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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655217/preventing-subclinical-necrotic-enteritis-through-lactobacillus-johnsonii-bs15-by-ameliorating-lipid-metabolism-and-intestinal-microflora-in-broiler-chickens
#1
Xiaodan Qing, Dong Zeng, Hesong Wang, Xueqin Ni, Lei Liu, Jing Lai, Abdul Khalique, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing
Increasing studies have focused on the beneficial effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii in certain diseases. Here, we studied the prevention ability of a probiotic strain, L. johnsonii BS15 on subclinical necrotic enteritis (SNE), and its underlying mechanism. 180 male Cobb 500 chicks were randomly allotted into three groups and administrated with BS15 (1 × 10(6) cfu/g) or Man Rogosa Sharpe liquid medium throughout a 28-day experimental period. With the exception of the normal group, SNE infection was treated for the remaining experimental period after the chicks were fed with normal diet 14 days...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655159/two-distinct-metacommunities-characterize-the-gut-microbiota-in-crohn-s-disease-patients
#2
Qing He, Yuan Gao, Zhuye Jie, Xinlei Yu, Janne Marie Laursen, Liang Xiao, Ying Li, Lingling Li, Faming Zhang, Qiang Feng, Xiaoping Li, Jinghong Yu, Chuan Liu, Ping Lan, Ting Yan, Xin Liu, Xun Xu, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Lise Madsen, Susanne Brix, Jianping Wang, Karsten Kristiansen, Huijue Jia
Background: The inflammatory intestinal disorder Crohn's disease (CD) has become a health challenge worldwide. The gut microbiota closely interacts with the host immune system, but its functional impact in CD is unclear. Except for studies on a small number of CD patients, analyses of the gut microbiota in CD have used 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Here we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to provide a detailed characterization of the compositional and functional features of the CD microbiota, comprising also unannotated bacteria, and investigated its modulation by exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN)...
June 26, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655067/fatal-ulcerative-enteritis-of-the-small-intestine-in-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis-treated-with-vedolizumab
#3
Carmen Monasterio, Annette Schmitt-Gräff, Matthias Pohl, Thomas Truschel, Klaus Warnatz, Wolfgang Kreisel, Robert Thimme, Peter Hasselblatt
Vedolizumab (VDZ) inhibits α4β7 integrins and is used to target intestinal immune responses in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, which is considered to be relatively safe. Here we report on a fatal complication following VDZ administration. A 64-year-old female patient with ulcerative colitis (UC) refractory to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors was treated with VDZ. One week after the second VDZ infusion, she was admitted to hospital with severe diarrhea and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)...
June 27, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655040/factors-associated-with-communicative-participation-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
Kathryn Yorkston, Carolyn Baylor, Helen Mach
Purpose: People with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis frequently experience bulbar impairment and dysarthria that may restrict their ability to take part in everyday communication situations. The aim of this study is to examine selected variables that may contribute to restrictions in communicative participation. Method: Community-dwelling participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (N = 70) who reported communication changes but continued to use natural speech completed a survey, including the Communicative Participation Item Bank, demographics (age, sex, living situation, employment status, education, and time since diagnosis), and self- reported symptom-related variables (physical activity, emotional problems, fatigue, pain, speech severity, speech usage, and cognitive and communication skills)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654676/silver-bighead-and-common-carp-orient-to-acoustic-particle-motion-when-avoiding-a-complex-sound
#5
Daniel P Zielinski, Peter W Sorensen
Behavioral responses of silver carp (Hypopthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (H. nobilis), and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to a complex, broadband sound were tested in the absence of visual cues to determine whether these species are negatively phonotaxic and the roles that sound pressure and particle motion might play mediating this response. In a dark featureless square enclosure, groups of 3 fish were tracked and the distance of each fish from speakers and their swimming trajectories relative to sound pressure and particle acceleration were analyzed before, and then while an outboard motor sound was played...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654674/practices-and-promises-of-facebook-for-science-outreach-becoming-a-nerd-of-trust
#6
Craig R McClain
Arguably, the dissemination of science communication has recently entered a new age in which science must compete for public attention with fake news, alternate facts, and pseudoscience. This clash is particularly evident on social media. Facebook has taken a prime role in disseminating fake news, alternate facts, and pseudoscience, but is often ignored in the context of science outreach, especially among individual scientists. Based on new survey data, scientists appear in large Facebook networks but seldom post information about general science, their own scientific research, or culturally controversial topics in science...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654418/a-new-bat-hku2-like-coronavirus-in-swine-china-2017
#7
Lang Gong, Jie Li, Qingfeng Zhou, Zhichao Xu, Li Chen, Yun Zhang, Chunyi Xue, Zhifen Wen, Yongchang Cao
We identified from suckling piglets with diarrhea in China a new bat-HKU2-like porcine coronavirus (porcine enteric alphacoronavirus). The GDS04 strain of this coronavirus shares high aa identities (>90%) with the reported bat-HKU2 strains in Coronaviridae-wide conserved domains, suggesting that the GDS04 strain belongs to the same species as HKU2.
September 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654329/effects-of-prior-experience-on-shelter-seeking-behavior-of-juvenile-american-lobsters
#8
Skylar R Bayer, Katherine M Bianchi, Jelle Atema, Molly W Jacobs
Shelter-seeking behaviors are vital for survival for a range of juvenile benthic organisms. These behaviors may be innate or they may be affected by prior experience. After hatching, American lobsters Homarus americanus likely first come into contact with shelter during the late postlarval (decapodid) stage, known as stage IV. After the subsequent molt to the first juvenile stage (stage V), they are entirely benthic and are thought to be highly cryptic. We hypothesized that postlarval (stage IV) experience with shelter would carry over into the first juvenile stage (stage V) and reduce the time needed for juveniles to locate and enter shelters (sheltering)...
April 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654183/impact-of-drinking-water-treatment-and-distribution-on-the-microbiome-continuum-an-ecological-disturbance-s-perspective
#9
Ya Zhang, Seungdae Oh, Wen-Tso Liu
While microbes are known to be present at different stages of a drinking water system, their potential functions and ability to grow in such systems are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment and distribution processes could be viewed as ecological disturbances exhibited over space on the microbiome continuum in a groundwater-derived system. Results from 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis and metagenomics suggested that disturbances in the system were intense as the community diversity was substantially reduced during the treatment steps...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654182/the-d-lactate-dehydrogenase-modld1-is-essential-for-growth-and-infection-related-development-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#10
Tengsheng Zhou, Li Qin, Xiaohan Zhu, Wenyun Shen, Jitao Zou, Zonghua Wang, Yangdou Wei
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is initiated by the attachment of conidia to plant surfaces. Germ tubes emerging from conidia develop melanized appressoria to physically penetrate the host surface. Previous studies revealed that appressorium development requires the breakdown of storage lipids and glycogen that occur in peroxisomes and the cytosol respectively, culminating in production of pyruvate. However, the downstream product(s) entering the mitochondria for further oxidation is unclear...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654050/dii-perfusion-as-a-method-for-vascular-visualization-in-ambystoma-mexicanum
#11
Anna J Saltman, May Barakat, Donald M Bryant, Anastasia Brodovskaya, Jessica L Whited
Perfusion techniques have been used for centuries to visualize the circulation of tissues. Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is a species of salamander that has emerged as an essential model for regeneration studies. Little is known about how revascularization occurs in the context of regeneration in these animals. Here we report a simple method for visualization of the vasculature in axolotl via perfusion of 1,1'-Dioctadecy-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI). DiI is a lipophilic carbocyanine dye that inserts into the plasma membrane of endothelial cells instantaneously...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653865/sagittal-plane-knee-moment-during-gait-and-knee-cartilage-thickness
#12
Randy J Schmitz, David Harrison, Hsin-Min Wang, Sandra J Shultz
CONTEXT:   Understanding the factors associated with thicker cartilage in a healthy population is important when developing strategies aimed at minimizing the cartilage thinning associated with knee osteoarthritis progression. Thicker articular cartilage is commonly thought to be healthier cartilage, but whether the sagittal-plane biomechanics important to gait are related to cartilage thickness is unknown. OBJECTIVE:   To determine the relationship of a weight-bearing region of the medial femoral condyle's cartilage thickness to sagittal gait biomechanics in healthy individuals...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653772/serum-carcinoembryonic-antigen-is-positively-associated-with-leukocyte-count-in-korean-adults
#13
Yu-Jin Kwon, Hye-Sun Lee, Jae-Yong Shim, Yong-Jae Lee
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence shows that serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels may modestly be increased in non-neoplastic conditions such as cardiometabolic diseases, which are increasingly being seen as inflammatory diseases. Leukocyte count is widely evaluated marker of inflammation in clinical practice and a useful predictor of cardiometabolic disease. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between serum CEA levels and leukocyte counts in Korean adults. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a total of 19 834 individuals enrolled from a health promotion center between November 2006 and July 2010...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653489/household-sanitation-is-associated-with-lower-risk-of-bacterial-and-protozoal-enteric-infections-but-not-viral-infections-and-diarrhea-in-a-cohort-study-in-a-low-income-urban-neighborhood-in-vellore-india
#14
David Berendes, Juan Leon, Amy Kirby, Julie Clennon, Suraja Raj, Habib Yakubu, Katharine Robb, Arun Kartikeyan, Priya Hemavathy, Annai Gunasekaran, Sheela Roy, Ben Chirag Ghale, J Senthil Kumar, Venkata Raghava Mohan, Gagandeep Kang, Christine Moe
OBJECTIVE: This study examined associations between household sanitation and enteric infection-including diarrheal-specific outcomes-in children 0-2 years of age in a low-income, dense urban neighborhood. METHODS: As part of the MAL-ED study, 230 children in a low-income, urban, Indian neighborhood provided stool specimens at 14-17 scheduled time points and during diarrheal episodes in the first two years of life that were analyzed for bacterial, parasitic (protozoa and helminths), and viral pathogens...
June 27, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653388/factors-associated-with-colostrum-immunoglobulin-g-concentration-in-northern-victorian-dairy-cows
#15
A J Phipps, D S Beggs, A J Murray, P D Mansell, M F Pyman
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of first-milking colostrum samples produced on four northern-Victorian dairy farms that meet industry standards in terms of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and to identify risk factors that affect colostrum quality. METHODS: Colostrum IgG concentrations from 442 dairy cows on four farms were estimated using a Brix refractometer and risk factors for colostrum IgG concentration were determined using multivariable logistic regression...
July 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653333/investigating-real-world-clopidogrel-pharmacogenetics-in-stroke-using-a-bioresource-linked-to-electronic-medical-records
#16
Aleksi Tornio, Rob Flynn, Steve Morant, Elena Velten, Colin N A Palmer, Thomas M MacDonald, Alex S F Doney
Clopidogrel efficacy is influenced by genetic variation of CYP2C19, however few studies have considered stroke patients. We used electronic medical records (EMR) linked to a bioresource to examine real-world implications of clopidogrel pharmacogenetics in stroke. Patients hospitalized for any arterial thrombo-occlusive event (ATO) who subsequently redeemed clopidogrel prescriptions in the community were entered into the study (n=651). During 24 months follow-up the primary endpoint of recurrent ATO or death occurred in 299 (46%) patients...
June 27, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653295/targeting-the-wnt-pathway-in-cancer-a-review-of-novel-therapeutics
#17
Roya Tabatabai, Yuliya Linhares, David Bolos, Monica Mita, Alain Mita
Wnt signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that controls cell-to-cell interactions during embryogenesis. In adults, Wnt signaling plays a role in tissue homeostasis in almost every organ system. Aberrations within this pathway are implicated in a spectrum of human diseases. A variety of perturbations have been described in both solid and hematologic malignancies, lending way to Wnt signaling as a target for anti-cancer therapy. Of particular interest is the role of Wnt signaling in the development and maintenance of cancer stem cells, a rare population of cells that are able to maintain a tumor via self-renewal and thought to be more resistant to chemotherapy than bulk tumor cells...
June 26, 2017: Targeted Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653282/therapeutic-targets-for-multiple-sclerosis-current-treatment-goals-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Andrew L Smith, Jeffrey A Cohen, Le H Hua
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and the most common cause of nontraumatic disability in young adults. Most patients have a relapsing-remitting course, and roughly half of them will eventually enter a degenerative progressive phase, marked by gradual accrual of disability over time in the absence of relapses. Early initiation of treatment has delayed the onset of disability progression. Thus, there is increased interest in treating to target in MS, particularly targeting no evidence of disease activity...
June 26, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653227/anti-cgrp-monoclonal-antibodies-the-next-era-of-migraine-prevention
#19
REVIEW
Amy R Tso, Peter J Goadsby
Migraine is a very disabling disorder with severe impact on patients' lives and substantive costs to society in terms of healthcare costs and lost productivity. Prevention is a key component of migraine therapy, and while numerous preventive options exist, each is burdened by either troublesome side effects or insufficient efficacy. All migraine preventives currently in clinical use were licensed for other purposes and, by chance, have efficacy against migraine. As our understanding of migraine has evolved, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has moved to the forefront as a neuropeptide central to migraine pathophysiology...
August 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653221/effect-of-an-obesity-best-practice-alert-on-physician-documentation-and-referral-practices
#20
Stephanie L Fitzpatrick, Kirsten Dickins, Elizabeth Avery, Jennifer Ventrelle, Aaron Shultz, Ekta Kishen, Steven Rothschild
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Electronic Health Record Meaningful Use Incentive Program requires physicians to document body mass index (BMI) and a follow-up treatment plan for adult patients with BMI ≥ 25. To examine the effect of a best practice alert on physician documentation of obesity-related care and referrals to weight management treatment, in a cluster-randomized design, 14 primary care clinics at an academic medical center were randomized to best practice alert intervention (n = 7) or comparator (n = 7)...
June 26, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
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