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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817554/occupational-distribution-of-campylobacteriosis-and-salmonellosis-cases-maryland-ohio-and-virginia-2014
#1
Chia-Ping Su, Marie A de Perio, Kathleen Fagan, Meghan L Smith, Ellen Salehi, Seth Levine, Karen Gruszynski, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Salmonella are leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and are estimated to cause >1 million episodes of domestically acquired illness annually (1). Campylobacter and Salmonella are primarily transmitted through contaminated food, but animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission can also occur (2,3). Although occupationally acquired infections have been reported, occupational risk factors have rarely been studied. In 2015, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identified 63 suspected or confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection over 3...
August 18, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817460/high-demand-for-psychotherapy-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
Thomas Klag, Nazar Mazurak, Laura Fantasia, Juliane Schwille-Kiuntke, Andreas Kirschniak, Claudius Falch, Martin Goetz, Nisar P Malek, Paul Enck, Jan Wehkamp
BACKGROUND: The relative contribution of psychological factors to the onset and course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is a matter of constant debate since its beginning, as is the clinical need and the efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions. However, the perspective of patients with IBD has largely been ignored in this debate. METHODS: Psychometric tests including the Short-Form IBD Questionnaire (SIBDQ), the ADAP test measuring demand for psychotherapy, and the Fear-of-Progression Questionnaire Short Form as well as disease-related questions were positioned on the internet between December 2014 and January 2016...
August 16, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817433/class-wide-access-to-a-commercial-step-1-question-bank-during-preclinical-organ-based-modules-a-pilot-project
#3
James H Baños, Mark E Pepin, Nicholas Van Wagoner
PURPOSE: The authors examined the usefulness of a commercially available Step 1 question bank as a formative academic support tool throughout organ-based modules in an integrated preclinical medical curriculum. The authors also determined the extent to which correlation between question bank utilization and academic metrics varied with Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores. METHOD: In 2015, a cohort of 185 first-year medical students at University of Alabama School of Medicine were provided with 18-month full access to a commercially available Step 1 question bank of over 2,100 items throughout organ-based modules, although there were no requirements for use...
August 16, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817263/responses-of-periphyton-to-fe2o3-nanoparticles-a-physiological-and-ecological-basis-for-defending-nanotoxicity
#4
Jun Tang, Ningyuan Zhu, Yan Zhu, Junzhuo Liu, Chenxi Wu, Philip G Kerr, Yonghong Wu, Kwan Sing Paul Kwan-Sing Lam
The toxic effects of nanoparticles on individual organisms have been widely investigated, while few studies have investigated the effects of nanoparticles on ubiquitous multi-community microbial aggregates. Here, periphyton as a model of microbial aggregates, was employed to investigate the responses of microbial aggregates exposed continuously to Fe2O3 nanoparticles (5.0 mg L-1) for 30 days. The Fe2O3 nanoparticles enter the microbial cells of the periphyton and disperse in the cytoplasm. The exposure to Fe2O3 nanoparticles results in the chlorophyll (a, b and c) contents of periphyton increasing and the total antioxidant capacity decreasing...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817175/drug-development-for-breast-colorectal-and-non-small-cell-lung-cancers-from-1979-to-2014
#5
Nancy A Nixon, Omar F Khan, Hasiba Imam, Patricia A Tang, Jose Monzon, Haocheng Li, Gavin Sun, Doreen Ezeife, Sunil Parimi, Scot Dowden, Vincent C Tam
BACKGROUND: Understanding the drug development pathway is critical for streamlining the development of effective cancer treatments. The objective of the current study was to delineate the drug development timeline and attrition rate of different drug classes for common cancer disease sites. METHODS: Drugs entering clinical trials for breast, colorectal, and non-small cell lung cancer were identified using a pharmaceutical business intelligence database. Data regarding drug characteristics, clinical trials, and approval dates were obtained from the database, clinical trial registries, PubMed, and regulatory Web sites...
August 17, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816919/enteral-nutrition-practices-in-critically-ill-children-requiring-noninvasive-positive-pressure-ventilation
#6
Matthew K Leroue, Ryan J Good, Heather E Skillman, Angela S Czaja
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the practice of providing enteral nutrition in critically ill children requiring noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: PICU within a quaternary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: PICU patients older than 30 days requiring noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for greater than or equal to 24 hours from August 2014 to June 2015. Invasive mechanical ventilation prior to noninvasive positive pressure ventilation and inability to receive enteral nutrition at baseline were additional exclusionary criteria...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816598/short-versus-long-double-stranded-rna-activation-of-a-post-transcriptional-gene-knockdown-pathway
#7
Nir Shpak, Rivka Manor, Lihie Katzir Abilevich, Ortal Mantal, Keshet Shavit, Eliahu D Aflalo, Debra Toiber, Amir Sagi
RNA interference (RNAi) utilizes a conserved cellular autoimmune defense mechanism involving the internalization of dsRNA into cells and the activation of a set of RNAi related genes. Using RNAi, complete sex reversal is achievable in males of the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by knocking down the transcript level of an insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (Mr-IAG) through injections of dsRNA of the entire Mr-IAG ORF sequence (dsMr-IAG - 518 bp). Interestingly, in-vivo knockdown success and dsMr-IAG lengths seemed to correlate, with long dsRNA being the most effective and short dsRNA fragments showing no effect...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816384/intracellular-delivery-of-functional-native-antibodies-under-hypoxic-conditions-by-using-a-biodegradable-silica-nanoquencher
#8
Shao Q Yao, Peiyan Yuan, Hailong Zhang, Linghui Qian, Xin Mao, Shubo Du, Changmin Yu, Bo Peng
Antibodies are important biopharmaceuticals, but almost all antibody-based drugs are limited to targeting antigens located at the cell exterior due to their inability to enter the cell interior. Available methods for intracellular delivery of antibodies have major shortcomings. Herein we report an approach to encapsulate native antibodies in a biodegradable silica nanoquencher (BS-qNP) which could undergo efficient cellular uptake and intracellular degradation to release antibodies under hypoxic conditions...
August 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816177/electrical-stimulation-of-gut-motility-guided-by-an-in-silico-model
#9
Bradley Brigham Barth, Craig S Henriquez, Warren M Grill, Xiling Shen
OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems is becoming increasingly important for treating a diverse set of diseases-ranging from Parkinson's Disease and epilepsy to chronic pain. However, neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has achieved relatively limited success in treating functional GI disorders, which affect a significant population, because the effects of stimulation on the enteric nervous system (ENS) and gut motility are not well understood...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816033/selection-of-12-hour-sustained-release-acetaminophen-paracetamol-formulation-through-comparison-of-pharmacokinetic-profiles-of-4-sustained-release-prototype-formulations-and-standard-acetaminophen-formulation-an-open-label-randomized-proof-of-principle-pharmacokinetic
#10
Yong Yue, Dongzhou J Liu
Acetaminophen (APAP; paracetamol), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic, is available in modified-release and immediate-release (IR) formulations requiring 3- or 4-times-daily dosing. This phase 1 open-label crossover study compared pharmacokinetic profiles of single 2000-mg doses of 4 different sustained-release (SR) formulations of APAP (designed to allow twice-daily dosing) against two 1000-mg doses (taken 6 hours apart) of standard IR APAP in 14 healthy volunteers. The primary end point was duration of time that plasma APAP concentration exceeded a plasma concentration (TC ) of 4 μg/mL...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815895/health-professional-students-rural-placement-satisfaction-and-rural-practice-intentions-a-national-cross-sectional-survey
#11
Tony Smith, Keith Sutton, Sabrina Pit, Kuda Muyambi, Daniel Terry, Annie Farthing, Claire Courtney, Merylin Cross
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to profile students undertaking placements at University Departments of Rural Health (UDRHs) and investigate factors affecting students' satisfaction and intention to enter rural practice. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey comprising 21 core questions used by all UDRHs. SETTING: Eleven UDRHs across Australia that support students' placements in regional, rural and remote locations. PARTICIPANTS: Medical, nursing and allied health students who participated in UDRH placements between July 2014 and November 2015 and completed the questionnaire...
August 16, 2017: Australian Journal of Rural Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815828/exploring-electrical-currents-through-nanographenes-visualization-and-tuning-of-the-through-bond-transmission-paths
#12
Thijs Stuyver, Nathalie Blotwijk, Stijn Fias, Paul Geerlings, Frank De Proft
In this work, electrical currents through nanographenes, a class of alternant hydrocarbons also known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in molecular junctions under small bias are explored. We illustrate that when the π-current dominates, i.e. when no quantum interference takes place, the current prefers the direction of the shortest bond (the bond with the highest double bond character) upon entering the molecule from the contacts. As such, the idea of electrons propagating through double bonds from contact to contact, originating from the curly arrow drawings used in a previously established selection rule for transmission, seems to be more deeply rooted in the actual physical process of electron transport than previously anticipated...
August 16, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815767/gut-microbiota-of-a-long-distance-migrant-demonstrates-resistance-against-environmental-microbe-incursions
#13
Alice Risely, David Waite, Beata Ujvari, Marcel Klaassen, Bethany Hoye
Migratory animals encounter suites of novel microbes as they move between disparate sites during their migrations, and are frequently implicated in the global spread of pathogens. Although wild animals have been shown to source a proportion of their gut microbiota from their environment, the susceptibility of migrants to enteric infections may be dependent upon the capacity of their gut microbiota to resist incorporating encountered microbes. To evaluate migrants' susceptibility to microbial invasion, we determined the extent of microbial sourcing from the foraging environment, and examined how this influenced gut microbiota dynamics over time and space in a migratory shorebird, the Red-necked stint...
August 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815649/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-enteral-nutrition-therapy-for-the-induction-of-remission-in-paediatric-crohn-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
A Swaminath, A Feathers, A N Ananthakrishnan, L Falzon, S Li Ferry
BACKGROUND: Despite potential adverse-events in a paediatric population, corticosteroids are used to induce remission in paediatric Crohn's disease. Exclusive enteral nutrition also induces remission, but is infrequently used in the USA because corticosteroids are considered the superior therapy. New data have become available since the publication of the most recent meta-analysis in 2007. AIM: To see if current literature supports the use of EEN versus CS in paediatric populations...
August 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815446/a-human-pet-study-of-11-c-hms011-a-potential-radioligand-for-ampa-receptors
#15
Keisuke Takahata, Yasuyuki Kimura, Chie Seki, Masaki Tokunaga, Masanori Ichise, Kazunori Kawamura, Maiko Ono, Soichiro Kitamura, Manabu Kubota, Sho Moriguchi, Tatsuya Ishii, Yuhei Takado, Fumitoshi Niwa, Hironobu Endo, Tomohisa Nagashima, Yoko Ikoma, Ming-Rong Zhang, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
BACKGROUND: α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor is a primary mediator of fast glutamatergic excitatory signaling in the brain and has been implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. We recently developed a novel positron emission tomography (PET) ligand, 2-(1-(3-([(11)C]methylamino)phenyl)-2-oxo-5-(pyrimidin-2-yl)-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl) benzonitrile ([(11)C]HMS011). This compound is a radiolabelled derivative of perampanel, an antiepileptic drug acting on AMPA receptors, and was demonstrated to have promising in vivo properties in the rat and monkey brains...
August 16, 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815367/microplastic-pollution-a-threat-to-marine-ecosystem-and-human-health-a-short-review
#16
Shivika Sharma, Subhankar Chatterjee
Human populations are using oceans as their household dustbins, and microplastic is one of the components which are not only polluting shorelines but also freshwater bodies globally. Microplastics are generally referred to particles with a size lower than 5 mm. These microplastics are tiny plastic granules and used as scrubbers in cosmetics, hand cleansers, air-blasting. These contaminants are omnipresent within almost all marine environments at present. The durability of plastics makes it highly resistant to degradation and through indiscriminate disposal they enter in the aquatic environment...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815212/variable-virulence-of-biotype-3-vibrio-vulnificus-due-to-martx-toxin-effector-domain-composition
#17
Byoung Sik Kim, Hannah E Gavin, Karla J F Satchell
Vibrio vulnificus is an environmental organism that causes septic human infections characterized by high morbidity and mortality. The annual incidence and global distribution of this pathogen are increasing as ocean waters warm. Clinical strains exhibit variations in the primary virulence toxin, suggesting a potential for the emergence of new strains with altered virulence properties. A clonal outbreak of tilapia-associated wound infections in Israel serves as a natural experiment for the sudden emergence of a new V...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815083/routine-jejunostomy-tube-feeding-following-esophagectomy
#18
Teus J Weijs, Hanneke W J van Eden, Jelle P Ruurda, Misha D P Luyer, Elles Steenhagen, Grard A P Nieuwenhuijzen, Richard van Hillegersberg
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is an important problem following esophagectomy. A surgically placed jejunostomy secures an enteral feeding route, facilitating discharge with home-tube feeding and long-term nutritional support. However, specific complications occur, and data are lacking that support its use over other enteral feeding routes. Therefore routine jejunostomy tube feeding and discharge with home-tube feeding was evaluated, with emphasis on weight loss, length of stay and re-admissions...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815078/surgical-anatomy-of-the-omental-bursa-and-the-stomach-based-on-a-minimally-invasive-approach-different-approaches-and-technical-steps-to-resection-and-lymphadenectomy
#19
Hylke J F Brenkman, Nicole I van der Wielen, Jelle P Ruurda, Maarten S van Leeuwen, Joris J G Scheepers, Donald L van der Peet, Richard van Hillegersberg, Ronald L A W Bleys, Miguel A Cuesta
BACKGROUND: It is imperative for surgeons to have a proper knowledge of the omental bursa in order to perform an adequate dissection during minimally invasive surgery (MIS) of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This study aimed to describe (1) the various approaches which can be used to enter the bursa and to perform a complete lymphadenectomy, (2) the boundaries and anatomical landmarks of the omental bursa as seen during MIS, and (3) whether a bursectomy should be performed for oncological reasons in upper GI cancer...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815075/the-feeding-route-after-esophagectomy-a-review-of-literature
#20
REVIEW
Gijs H Berkelmans, Frans van Workum, Teus J Weijs, Grard A Nieuwenhuijzen, Jelle P Ruurda, Ewout A Kouwenhoven, Marc J van Det, Camiel Rosman, Richard van Hillegersberg, Misha D Luyer
Enhanced recovery programs effectively optimize perioperative care and reduce postoperative morbidity. In esophagectomy, several components of the ERAS program are successfully introduced. However, timing and type of postoperative feeding remain a matter of debate. Adequate nutritional support is essential in patients undergoing an esophagectomy. These patients often present with weight loss and their eating pattern is strongly altered by the procedure and reconstruction. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with severe septic complications and enteral nutrition (EN) does not increase major complications...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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