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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713989/effects-of-proton-beam-irradiation-on-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-a-human-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-cell-line
#1
Byung Geun Ha, Sung Suk Jung, Yun Hee Shon
Proton beam therapy has recently been used to improve local control of tumor growth and reduce side-effects by decreasing the global dose to normal tissue. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the physiological role of proton beam radiation are not well understood, and many studies are still being conducted regarding these mechanisms. To determine the effects of proton beams on mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mass; the gene expression of mitochondrial transcription factors, functional regulators, and dynamic-related regulators; and the phosphorylation of the signaling molecules that participate in mitochondrial biogenesis...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691342/dual-function-of-lactobacillus-kefiri-dh5-in-preventing-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-direct-reduction-of-cholesterol-and-upregulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-adipose-tissue
#2
Dong-Hyeon Kim, Dana Jeong, Il-Byeong Kang, Hyunsook Kim, Kwang-Young Song, Kun-Ho Seo
SCOPE: Kefir consumption inhibits the development of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice fed 60% high-fat diet (HFD). To identify the key contributor of this effect, we isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from kefir and examined their anti-obesity properties from in vitro screening and in vivo validation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirteen kefir LAB isolates were subjected to survivability test using artificial gastrointestinal environment and cholesterol-reducing assay...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682459/neuronal-decanoic-acid-oxidation-is-markedly-lower-than-that-of-octanoic-acid-a-mechanistic-insight-into-the-medium-chain-triglyceride-ketogenic-diet
#3
Aziza Khabbush, Michael Orford, Yi-Chen Tsai, Tricia Rutherford, Maura O'Donnell, Simon Eaton, Simon J R Heales
OBJECTIVE: The medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) ketogenic diet contains both octanoic (C8) and decanoic (C10) acids. The diet is an effective treatment for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Although the exact mechanism for its efficacy is not known, it is emerging that C10, but not C8, interacts with targets that can explain antiseizure effects, for example, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (eliciting mitochondrial biogenesis and increased antioxidant status) and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor...
July 6, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680454/piperine-enhances-carbohydrate-fat-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle-during-acute-exercise-in-mice
#4
Jisu Kim, Kang-Pa Lee, Dae-Won Lee, Kiwon Lim
BACKGROUND: Exercise promotes energy metabolism (e.g., metabolism of glucose and lipids) in skeletal muscles; however, reactive oxygen species are also generated during exercise. Various spices have been reported to have beneficial effects in sports medicine. Here, we investigated the effects of piperine, an active compound in black pepper, to determine its effects on metabolism during acute endurance exercise. METHODS: ICR mice (n = 18) were divided into three groups: nonexercise (CON), exercise (EX), and exercise with piperine (5 mg/kg) treatment (EP)...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677803/grape-seed-procyanidin-b2-ameliorates-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-disorders-in-db-db-mice
#5
Mei Yin, Pei Zhang, Fei Yu, Zhen Zhang, Qian Cai, Weida Lu, Baoying Li, Weidong Qin, Mei Cheng, Hao Wang, Haiqing Gao
Diabetes is commonly associated with liver lipid metabolism disorders. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a key role in regulating lipid metabolism. Grape seed procyanidin B2 (GSPB2), a natural polyphenol polymer, ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibits oxidative stress or apoptosis via AMPK pathways. In the present study, the hypothesis that GSPB2 treatment may ameliorate liver lipid metabolic disorders by activating AMPK and downstream pathways was tested in diabetic mice. Db/m mice were used as controls, and diabetic db/db mice were randomly divided into 2 groups for treatment: Vehicle and GSPB2 (30 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks)...
June 30, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594915/conophylline-inhibits-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-mice
#6
Yukiomi Nakade, Kazumasa Sakamoto, Taeko Yamauchi, Tadahisa Inoue, Yuji Kobayashi, Takaya Yamamoto, Norimitsu Ishii, Tomohiko Ohashi, Yoshio Sumida, Kiyoaki Ito, Haruhisa Nakao, Yoshitaka Fukuzawa, Kazuo Umezawa, Masashi Yoneda
Conophylline (CnP), a vinca alkaloid extracted from the leaves of the tropical plant Ervatamia microphylla, attenuates hepatic fibrosis in mice. However, little is known about whether CnP inhibits steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice. A methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet was administered to male db/db mice as a NASH model, and CnP (1 μg/kg/d) was co-administered. Eight weeks after the commencement of the MCD diet, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, and hepatic fat metabolism-, inflammation-, and fibrosis-related markers were examined...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594405/oroxylin-a-suppresses-the-development-and-growth-of-colorectal-cancer-through-reprogram-of-hif1%C3%AE-modulated-fatty-acid-metabolism
#7
Ting Ni, Zihao He, Yuanyuan Dai, Jingyue Yao, Qinglong Guo, Libin Wei
The occurrence and progress of colon cancer are closely associated with obesity. Therefore, the lipid metabolism, especially fatty acid metabolism, is a significant section of energy homeostasis in colon cancer cells, and it affects many important cellular processes. Oroxylin A is one of the main bioactive flavonoids of Scutellariae radix, which has a strong anticancer effect but low toxicity to normal tissue. In previous studies, we have proved that oroxylin A reprogrammes metabolism of cancer cells by inhibiting glycolysis...
June 8, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569254/maternal-high-fat-diet-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-affects-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-early-life-of-offspring-rat
#8
Yanhong Huang, Tingting Ye, Chongxiao Liu, Fang Fang, Yuanwen Chen, Yan Dong
We investigated whether maternal over-nutrition during pregnancy and lactation affects the offspring's lipid metabolism at weaning by assessing liver lipid metabolic gene expressions and analysing its mechanisms on the development of metabolic abnormalities. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with standard chow diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, and then continued feeding during gestation and lactation. The offspring whose dams were fed with HFD had a lower birth weight but an increased body weight with impaired glucose tolerance, higher serum cholesterol, and hepatic steatosis at weaning...
June 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526869/blocking-of-carnitine-palmitoyl-transferase-1-potently-reduces-stress-induced-depression-in-rat-highlighting-a-pivotal-role-of-lipid-metabolism
#9
Anne Skøttrup Mørkholt, Ove Wiborg, Jette G K Nieland, Søren Nielsen, John Dirk Nieland
Major depressive disorder is a complex and common mental disease, for which the pathology has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study is to provide knowledge about the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulated lipid metabolism and inflammation. Mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a) is a key molecule involved in lipid metabolism and mutations in CPT1a causing reduced function is hypothesized to have a protective role in the development of depression. Moreover, CPT1a is found to be upregulated in suicide patients with history of depression...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489334/diagnosis-of-copan-by-whole-exome-sequencing-waking-up-a-sleeping-tiger-s-eye
#10
Christina Evers, Angelika Seitz, Birgit Assmann, Thomas Opladen, Stephanie Karch, Katrin Hinderhofer, Martin Granzow, Nagarajan Paramasivam, Roland Eils, Nicolle Diessl, Claus R Bartram, Ute Moog
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Recently, mutations in CoA synthase (COASY) have been identified as a cause of a novel NBIA subtype (COASY Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration, CoPAN) in two patients with dystonic paraparesis, parkinsonian features, cognitive impairment, behavior abnormalities, and axonal neuropathy. COASY encodes an enzyme required for Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. Using whole exome sequencing (WES) we identified compound heterozygous COASY mutations in two siblings with intellectual disability, ataxic gait, progressive spasticity, and obsessive-compulsive behavior...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473655/lipid-catabolism-inhibition-sensitizes-prostate-cancer-cells-to-antiandrogen-blockade
#11
Thomas W Flaig, Maren Salzmann-Sullivan, Lih-Jen Su, Zhiyong Zhang, Molishree Joshi, Miguel A Gijón, Jihye Kim, John J Arcaroli, Adrie Van Bokhoven, M Scott Lucia, Francisco G La Rosa, Isabel R Schlaepfer
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy among Western men and the second leading-cause of cancer related deaths. For men who develop metastatic castration resistant PCa (mCRPC), survival is limited, making the identification of novel therapies for mCRPC critical. We have found that deficient lipid oxidation via carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT1) results in decreased growth and invasion, underscoring the role of lipid oxidation to fuel PCa growth. Using immunohistochemistry we have found that the CPT1A isoform is abundant in PCa compared to benign tissue (n=39, p<0...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472298/adiponectin-stimulates-lipid-metabolism-via-ampk-in-rabbit-blastocysts
#12
Maria Schindler, Mareike Pendzialek, Katarzyna Joanna Grybel, Tom Seeling, Jacqueline Gürke, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos
STUDY QUESTION: How does a maternal diabetic hyperadiponectineamia affect signal transduction and lipid metabolism in rabbit preimplantation blastocysts? SUMMARY ANSWER: In a diabetic pregnancy increased levels of adiponectin led to a switch in embryonic metabolism towards a fatty acid-dependent energy metabolism, mainly affecting genes that are responsible for fatty acid uptake and turnover. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although studies in cell culture experiments have shown that adiponectin is able to regulate lipid metabolism via 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), data on the effects of adiponectin on embryonic lipid metabolism are not available...
May 4, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393192/cyclosporine-a-attenuates-cardiac-dysfunction-induced-by-sepsis-via-inhibiting-calcineurin-and-activating-ampk-signaling
#13
Jingmiao Liu, Da Chen, Xiaowei Liu, Zhi Liu
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cyclosporine A (CSA) improved cardiac dysfunction at an early stage of sepsis. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following three groups: the sham‑operated control group, the cecal ligation puncture (CLP) procedure‑induced sepsis group and the CSA intervention group. Cecal ligation was performed to generate a sepsis model. At different time points (2, 6, 12, 24 and 72 h) following sepsis induction, blood pressure, cardiac function, and non‑esterified free fatty acid (NEFA) levels in the plasma and myocardia were measured, and the expression levels of components associated with the AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK)‑acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC)‑carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1) signaling pathway were compared among the three groups...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392417/pharmacological-inhibition-of-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1-restores-mitochondrial-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-human-trifunctional-protein-deficient-fibroblasts
#14
Bruno Lefort, Elodie Gouache, Cécile Acquaviva, Marine Tardieu, Jean François Benoist, Jean-François Dumas, Stéphane Servais, Stéphan Chevalier, Christine Vianey-Saban, François Labarthe
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial Trifunctional Protein deficiency (TFPD) is a severe genetic disease characterized by altered energy metabolism and accumulation of long-chain (LC) acylcarnitines in blood and tissues. This accumulation could impair the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos), contributing to the non-optimal outcome despite conventional diet therapy with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). METHOD: Acylcarnitine and OxPhos parameters were measured in TFPD-fibroblasts obtained from 8 children and cultured in medium mimicking fasting (LCFA) or conventional treatment (MCT), with or without Etomoxir (ETX) an inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) activity, and were compared to results obtained with fibroblasts from 5 healthy-control children...
April 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339706/differential-proliferation-and-metabolic-activity-of-sertoli-cells-in-the-testes-of-broiler-and-layer-breeder-chickens
#15
Mélanie Faure, Edith Guibert, Sabine Crochet, Pascal Chartrin, Jean-Pierre Brillard, Anne Collin, Pascal Froment
Decades of genetic selection have generated 2 different, highly specialized types of chickens in which 1 type, known as the layer-type chicken, expresses high laying performance while the other type, known as the broiler-type chicken, is dedicated to the production of fast-growing birds. Selected lines for the latter type often express disorders in their reproductive performance including early sexual maturation and accelerated, non-reversible seasonal decline of their semen production and mating behavior. The aim of the present study was to characterize some metabolic markers of the Sertoli cell populations...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330968/examination-of-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-1-abundance-in-white-adipose-tissue-implications-in-obesity-research
#16
Jaycob D Warfel, Bolormaa Vandanmagsar, Olga S Dubuisson, Sydney M Hodgeson, Carrie M Elks, Eric Ravussin, Randall L Mynatt
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) is essential for the transport of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for oxidation. Recently, it was reported that decreased CPT1b mRNA in adipose tissue was a contributing factor for obesity in rats. We therefore closely examined the expression level of Cpt1 in adipose tissue from mice, rats, and humans. Cpt1a is the predominate isoform in adipose tissue from all three species. Rat white adipose tissue has a moderate amount of Cpt1b mRNA, but it is very minor compared with Cpt1b expression in muscle...
May 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315901/the-effect-of-sitagliptin-on-lipid-metabolism-of-fatty-liver-mice-and-related-mechanisms
#17
Bilin Xu, Tian Shen, Lin Chen, Juan Xia, Cuiping Zhang, Hongping Wang, Ming Yu, Tao Lei
BACKGROUND In clinics, patients with type 2 diabetes complicated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been shown to receive significant improvements in blood glucose levels, lipid levels, and liver function after sitagliptin treatment, although the mechanism of drug action remains poorly understood. This study investigated the possible mechanism of sitagliptin on lipid metabolism of NAFLD mice. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male C57/BL6 mice were induced for NAFLD via 16 weeks of a high-fat diet, and were treated with 15 mg/kg/day sitagliptin for 16 consecutive weeks...
March 19, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258156/maternal-metabolic-stress-may-affect-oviduct-gatekeeper-function
#18
Lies Jordaens, Veerle Van Hoeck, Veronica Maillo, Alfonso Gutierrez-Adan, Waleed Fawzy A Marei, Bruno Vlaeminck, Sofie Thys, Roger G S Sturmey, Peter Bols, Jo Leroy
We hypothesized that elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) modify in vitro bovine oviduct epithelial cell (BOEC) metabolism and barrier function. Hereto, BOECs were studied in a polarized system with 24h-treatments at day 9: 1) CONTROL (0µM NEFA + 0%EtOH), 2) SOLVENT CONTROL (0µM NEFA + 0.45%EtOH), 3) BASAL NEFA (720µM NEFA + 0.45%EtOH in the basal compartment), 4) APICAL NEFA (720µM NEFA + 0.45%EtOH in the apical compartment). FITC-albumin was used for monolayer permeability assessment, and related to Transepithelial Electric Resistance (TER)...
March 3, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190475/calycosin-attenuates-triglyceride-accumulation-and-hepatic-fibrosis-in-murine-model-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-via-activating-farnesoid-x-receptor
#19
Xingping Duan, Qiang Meng, Changyuan Wang, Zhihao Liu, Qi Liu, Huijun Sun, Pengyuan Sun, Xiaobo Yang, Xiaokui Huo, Jinyong Peng, Kexin Liu
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) represents the more severe end of hepatic steatosis and is associated with progressive liver disease. Calycosin, derived from the root of Radix Astragali, has been demonstrated to have favorable efficacy on acute liver injury. PURPOSE: The present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of calycosin on attenuating triglyceride accumulation and hepatic fibrosis, as well as explore the potential mechanism in murine model of NASH...
February 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146135/the-transcription-profile-unveils-the-cardioprotective-effect-of-aspalathin-against-lipid-toxicity-in-an-in-vitro-h9c2-model
#20
Rabia Johnson, Phiwayinkosi V Dludla, Christo J F Muller, Barbara Huisamen, M Faadiel Essop, Johan Louw
Aspalathin, a C-glucosyl dihydrochalcone, has previously been shown to protect cardiomyocytes against hyperglycemia-induced shifts in substrate preference and subsequent apoptosis. However, the precise gene regulatory network remains to be elucidated. To unravel the mechanism and provide insight into this supposition, the direct effect of aspalathin in an isolated cell-based system, without the influence of any variables, was tested using an H9c2 cardiomyocyte model. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to high glucose (33 mM) for 48 h before post-treatment with or without aspalathin...
January 31, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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