflammation. Methods We investigated the potential of LXA4 and a synthetic LX analog (Benzo-LXA4 ) as therapeutics in a murine model of diabetic kidney disease, ApoE-/- mice treated with streptozotocin...
February 28, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Ting Liu, Xue-Mei Chen, Ji-Ye Sun, Xu-Shun Jiang, Yue Wu, Shan Yang, Hui-Zhe Huang, Xiong-Zhong Ruan, Xiao-Gang Du
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is often accompanied by hyperlipidemia, which accelerates progression of the disease. Podocyte injury can lead to dysfunction of the glomerular filtration barrier, which is associated with proteinuria, a risk marker for the progression of CKD. Our previous studies demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) can induce podocyte apoptosis; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the specific molecular mechanisms of PA-induced apoptosis in cultured podocytes...
February 22, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Adeleye Dorcas Omisore, Olusola Comfort Famurewa, Morenikeji Adeyoyin Komolafe, Christiana Mopelola Asaleye, Michael Bimbola Fawale, Babalola Ishmael Afolabi
BACKGROUND: Traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), which include age, gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, smoking, alcohol consumption, chronic kidney disease and obesity, have been shown to be associated with atherosclerosis. We aimed to evaluate the impact of traditional CVRFs on carotid atherosclerosis (CA) in a sample of Nigerian adults. METHODS: We examined 162 subjects with traditional CVRFs in a cross-sectional study. Demographic and clinical data, including history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol intake and chronic kidney disease, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight and height were collected...
February 28, 2018: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
L Parker Gregg, S Susan Hedayati
Patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) are 10 times more likely to die of cardiovascular (CV) diseases than the general population, and dialysis-dependent patients are at even higher risk. Although traditional CV risk factors are highly prevalent in individuals with CKD, these patients were often excluded from studies targeting modification of these risks. Although treatment of hypertension is beneficial in CKD, the best target blood pressure has not been established. Trial data showed that renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade may prevent CV events in patients with CKD...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Haoyu Wang, Zhao Li, Xiaofan Guo, Yintao Chen, Shuang Chen, Yichen Tian, Yingxian Sun
BACKGROUND: Despite current interest in the unfavorable impact of nontraditional lipid profiles on cardiovascular disease, information regarding its relations to reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in H-type hypertension population has not been systemically elucidated. METHODS: Analyses were based upon a cross-sectional study of 3259 participants with H-type hypertension who underwent assessment of biochemical, anthropometric, and blood pressure values. Reduced GFR was considered if meeting estimated GFR< 60 ml/min/1...
February 23, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Fang Dou, Hua Miao, Jing-Wen Wang, Lin Chen, Ming Wang, Hua Chen, Ai-Dong Wen, Ying-Yong Zhao
Alisma orientale Juzepzuk (AO) is widely used for various diuretic and nephropathic treatments in traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). In a clinical setting, AO is used as both a lipid-lowering and tubular interstitial fibrosis agent. However, the mechanisms of AO for the treatment of renal interstitial fibrosis and abnormal lipid metabolism are not well-understood. In this study, pharmacological and UPLC-HDMS-based lipidomic approaches were employed to investigate the lipid-lowering and tubular interstitial fibrosis effect of AO on rats with adenine-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Florian Kronenberg
The picture of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) as the "good" cholesterol has eroded. This is even more surprising because there exists strong evidence that HDL-C is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population as well as in patients with impairment of kidney function and/or progression of CKD. However, drugs that dramatically increase HDL-C have mostly failed to decrease CVD events. Furthermore, genetic studies took the same line, as genetic variants that have a pronounced influence on HDL-C concentrations did not show an association with cardiovascular risk...
February 22, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Julio A Lamprea-Montealegre, Robyn L McClelland, Morgan Grams, Pamela Ouyang, Moyses Szklo, Ian H de Boer
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to characterise the main dyslipidaemic phenotypes present in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their association with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. METHODS: Analyses included 6612 individuals in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis free of CHD at baseline. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15 to <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (stages 3-4). Principal component analyses were used to characterise the main dyslipidaemic phenotypes of CKD accounting for the correlation among different lipoproteins and lipoprotein particles...
February 22, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Wei Ling Lau, Mahyar Khazaeli, Javad Savoj, Kasim Manekia, Maria Bangash, Roshni G Thakurta, Anhthu Dang, Nosratola D Vaziri, Bhupinder Singh
Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) is the principal metabolite of curcumin and has antioxidant properties. In the present investigation, the effect of THC on renal and cardiovascular outcomes was studied in rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD rats were randomized following 5/6 nephrectomy to a special diet for 9 weeks which contained 1% THC (CKD+THC group). Low-dose polyenylphosphatidylcholine was used as a lipid carrier to increase bioavailability. Endpoints included tail blood pressure, normalized heart weight, plasma and urine biochemical data, and kidney tissue analyses...
April 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Pi-I Li, Jian-Nan Wang, How-Ran Guo
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common complication of diabetes, and requires long-term medical care. However, besides the blood glucose level, no reliable method is currently available to link the quality of care and the development of CKD. We therefore developed a long-term quality-of-care score for predicting the occurrence of CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, using Taiwan's Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients Database and the medical records in a medical center, we identified incident patients with type 2 diabetes during 1999-2003 and followed them until 2011...
February 15, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Grace M Turner, Melanie Calvert, Max G Feltham, Ronan Ryan, Samuel Finnikin, Tom Marshall
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Primary prevention of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is important to reduce the burden of these conditions; however, prescribing of prevention drugs is suboptimal. We aimed to identify individual clinical and demographic characteristics associated with potential missed opportunities for prevention therapy with lipid-lowering, anticoagulant, or antihypertensive drugs before stroke/TIA. METHODS: We analyzed anonymized electronic primary care records from a UK primary care database that covers 561 family practices...
February 13, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Ana Paula Black, Juliana S Anjos, Ludmila Cardozo, Flávia L Carmo, Carla J Dolenga, Lia S Nakao, Dennis de Carvalho Ferreira, Alexandre Rosado, José Carlos Carraro Eduardo, Denise Mafra
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of low-protein diet (LPD) on uremic toxins and the gut microbiota profile in nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: Longitudinal study with 30 nondialysis CKD patients (stage 3-4) undergoing LPD for 6 months. Adherence to the diet was evaluated based on the calculation of protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance from the 24-hour urine analysis. Good adherence to LPD was considered when protein intake was from 90% to 110% of the prescribed amount (0...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi, Mahdi Najafi
BACKGROUND: Recently, the clinical importance of dietary inflammatory index (DII) in predicting the inflammatory potential of diet and its role in pathogenesis of several chronic disease including some types of cancers, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and renal disease has been proposed. However, its association with the disease severity and progression and cardio-metabolic risk factors among patients candidate for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has not been evaluated yet...
February 13, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Hossein Tabriziani, Michael S Lipkowitz, Nhan Vuong
Oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiological process of uremia and its complications, particularly in cardiovascular disease. The level of oxidative stress markers is known to increase as chronic kidney disease progresses and correlates significantly with the level of renal function. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are major modes of renal replacement therapy for end-stage renal disease patients, but unfortunately they are also accompanied by increased oxidative stress. Successful kidney transplantation, however, results in near normalization of the antioxidant status and lipid metabolism by eliminating free radicals despite the surge of oxidative stress caused by the surgical procedure and ischemic injury to the organ during the operation...
February 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
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