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Lipids and chronic kidney disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903991/role-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-factors-in-diabetic-kidney-disease
#1
Esmat Aghadavod, Samaneh Khodadadi, Azar Baradaran, Parto Nasri, Mahmood Bahmani, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus, and its prevalence has been increasing in developed countries. Diabetic nephropathy has become the most common single cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation factors are hypothesized to play a role in the development of late diabetes complications. Chronic hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress, significantly modifies the structure and function of proteins and lipids, and induces glycoxidation and peroxidation...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900942/association-between-chronic-kidney-disease-and-cancer-mortality-a-report-from-the-allhat
#2
Dhruti P Chen, Barry R Davis, Lara M Simpson, William C Cushman, Jeffrey A Cutler, Mirela Dobre, Charles E Ford, Gail T Louis, Paul Muntner, Suzanne Oparil, Linda B Piller, Sara L Pressel, Mark J Sarnak, Paul K Whelton, Jackson T Wright, Mahboob Rahman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cancer are both common in older patients; whether CKD increases risk for cancer is unclear. This study evaluated CKD as a risk factor for cancer mortality in a large cohort of hypertensive patients. STUDY DESIGN: We did post-hoc analyses of in-trial and post-trial data from participants in the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were ≥ 55 years old with hypertension and one other additional risk factor for coronary heart disease...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889358/the-hypertriglyceridemic-waist-and-waist-to-height-ratio-phenotypes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-cross-sectional-and-prospective-investigations
#3
Azra Ramezankhani, Fereidoun Azizi, Arash Ghanbarian, Donna Parizadeh, Farzad Hadaegh
AIMS: We investigated the association between two hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW) and waist-to height ratio (HWHtR) phenotypes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) using cross sectional and prospective analysis. METHODS: Data of 12,012 individuals (44% men) of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) at two phases [(1999-2001) and (2002-2005)], were used for cross-sectional analysis. This population was followed until 2014 with median follow-up 12.4 years (95% confidence interval (CI): 11...
November 23, 2016: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888584/small-molecule-inhibiting-nf-kb-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-and-suppresses-renal-inflammation-in-early-stage-of-alloxan-induced-diabetic-nephropathy-in-rat
#4
Manash P Borgohain, Mangala Lakhar, Sahabuddin Ahmed, Liakat Chowdhury, Saurabh Kumar, Rajat Pant, Abhinav Choubey
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus which ultimately gives rise to cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress produced by prolonged hyperglycaemia and chronic renal inflammation are the two key players in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. NF-kB-mediated inflammatory cascade is a strong contributor to the renovascular inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we studied the effects of piceatannol, a potent NF-kB inhibitor, on various oxidative stress markers and diabetic renal inflammatory pathway in rat induced by alloxan...
November 26, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885903/opinions-of-nephrologists-on-the-efficacy-and-tolerance-of-statins-in-hemodialysis-patients
#5
Ewa Budzisz, Michał Nowicki
Large randomized controlled trials have not confirmed the effects of statin therapy on reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in end-stage kidney disease, despite that statins are still widely prescribed by nephrologists to chronic dialysis patients. The aim of the study was to analyze the attitudes of nephrologists towards statin use in hemodialysis patients. Self-designed questionnaire, containing 18 questions, was distributed among 115 nephrologists. The survey contained description of the results of 3 largest statin trials in nephrology...
November 25, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878313/targeting-renal-glucose-reabsorption-to-treat-hyperglycaemia-the-pleiotropic-effects-of-sglt2-inhibition
#6
REVIEW
Volker Vallon, Scott C Thomson
Healthy kidneys filter ∼160 g/day of glucose (∼30% of daily energy intake) under euglycaemic conditions. To prevent valuable energy from being lost in the urine, the proximal tubule avidly reabsorbs filtered glucose up to a limit of ∼450 g/day. When blood glucose levels increase to the point that the filtered load exceeds this limit, the surplus is excreted in the urine. Thus, the kidney provides a safety valve that can prevent extreme hyperglycaemia as long as glomerular filtration is maintained. Most of the capacity for renal glucose reabsorption is provided by sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 in the early proximal tubule...
November 22, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876008/physical-activity-and-metabolic-health-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Wilson Bowlby, Leila R Zelnick, Connor Henry, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Steven E Kahn, Bryan Kestenbaum, Cassianne Robinson-Cohen, Kristina M Utzschneider, Ian H de Boer
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of progression to end stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. Physical activity may reduce these risks by improving metabolic health. We tested associations of physical activity with central components of metabolic health among people with moderate-severe non-diabetic CKD. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 47 people with CKD (estimated GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and 29 healthy control subjects...
November 22, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863896/-chronic-kidney-disease-and-dyslipidaemia
#8
Vicente Pascual, Adalberto Serrano, Juan Pedro-Botet, Juan Ascaso, Vivencio Barrios, Jesús Millán, Xavier Pintó, Aleix Cases
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has to be considered as a high, or even very high risk cardiovascular risk condition, since it leads to an increase in cardiovascular mortality that continues to increase as the disease progresses. An early diagnosis of CKD is required, together with an adequate identification of the risk factors, in order to slow down its progression to more severe states, prevent complications, and to delay, whenever possible, the need for renal replacement therapy. Dyslipidaemia is a factor of the progression of CKD that increases the risk in developing atherosclerosis and its complications...
November 15, 2016: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863350/arterial-calcification-a-new-perspective
#9
REVIEW
R Nicoll, M Henein
Arterial calcification is commonly seen in atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes and has long been considered a natural progression of atherosclerosis. Yet it is a systemic condition, occurring in a wide and diverse range of disease states and no medical treatment for cardiovascular disease has yet found a way to regress it; on the contrary, lipid-lowering therapy may worsen its progression. Although numerous studies have found associations between calcification and biomarkers, none has yet found a unifying mechanism that explains the calcification found in atherosclerosis, CKD or diabetes and many of the biomarkers are equally associated with atheroma development and cardiovascular events...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861640/association-of-high-density-lipoprotein-subclasses-with-chronic-kidney-disease-progression-atherosclerosis-and-klotho
#10
Eiichiro Kanda, Masumi Ai, Mitsuyo Okazaki, Masayuki Yoshida, Yoshitaka Maeda
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is often a complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) because of dyslipidemia and CKD-mineral and bone disorder. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are grouped into various subclasses composed of multiple proteins and lipids, and their transformation is altered in CKD. We investigated the roles of lipoprotein subclasses in CKD progression, and atherosclerosis, and the relationships with Klotho and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23. METHODS: Seventy-one CKD patients were enrolled in this prospective cohort study in Japan...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853891/impact-of-extended-ginsenoside-rb1-on-early-chronic-kidney-disease-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#11
Xuefang Xu, Qiandi Lu, Jingyue Wu, Yixiang Li, Jinzhu Sun
Ginsenoside Rb1 (GS-Rb1) is a well-known antioxidant derived from traditionally used herbal medicine ginseng. It has been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in chronic kidney disease (CKD) in which GS-Rb1 may play a protective role. The aim of this study was to evaluate prospectively the effects of GS-Rb1 in patients with early chronic kidney disease. 197 patients who have been diagnosed with early CKD (stage 2 or 3) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive GS-Rb1 (500 mg daily oral administration, n = 103) or placebo (n = 94) for consecutive 6 months...
November 17, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831597/pharmacological-management-of-dyslipidemia-in-high-and-very-high-cardiovascular-risk-patients
#12
V Pascual Fuster
Dyslipaemia is one of the main risk factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Currently, there are different alternatives available (amongst which statins occupy a pre-eminent place), to optimise the treatment of patients at high or very high cardiovascular risk. Despite this, the percentage of patients that achieve good lipid control is low. The causes of the mismatch with proposed objectives include lack of patient adherence and therapeutic inertia. This review uses available evidence and the latest clinical guides as a basis to assess the pharmacological treatment of dyslipaemia in patients with a background of arteriosclerotic vascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular risk at ≥5% calculated by SCORE and familial hypercholesterolaemia...
December 2016: Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829582/postprandial-hyperlipidemia-and-remnant-lipoproteins
#13
Daisaku Masuda, Shizuya Yamashita
Fasting hypertriglyceridemia is positively associated with the morbidity of coronary heart disease (CHD), and postprandial (non-fasting) hypertriglyceridemia is also correlated with the risk status for CHD, which is related to the increase in chylomicron (CM) remnant lipoproteins produced from the intestine. CM remnant particles, as well as oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) or very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) remnants, are highly atherogenic and act by enhancing systemic inflammation, platelet activation, coagulation, thrombus formation, and macrophage foam cell formation...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825313/using-pharmacists-to-improve-risk-stratification-and-management-of-stage-3a-chronic-kidney-disease-a-feasibility-study
#14
Alex R Chang, Michael Evans, Christina Yule, Larissa Bohn, Amanda Young, Meredith Lewis, Elisabeth Graboski, Bethany Gerdy, William Ehmann, Jonathan Brady, Leah Lawrence, Natacha Antunes, Jamie Green, Susan Snyder, H Lester Kirchner, Morgan Grams, Robert Perkins
BACKGROUND: Measurement of albuminuria to stratify risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not done universally in the primary care setting despite recommendation in KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) guidelines. Pharmacist medication therapy management (MTM) may be helpful in improving CKD risk stratification and management. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial using seven primary care clinic sites in the Geisinger Health System to evaluate the feasibility of pharmacist MTM in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 45-59 ml/min/1...
November 8, 2016: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777900/circulating-angiogenic-factors-in-diabetes-patients-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ghana
#15
Kwame Yeboah, Eric Kyei-Baafour, Daniel A Antwi, Henry Asare-Anane, Ben Gyan, Albert G B Amoah
BACKGROUND: Impaired angiogenesis is amongst the underlining mechanisms of organ damage in diabetes and hypertensive patients. In diabetes and hypertensive patients without proteinuria and overt CVDs, we studied the levels of angiogenic growth factors, angiopoietin (Ang)-1, Ang-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and the relationship between these angiogenic growth factors and renal function, measured as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHOD: In a case control design, 107 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients and 93 non-diabetes controls were recruited into the study...
2016: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774887/lipoprotein-subfractions-uric-acid-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-end-stage-renal-disease-esrd-patients
#16
Anna Gluba-Brzózka, Beata Franczyk, Piotr Bartnicki, Magdalena Rysz-Górzyńska, Jacek Rysz
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a worldwide public health problem. CKD is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cardiovascular risk in ESRD patients and to evaluate the relationship between serum uric acid and lipoprotein subfractions. METHODS: The study group consisted of 66 patients on dialysis and control group of 25 healthy volunteers. Concentration of HDL and LDL subfractions were analysed with Lipoprint™...
October 21, 2016: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764985/adiponectin-leptin-nitric-oxide-and-c-reactive-protein-levels-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-comparison-with-the-hemodialysis-and-chronic-renal-failure
#17
Nihal Ocak, Melahat Dirican, Alparslan Ersoy, Emre Sarandol
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) including kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Secondary lipid metabolism disorders, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation enhance the risk of CVD development in these patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the lipid profile, adiponectin, leptin, nitric oxide (NO), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in KTR and to compare these parameters with those of the patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), hemodialysis (HD) patients, and healthy controls...
October 20, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760420/risks-of-metformin-in-type-2-diabetes-and-chronic-kidney-disease-lessons-learned-from-taiwanese-data
#18
Connie M Rhee, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
Like other biguanide agents, metformin is an anti-hyperglycemic agent with lower tendency towards hypoglycemia compared to other anti-diabetic drugs. Given its favorable effects on serum lipids, obese body habitus, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, metformin is recommended as the first-line pharmacologic agent for type 2 diabetes in the absence of contraindications. However, as metformin accumulation may lead to type B non-hypoxemic lactic acidosis, especially in the setting of kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and overdose, regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have maintained certain restrictions regarding its use in kidney dysfunction...
October 20, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754229/os-33-05-high-prevalence-and-poor-control-of-hypertension-and-associated-cardiovascular-risk-facors-in-diabetic-patients-in-a-rural-hospital-in-kenya
#19
Elijah Ogola
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is rapidly increasing in Africa with a projected increase in diabetics from 12.1 million in 2010 to 23.9 million in 2030, predominantly type 2 DM (T2DM). The major consequence of diabetes is cardiovascular (CV) disease. T2DM occurs with a constellation of other CV risk factors (RF). Awareness and control of all risk factors is therefore critical in reducing the burden from diabetes. The rising burden has hitherto been an urban phenomenon; however there is evidence of rising burden in rural areas...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753805/ssa-02-4-disparities-in-hypertension-management-of-ckd-in-south-asia
#20
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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