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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845303/new-insights-into-estrogenic-regulation-of-o-6-methylguanine-dna-methyltransferase-mgmt-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-co-degradation-of-er-%C3%AE-and-mgmt-proteins-by-fulvestrant-or-o-6-benzylguanine-indicates-fresh-avenues-for-therapy
#1
Ameya Paranjpe, Nathan I Bailey, Santhi Konduri, George C Bobustuc, Francis Ali-Osman, Mohd A Yusuf, Surendra R Punganuru, Hanumantha Rao Madala, Debasish Basak, Agm Mostofa, Kalkunte S Srivenugopal
Endocrine therapy using estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) antagonists for attenuating horm2one-driven cell proliferation is a major treatment modality for breast cancers. To exploit any DNA repair deficiencies associated with endocrine therapy, we investigated the functional and physical interactions of ER-α with O(6)-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), a unique DNA repair protein that confers tumor resistance to various anticancer alkylating agents. The ER-α -positive breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D) and ER- negative cell lines (MDAMB-468, MDAMB-231), and established inhibitors of ER-α and MGMT, namely, ICI-182,780 (Faslodex) and O(6)-benzylguanine, respectively, were used to study MGMT- ER interactions...
September 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27451102/estrogens-and-coronary-artery-disease-new-clinical-perspectives
#2
M R Meyer, M Barton
In premenopausal women, endogenous estrogens are associated with reduced prevalence of arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Clinical trials conducted in the 1990s such as HERS, WHI, and WISDOM have shown that postmenopausal treatment with horse hormone mixtures (so-called conjugated equine estrogens) and synthetic progestins adversely affects female cardiovascular health. Our understanding of rapid (nongenomic) and chronic (genomic) estrogen signaling has since advanced considerably, including identification of a new G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), which like the "classical" receptors ERα and ERβ is highly abundant in the cardiovascular system...
2016: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27407089/fda-approval-of-palbociclib-in-combination-with-fulvestrant-for-the-treatment-of-hormone-receptor-positive-her2-negative-metastatic-breast-cancer
#3
Amanda J Walker, Suparna Wedam, Laleh Amiri-Kordestani, Erik Bloomquist, Shengui Tang, Rajeshwari Sridhara, Wei Chen, Todd R Palmby, Jeanne Fourie Zirkelbach, Wentao Fu, Qi Liu, Amy Tilley, Geoffrey Kim, Paul G Kluetz, Amy E McKee, Richard Pazdur
On February 19, 2016, the FDA approved palbociclib (Ibrance, Pfizer) for use in combination with fulvestrant (Faslodex, AstraZeneca) for the treatment of women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with disease progression following endocrine therapy. The approval was based on the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted in 521 pre- and postmenopausal women with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced or MBC. Patients were randomized (2:1) to receive palbociclib plus fulvestrant (n = 347) or placebo plus fulvestrant (n = 174)...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27269946/plasma-esr1-mutations-and-the-treatment-of-estrogen-receptor-positive-advanced-breast-cancer
#4
Charlotte Fribbens, Ben O'Leary, Lucy Kilburn, Sarah Hrebien, Isaac Garcia-Murillas, Matthew Beaney, Massimo Cristofanilli, Fabrice Andre, Sherene Loi, Sibylle Loibl, John Jiang, Cynthia Huang Bartlett, Maria Koehler, Mitch Dowsett, Judith M Bliss, Stephen R D Johnston, Nicholas C Turner
PURPOSE: ESR1 mutations are selected by prior aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy in advanced breast cancer. We assessed the impact of ESR1 mutations on sensitivity to standard therapies in two phase III randomized trials that represent the development of the current standard therapy for estrogen receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective-retrospective analysis, we assessed ESR1 mutations in available archived baseline plasma from the SoFEA (Study of Faslodex Versus Exemestane With or Without Arimidex) trial, which compared exemestane with fulvestrant-containing regimens in patients with prior sensitivity to nonsteroidal AI and in baseline plasma from the PALOMA3 (Palbociclib Combined With Fulvestrant in Hormone Receptor-Positive HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer After Endocrine Failure) trial, which compared fulvestrant plus placebo with fulvestrant plus palbociclib in patients with progression after receiving prior endocrine therapy...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27065803/estrogen-receptor-beta-and-2-arachidonoylglycerol-mediate-the-suppressive-effects-of-estradiol-on-frequency-of-postsynaptic-currents-in-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-of-metestrous-mice-an-acute-slice-electrophysiological-study
#5
Flóra Bálint, Zsolt Liposits, Imre Farkas
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are controlled by 17β-estradiol (E2) contributing to the steroid feedback regulation of the reproductive axis. In rodents, E2 exerts a negative feedback effect upon GnRH neurons throughout the estrus-diestrus phase of the ovarian cycle. The present study was undertaken to reveal the role of estrogen receptor subtypes in the mediation of the E2 signal and elucidate the downstream molecular machinery of suppression. The effect of E2 administration at low physiological concentration (10 pM) on GnRH neurons in acute brain slices obtained from metestrous GnRH-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice was studied under paradigms of blocking or activating estrogen receptor subtypes and interfering with retrograde 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) signaling...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26921679/not-lost-in-translation-emerging-clinical-importance-of-the-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-gper
#6
REVIEW
Matthias Barton
It has been 20years that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) was cloned as the orphan receptor GPR30 from multiple cellular sources, including vascular endothelial cells. Here, I will provide an overview of estrogen biology and the historical background leading to the discovery of rapid vascular estrogen signaling. I will also review the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying GPER function, its role in physiology and disease, some of the currently available GPER-targeting drugs approved for clinical use such as SERMs (selective estrogen receptor modulators) and SERDs (selective estrogen receptor downregulators)...
July 2016: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26689478/differential-utilization-of-nuclear-and-extranuclear-receptor-signaling-pathways-in-the-actions-of-estrogens-serms-and-a-tissue-selective-estrogen-complex-tsec
#7
Zeynep Madak-Erdogan, Ping Gong, Benita S Katzenellenbogen
Estrogens act through nuclear and extranuclear initiated pathways involving estrogen receptors (ERs) to regulate gene expression and activate protein kinases. We investigated the involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase2 (ERK2) and ERα in the activities of estradiol (E2), conjugated estrogens (CEs), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), and a Tissue-Selective Estrogen Complex (TSEC), a combination of a SERM and CE that has a blended activity. We found that CE and individual CE components were generally less effective than E2 in ERK2 recruitment to chromatin binding sites of E2-regulated genes...
April 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26339914/-fulvestrant-faslodex%C3%A2-for-hormone-sensitive-breast-cancer-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Tamás Nagykálnai, László Landherr, Ibolya Laczó, Béla Pikó
Endocrine agents are well established standards of care in hormone-sensitive postmenopausal breast cancer. The pure estrogen receptor antagonist (down-regulator) fulvestrant after binding to the ER induces its conformational change which disrupts ER signal and accelerates ER degradation. Fulvestrant is devoid of partial agonist activity. In unselected patients there was no difference in TTP between "standard dose" fulvestrant and aromatase inhibitors, but in first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer the elevated dose of fulvestrant may delay progression and may extend the overall survival compared with aromatase inhibitors...
September 2015: Magyar Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26300021/an-alternative-synthesis-of-the-breast-cancer-drug-fulvestrant-faslodex%C3%A2-catalyst-control-over-c-c-bond-formation
#9
Diego Caprioglio, Stephen P Fletcher
Fulvestrant (Faslodex®) was synthesized in four steps (35% overall yield) from 6-dehydronandrolone acetate. Catalyst controlled, room temperature, diastereoselective 1,6-addition of the zirconocene derived from commercially available 9-bromonon-1-ene was used in the key C-C bond forming step.
October 14, 2015: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25885794/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-up-regulates-igf1r-expression-and-activity-to-inhibit-apoptosis-and-increase-growth-of-medulloblastoma
#10
Clifford J Cookman, Scott M Belcher
Medulloblastoma (Med) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. The role of ESR2 [estrogen receptor (ER)-β] in promoting Med growth was comprehensively examined in three in vivo models and human cell lines. In a novel Med ERβ-null knockout model developed by crossing Esr2(-/-) mice with cerebellar granule cell precursor specific Ptch1 conditional knockout mice, the tumor growth rate was significantly decreased in males and females. The absence of Esr2 resulted in increased apoptosis, decreased B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2), and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) expression, and decreased levels of active MAPKs (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (AKT)...
July 2015: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25060147/structural-insights-into-selective-agonist-actions-of-tamoxifen-on-human-estrogen-receptor-alpha
#11
Sandipan Chakraborty, Pradip Kumar Biswas
Tamoxifen-an anti-estrogenic ligand in breast tissues used as a first-line treatment in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers-is associated with the development of resistance followed by resumption of tumor growth in about 30 % of cases. Whether tamoxifen assists in proliferation in such cases or whether any ligand-independent pathway to transcription exists is not fully understood; also, no ERα mutants have been detected so far that could lead to tamoxifen resistance. Using in silico conformational analysis of the ERα ligand binding domain (LBD), in the absence and presence of selective agonist (diethylstilbestrol; DES), antagonist (Faslodex; ICI), and selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM; 4-hydroxy tamoxifen; 4-OHT) ligands, we have elucidated ligand-responsive structural modulations of the ERα-LBD dimer in its agonist and antagonist complexes to address the issue of "tamoxifen resistance"...
August 2014: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25003351/endocrine-therapy-for-advanced-breast-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Payal D Shah, Maura N Dickler
The demonstrated efficacy of pharmacologic antiestrogen therapy in treating hormone receptor-positive breast cancer has changed the landscape of treatment for the majority of women with metastatic disease, providing them with a well-tolerated therapeutic alternative to surgical oophorectomy and chemotherapy. A multitude of clinical trials have evaluated the various endocrine agents alone or in combination. Studies have established ovarian suppression as key for the management of premenopausal metastatic breast cancer patients, and aromatase inhibitor therapy as first-line treatment for their postmenopausal counterparts...
April 2014: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24928945/hydroxychloroquine-inhibits-autophagy-to-potentiate-antiestrogen-responsiveness-in-er-breast-cancer
#13
Katherine L Cook, Anni Wärri, David R Soto-Pantoja, Pamela Ag Clarke, M Idalia Cruz, Alan Zwart, Robert Clarke
PURPOSE: Estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-targeted therapies including tamoxifen (TAM) or Faslodex (ICI) are used to treat ER(+) breast cancers. Up to 50% of tumors will acquire resistance to these interventions. Autophagy has been implicated as a major driver of antiestrogen resistance. We have explored the ability of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), which inhibits autophagy, to affect antiestrogen responsiveness. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: TAM-resistant MCF7-RR and ICI-resistant/TAM cross-resistant LCC9 ER(+) breast cancer cells were injected into mammary fat pads of female athymic mice and treated with TAM and/or ICI in combination with oral low-dose HCQ...
June 15, 2014: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24558461/highly-sensitive-quantitative-imaging-for-monitoring-single-cancer-cell-growth-kinetics-and-drug-response
#14
Mustafa Mir, Anna Bergamaschi, Benita S Katzenellenbogen, Gabriel Popescu
The detection and treatment of cancer has advanced significantly in the past several decades, with important improvements in our understanding of the fundamental molecular and genetic basis of the disease. Despite these advancements, drug-screening methodologies have remained essentially unchanged since the introduction of the in vitro human cell line screen in 1990. Although the existing methods provide information on the overall effects of compounds on cell viability, they are restricted by bulk measurements, large sample sizes, and lack capability to measure proliferation kinetics at the individual cell level...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24317176/final-overall-survival-fulvestrant-500-mg-vs-250-mg-in-the-randomized-confirm-trial
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Angelo Di Leo, Guy Jerusalem, Lubos Petruzelka, Roberto Torres, Igor N Bondarenko, Rustem Khasanov, Didier Verhoeven, José L Pedrini, Iya Smirnova, Mikhail R Lichinitser, Kelly Pendergrass, Luca Malorni, Sally Garnett, Yuri Rukazenkov, Miguel Martin
BACKGROUND: At the time of the initial analysis of overall survival (OS) for the Comparison of Faslodex in Recurrent or Metastatic Breast Cancer (CONFIRM) randomized, double-blind, phase III trial, approximately 50% of patients had died. A final analysis of OS was subsequently planned for when 75% of patients had died. METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to fulvestrant 500 mg administered as two 5-mL intramuscular injections on days 0, 14, and 28 and every 28 (±3) days thereafter or fulvestrant 250 mg administered as two 5-mL intramuscular injections (one fulvestrant and one placebo [identical in appearance to study drug]) on days 0, 14 (two placebo injections only), and 28 and every 28 (±3) days thereafter...
January 2014: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24298433/fulvestrant-up-regulates-ugt1a4-and-mrps-through-er%C3%AE-and-c-myb-pathways-a-possible-primary-drug-disposition-mechanism
#16
Vineetha K Edavana, Rosalind B Penney, Aiwei Yao-Borengasser, Suzanne Williams, Lora Rogers, Ishwori B Dhakal, Susan Kadlubar
Fulvestrant (Faslodex™) is a pure antiestrogen that is effective in treating estrogen receptor-(ER) positive breast cancer tumors that are resistant to selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen. Clinical trials investigating the utility of adding fulvestrant to other therapeutics have not been shown to affect cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism. Effects on phase II metabolism and drug resistance have not been explored. This study demonstrates that fulvestrant up regulates the expression of UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 (UGT1A4) >2...
2013: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23863610/estrogen-reduces-mechanical-injury-related-cell-death-and-proteoglycan-degradation-in-mature-articular-cartilage-independent-of-the-presence-of-the-superficial-zone-tissue
#17
J Imgenberg, B Rolauffs, A J Grodzinsky, M Schünke, B Kurz
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) and the superficial zone (SFZ) on cell death and proteoglycan degradation in articular cartilage after a single injurious compression in vitro. METHOD: Cartilage explants from the femoropatellar groove of 2 year old cows with or without the SFZ were cultured serum-free with physiological concentrations of E2 and injured by an unconfined single load compression (strain 50%, velocity 2 mm/s). After 96 h cell death was measured histomorphometrically (nuclear blebbing (NB) and TUNEL staining) and release of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) by DMMB assay...
November 2013: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23734687/targeting-grp78-and-antiestrogen-resistance-in-breast-cancer
#18
Katherine L Cook, Pamela A G Clarke, Robert Clarke
Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women, with over 200,000 new cases diagnosed each year. Over 70% of breast cancers express the estrogen receptor-α, and drugs targeting these receptors such as tamoxifen or Faslodex(®) often fail to cure these patients. Many estrogen receptor-positive tumors lose drug sensitivity, making endocrine resistance a major clinical problem. Recently, investigation into the molecular mechanisms of endocrine resistance has highlighted a causative role of the unfolded protein response in antiestrogen resistance...
June 2013: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23526212/faslodex-inhibits-estradiol-induced-extracellular-matrix-dynamics-and-lung-metastasis-in-a-model-of-lymphangioleiomyomatosis
#19
Chenggang Li, Xiaobo Zhou, Yang Sun, Erik Zhang, John D Mancini, Andrey Parkhitko, Tasha A Morrison, Edwin K Silverman, Elizabeth P Henske, Jane J Yu
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease primarily affecting women. Genetic studies indicate that LAM cells carry inactivating tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-2 mutations, and metastasize to the lung. We previously discovered that estradiol increases the metastasis of TSC2-deficient cells in mice carrying xenograft tumors. Here, we investigate the molecular basis underlying the estradiol-induced lung metastasis of TSC2-deficient cells, and test the efficacy of Faslodex (an estrogen receptor antagonist) in a preclinical model of LAM...
July 2013: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23378064/comparing-duration-of-response-and-duration-of-clinical-benefit-between-fulvestrant-treatment-groups-in-the-confirm-trial-application-of-new-methodology
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sally Anne Garnett, Miguel Martin, Guy Jerusalem, Lubos Petruzelka, Roberto Torres, Igor N Bondarenko, Rustem Khasanov, Didier Verhoeven, José L Pedrini, Iva Smirnova, Mikhail R Lichinitser, Kelly Pendergrass, Justin P O Lindemann, Angelo Di Leo
Comparisons of duration of response (DoR) and duration of clinical benefit (DoCB) within clinical trials are prone to biases. To address these biases, we used new methodology to prospectively analyze expected DoR and expected DoCB. Objective response rate and clinical benefit rate were calculated for fulvestrant 500 and 250 mg, and used to calculate expected DoR and expected DoCB for each dose group. The ratios for expected DoR and expected DoCB (expected DoR500/expected DoR250 and expected DoCB500/expected DoCB250) were then calculated, thereby allowing statistical comparisons of these endpoints between each arm of the COmparisoN of Faslodex In Recurrent or Metastatic breast cancer (CONFIRM) trial...
February 2013: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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