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Lipids and chronic kidney disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878222/angiotensin-ii-induces-cholesterol-accumulation-and-injury-in-podocytes
#1
Yingjie Yang, Qian Yang, Jian Yang, Yiqiong Ma, Guohua Ding
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a risk factor for the initiation and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), as elevated Ang II levels can lead to podocyte injury. However, there have been no studies on the role of Ang II in lipid metabolism or on podocyte injury caused by lipid dysfunction. Our study showed that Ang II induced lipid droplet (LD) accumulation and expression of the LD marker adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) in podocytes, and the extent of lipid deposition could be alleviated by losartan...
September 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871936/xanthoma-like-skin-changes-in-an-elderly-woman-with-a-normal-lipid-profile
#2
Piotr Nockowski, Zdzisław Woźniak, Adam Reich, Joanna Maj
Dear Editor, An 83-year-old woman developed yellow-brownish infiltrates, nodules, and tumors mimicking xanthomas, mostly involving the periorbital and chest area within three months (Figure 1). She had no abnormalities in serum cholesterol or triglycerides levels. A detailed laboratory analysis revealed the presence of mild monoclonal gammopathy with a presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) kappa light chains; however, according to hematologist consultation, it did not require medical intervention. Imaging assessment and ultrasound examination did not show any specific involvement of internal organs...
July 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866363/effects-of-apolipoprotein-m-in-uremic-atherosclerosis
#3
Markus Høybye Bosteen, Eva Martha Madsen Svarrer, Line Stattau Bisgaard, Torben Martinussen, Marie Madsen, Lars Bo Nielsen, Christina Christoffersen, Tanja Xenia Pedersen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic kidney disease is characterized by uremia and causes premature death, partly due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein (apo) M is a plasma carrier protein for the lipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). The Apom-S1P complex associates with HDL, and may contribute to its anti-atherosclerotic effects. The role of Apom/S1P in atherosclerosis is presently controversial and has not been explored in a uremic setting. We aimed to explore whether plasma concentrations of Apom/S1P are altered by uremia and whether Apom overexpression or deficiency affects classical and uremic atherosclerosis...
August 18, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860222/variability-in-total-cholesterol-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-end-stage-renal-disease-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#4
Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Eun Sil Koh, Hun-Sung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Yong-Moon Park, Kun-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hwan Lee
OBJECTIVE: Recent data suggest that visit-to-visit variability of cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular events. We evaluated the role of lipid variability as a determinant of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). APPROACH AND RESULTS: Using nationally representative data from the Korean National Health Insurance System, 8 493 277 subjects who were free of ESRD and who underwent ≥3 health examinations during 2005 to 2010 were followed to the end of 2015. Total cholesterol (TC) variability was measured using the coefficient of variation, SD, and the variability independent of the mean...
August 31, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857406/trend-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-the-older-iranian-population-2002-2014
#5
Ali Eslami, Mojtaba Lotfaliany, Samaneh Akbarpour, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
AIM: Current study aimed to investigate the sex-stratified secular trend of cardiovascular disease risk factors among an older population in Iran during a median follow-up period of 8.76 years. METHODS: A total of 1490 participants (733 women) aged ≥60 years were evaluated in four study phases of 2002-2005, 2005-2008, 2008-2011 and 2011-2014. The trends of cardiovascular disease risk factors for each sex were estimated using generalized estimating equations...
August 31, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852492/high-density-lipoprotein-particle-pattern-and-overall-lipid-responses-to-a-short-term-moderate-intensity-aerobic-exercise-training-intervention-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Emily M Miele, Samuel A E Headley, Michael Germain, Jyovani Joubert, Sarah Herrick, Charles Milch, Elizabeth Evans, Allen Cornelius, Britton Brewer, Beth Taylor, Richard J Wood
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with abnormal lipid profiles and altered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size patterns. Lower levels of the larger, cardioprotective HDL particles found in CKD may play a role in the increased risk for cardiovascular disease in these patients. The current study was designed to assess the effects of short-term moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training on the HDL particle pattern and overall lipid profiles in stage 3 CKD patients...
August 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844155/effects-of-aliskiren-on-mortality-cardiovascular-outcomes-and-adverse-events-in-patients-with-diabetes-and-cardiovascular-disease-or-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-13-395-patients
#7
Sean L Zheng, Alistair J Roddick, Salma Ayis
BACKGROUND: Aliskiren was shown to increase adverse events in patients with diabetes and concomitant renin-angiotensin blockade. We aim to investigate the efficacy and safety of aliskiren in patients with diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk or established cardiovascular disease. METHODS: MEDLINE and Embase were searched for prospective studies comparing addition of aliskiren to standard medical therapy in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, or ⩾1 additional cardiovascular risk factor (hypertension, abnormal lipid profile, microalbuminuria/proteinuria, chronic kidney disease)...
June 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842346/hydrogen-sulfide-producing-cystathionine-%C3%AE-lyase-is-critical-in-the-progression-of-kidney-fibrosis
#8
Sang Jun Han, Mi Ra Noh, Jung-Min Jung, Isao Ishii, Jeongsoo Yoo, Jee In Kim, Kwon Moo Park
Cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), the last key enzyme of the transsulfuration pathway, is involved in the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and glutathione (GSH), which regulate redox balance and act as important antioxidant molecules. Impairment of the H2S- and GSH-mediated antioxidant system is associated with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), characterized by kidney fibrosis and dysfunction. Here, we evaluated the role of CSE in the progression of kidney fibrosis after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) using mice deficient in the Cse gene...
August 24, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836857/uric-acid-and-incident-chronic-kidney-disease-in-dyslipidemic-individuals
#9
Fotios Barkas, Moses Elisaf, Evangelos Liberopoulos, Rigas Kalaitzidis, George Liamis
BACKGROUND: Elevated uric acid (UA) is a recognized risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to investigate whether this association exists in dyslipidemic patients receiving multifactorial treatment. METHODS: An observational study conducted in Greece including 1,269 dyslipidemic individuals followed-up in a lipid clinic for ≥3 years. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by CKD-EPI equation and CKD was defined as ≤60 mL/min/1...
August 24, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835613/residual-risk-factors-to-predict-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-in-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-patients-with-and-without-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Fang-Ju Lin, Wei-Kung Tseng, Wei-Hsian Yin, Hung-I Yeh, Jaw-Wen Chen, Chau-Chung Wu
A prospective observational study was conducted to investigate the residual risk factors to predict recurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) patients with a high prevalence under lipid-lowering therapy, particularly in the subpopulations of diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. A total of 5,483 adults (with a mean age of 66.4 and 73.3% male) with established coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral artery disease were identified from the T-SPARCLE multi-center registry...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829206/new-perspectives-on-ckd-induced-dyslipidemia
#11
Marcelino Bermúdez-López, David Arroyo, Àngels Betriu, Luis Masana, Elvira Fernández, Jose M Valdivielso
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a world-wide health concern associated with a significantly higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One of the principal cardiovascular risk factors is the lipid profile. CKD patients have a more frequent and progressive atheromatous disease that cannot be explained by the classical lipid parameters used in the daily clinical practice. Areas covered: The current review summarizes prevailing knowledge on the role of lipids in atheromathosis in CKD patients, including an overview of lipoprotein metabolism highlighting the CKD-induced alterations...
August 28, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814833/markers-of-oxidative-nitrosative-stress-and-inflammation-in-lung-tissue-of-rats-exposed-to-different-intravenous-iron-compounds
#12
Jorge E Toblli, Gabriel Cao, Jorge F Giani, Fernando P Dominici, Margarita Angerosa
Iron deficiency anemia is a frequent complication in clinical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and excessive blood loss. Given the ability of iron to catalyze redox reactions, iron therapy can be associated with oxidative stress. The lung is uniquely susceptible to oxidative stress, and little is known about the effects of intravenous iron treatment in this organ. This study characterized changes in markers of oxidative/nitrosative stress and inflammation in the lung of non-iron deficient, non-anemic rats treated with five weekly doses (40 mg iron per kg body weight) of low molecular weight iron dextran (LMWID), iron sucrose (IS), ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), ferumoxytol (FMX), iron isomaltoside 1000 (IIM), or saline (control)...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811239/gamma-glutamyltransferase-and-risk-of-chronic-kidney-disease-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Setor K Kunutsor, Jari A Laukkanen
BACKGROUND: Elevated serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity has been linked with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Asian populations. We aimed to assess the prospective association of serum GGT with risk of CKD in a Caucasian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We related GGT activity to the incidence of CKD in 2338 men aged 42-61years of the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease study with normal kidney function at baseline. Repeat measurements of GGT were used to correct for within-person variability...
October 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807612/the-role-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-as-a-mediator-of-cardiovascular-complications-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#14
James A P Tomlinson, David C Wheeler
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an enhanced risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality when compared with age- and gender-matched individuals with normal kidney function. Trimethlyamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut-derived amine oxide that has been implicated in the causation of CV diseases. Plasma TMAO is cleared by the kidney, and TMAO levels are elevated in CKD. Experimental studies have identified pathogenic mechanisms by which TMAO may contribute to CV disease through dysregulation of lipid metabolism, enhanced macrophage foam cell formation, and platelet dysfunction...
August 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770948/curative-treatment-of-hypertension-by-physical-exercise
#15
M Lou, X-F Zong, L-L Wang
Hypertension, one of the most common chronic and sporadic conditions, figures among the important worldwide public-health challenges, and it is a major risk for heart disease, stroke, kidney disease and other complications, including dementia. Hypertension is neglected by individuals, and the prevalence of this condition continues to rise across the world. A great number of patients receiving medical intervention is not successfully treated, while adequate curative health services are dependent on the exact update data of the countrywide prevalence of known and undetected cases...
July 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770321/metformin-clinical-use-in-type-2-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Elizabeth Sanchez-Rangel, Silvio E Inzucchi
Metformin is one of the most popular oral glucose-lowering medications, widely considered to be the optimal initial therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interestingly, there still remains controversy regarding the drug's precise mechanism of action, which is thought to involve a reduction in hepatic glucose production. It is now recommended as first-line treatment in various guidelines, including that of the EASD and ADA. Its favoured status lies in its efficacy, low cost, weight neutrality and good safety profile...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767802/parathyroidectomy-in-chronic-kidney-disease-effects-on-weight-gain-and-on-quality-of-life-improvement
#17
Henyse Gomes Valente-Da-Silva, Maria Cristina Araújo Maya, Annie Seixas Moreira
Objective: to evaluate the benefit of parathyroidectomy in patients on hemodialysis, regarding nutritional and biochemical statuses, body composition and the health-related quality of life. Methods: this is a longitudinal study involving 28 hemodialysis adult patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism evaluated before and one year after surgery. Inclusion criteria: parathyroid hormone levels exceeding ten times the upper normal range and end-stage renal disease in hemodialysis program...
May 2017: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767204/blockade-of-myeloid-differentiation-protein-2-prevents-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-nephropathy
#18
Qilu Fang, Lintao Wang, Daona Yang, Xiong Chen, Xiaoou Shan, Yali Zhang, Hazel Lum, Jingying Wang, Peng Zhong, Guang Liang, Yi Wang
Obesity is a major and independent risk factor of kidney diseases. The pathogenic mechanisms of obesity-associated renal injury are recognized to at least involve a lipid-rich and pro-inflammatory state of the renal tissues, but specific mechanisms establishing causal relation remain unknown. Saturated fatty acids are elevated in obesity, and known to induce chronic inflammation in kidneys. Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) is an important protein in lipopolysaccharide-induced innate immunity response and inflammation...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760771/diabetic-nephropathy-is-this-an-immune-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Greg H Tesch
Chronic diabetes is associated with metabolic and haemodynamic stresses which can facilitate modifications to DNA, proteins and lipids, induce cellular dysfunction and damage, and stimulate inflammatory and fibrotic responses which lead to various types of renal injury. Approximately 30-40% of patients with diabetes develop nephropathy and this renal injury normally progresses in about a third of patients. Due to the growing incidence of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy is now the main cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760335/microrna-21-regulates-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-a-molecular-mechanism-of-cardiac-pathology-in-cardiorenal-syndrome-type-4
#20
Sandra Chuppa, Mingyu Liang, Pengyuan Liu, Yong Liu, Marc C Casati, Allen W Cowley, Leah Patullo, Alison J Kriegel
Cardiovascular events are the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), although the pathological mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we longitudinally characterized left ventricle pathology in a 5/6 nephrectomy rat model of CKD and identify novel molecular mediators. Next-generation sequencing of left ventricle mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) was performed at physiologically distinct points in disease progression, identifying alterations in genes in numerous immune, lipid metabolism, and inflammatory pathways, as well as several miRNAs...
July 28, 2017: Kidney International
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