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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757976/fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-is-essential-in-leptin-mediated-oocytes-maturation-of-yellow-catfish-pelteobagrus-fulvidraco
#1
Yu-Feng Song, Xiao-Ying Tan, Ya-Xiong Pan, Li-Han Zhang, Qi-Liang Chen
Although several studies have been conducted to study leptin function, information is very scarce on the molecular mechanism of leptin in fatty acid β-oxidation and oocytes maturation in fish. In this study, we investigated the potential role of fatty acid β-oxidation in leptin-mediated oocytes maturation in Pelteobagrus fulvidraco . Exp. 1 investigated the transcriptomic profiles of ovary and the differential expression of genes involved in β-oxidation and oocytes maturation following rt-hLEP injection; rt-hLEP injection was associated with significant changes in the expression of genes, including twenty-five up-regulated genes ( CPT1 , Acsl , Acadl , Acadm , Hadhb , Echsl , Hsd17b4 , Acca , PPARα , CYP8B1 , ACOX1 , ACBP , MAPK , RINGO , Cdc2 , MEK1 , IGF-1R , APC/C, Cdk2 , GnRHR, STAG3 , SMC1 , FSHβ and C-Myc ) and ten down-regulated gene ( PPARγ , FATCD36 , UBC , PDK1 , Acads , Raf , Fizzy , C3H-4 , Raf and PKC ), involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and oocytes maturation...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754287/protective-role-of-the-elovl2-docosahexaenoic-acid-axis-in-glucolipotoxicity-induced-apoptosis-in-rodent-beta-cells-and-human-islets
#2
Lara Bellini, Mélanie Campana, Claude Rouch, Marta Chacinska, Marco Bugliani, Kelly Meneyrol, Isabelle Hainault, Véronique Lenoir, Jessica Denom, Julien Véret, Nadim Kassis, Bernard Thorens, Mark Ibberson, Piero Marchetti, Agnieszka Blachnio-Zabielska, Céline Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Carina Prip-Buus, Christophe Magnan, Hervé Le Stunff
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are known to influence glucose homeostasis. We recently showed that Elovl2 expression in beta cells, which regulates synthesis of endogenous DHA, was associated with glucose tolerance and played a key role in insulin secretion. The present study aimed to examine the role of the very long chain fatty acid elongase 2 (ELOVL2)/DHA axis on the adverse effects of palmitate with high glucose, a condition defined as glucolipotoxicity, on beta cells...
May 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744667/vagus-nerve-stimulation-exerts-cardioprotection-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-predominantly-through-its-efferent-vagal-fibers
#3
Watthana Nuntaphum, Wanpitak Pongkan, Suwakon Wongjaikam, Savitree Thummasorn, Pongpan Tanajak, Juthamas Khamseekaew, Kannaporn Intachai, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn, Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to exert cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, whether the cardioprotection of VNS is mainly due to direct activation through its ipsilateral efferent fibers (motor) rather than indirect effects mediated by the afferent fibers (sensory) have not been clearly understood. We hypothesized that VNS exerts cardioprotection predominantly through its efferent vagal fibers. Thirty swine (30-35 kg) were randomized into five groups: I/R no VNS (I/R), and left mid-cervical VNS with both vagal trunks intact (LC-VNS), with left vagus nerve transection (LtVNX), with right vagus nerve transection (RtVNX) and with atropine pretreatment (Atropine), respectively...
May 9, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739863/effects-of-high-fat-diet-and-ampk-modulation-on-the-regulation-of-whole-body-lipid-metabolism
#4
Milena Schonke, Julie Massart, Juleen R Zierath
Metabolic flexibility, the capacity to adapt to fuel availability for energy production, is crucial for maintaining whole-body energy homeostasis. An inability to adequately promote fatty acid utilization is associated with lipid accumulation in peripheral tissues and contributes to the development of insulin resistance. In vivo assays to quantify whole-body lipid oxidation in mouse models of insulin resistance are lacking. We describe a method for assessing whole-body fatty acid oxidation in vivo , as well as tissue-specific lipid uptake in conscious mice...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733968/molecular-characterization-of-elongase-of-very-long-chain-fatty-acids-6-elovl6-genes-in-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus-and-their-potential-roles-in-adaptation-to-cold-temperature
#5
Jingwen Chen, Yun Cui, Jie Yan, Jimin Jiang, Xiaojuan Cao, Jian Gao
Elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 (ELOVL6) is a rate-limiting enzyme catalyzing elongation of saturated and monounsaturated long-chain fatty acid. Although functional characteristics of Elovl6 have been demonstrated in mammal, the role of elovl6 in fish remains unclear. In this study, we firstly cloned three isoforms of elovl6 (elovl6a, elovl6b and elovl6-like) from loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Molecular characterizations of the three elovl6 isoforms in loach and their expressions of early life stages and different tissues were then determined...
May 4, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730652/resistin-regulates-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-by-suppressing-expression-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activator-receptor-gamma-coactivator-1%C3%AE-pgc-1%C3%AE
#6
Fang He, Jie-Qiong Jin, Qing-Qing Qin, Yong-Qin Zheng, Ting-Ting Li, Yun Zhang, Jun-Dong He
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Abnormal fatty acid β oxidation has been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Resistin is an adipokine that has been considered as a potential factor in obesity-mediated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the effect of resistin on fatty acid β oxidation needs to be elucidated. METHODS: We detected the effects of resistin on the expression of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) transcriptional regulatory genes, the fatty acid transport gene, and mitochondrial β-oxidation genes using real-time PCR...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730527/evolutionary-analysis-of-the-carnitine-and-choline-acyltransferases-suggests-distinct-evolution-of-cpt2-versus-cpt1-and-related-variants
#7
Marjanne D van der Hoek, Ole Madsen, Jaap Keijer, Feike R van der Leij
Carnitine/choline acyltransferases play diverse roles in energy metabolism and neuronal signalling. Our knowledge of their evolutionary relationships, important for functional understanding, is incomplete. Therefore, we aimed to determine the evolutionary relationships of these eukaryotic transferases. We performed extensive phylogenetic and intron position analyses. We found that mammalian intramitochondrial CPT2 is most closely related to cytosolic yeast carnitine transferases (Sc-YAT1 and 2), whereas the other members of the family are related to intraorganellar yeast Sc-CAT2...
May 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728570/identification-of-brain-antigens-recognized-by-autoantibodies-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-induced-animals-treated-with-etomoxir-or-interferon-%C3%AE
#8
Anne Skøttrup Mørkholt, Kenneth Kastaniegaard, Michael Sloth Trabjerg, Gopana Gopalasingam, Wanda Niganze, Agnete Larsen, Allan Stensballe, Søren Nielsen, John Dirk Nieland
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative autoimmune disease, where chronic inflammation plays an essential role in its pathology. A feature of MS is the production of autoantibodies stimulated by an altered-peptide-ligand response and epitope spreading, resulting in loss of tolerance for self-proteins. The involvement of autoantibodies in MS pathogenesis has been suggested to initiate and drive progression of inflammation; however, the etiology of MS remains unknown. The effect of etomoxir and interferon-β (IFN-β) was examined in an experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725308/the-exposure-to-different-photoperiods-strongly-modulates-the-glucose-and-lipid-metabolisms-of-normoweight-fischer-344-rats
#9
Roger Mariné-Casadó, Cristina Domenech-Coca, Josep M Del Bas, Cinta Bladé, Lluís Arola, Antoni Caimari
Seasonal variations in day length trigger clear changes in the behavior, growth, food intake, and reproductive status of photoperiod-sensitive animals, such as Fischer 344 rats. However, there is little information about the effects of seasonal fluctuations in day length on glucose and lipid metabolisms and their underlying mechanisms in this model. To gain knowledge on these issues, three groups of male Fischer 344 rats were fed with a standard diet and exposed to different photoperiods for 14 weeks: normal photoperiod (L12, 12 h light/day), long photoperiod (L18, 18 h light/day), and short photoperiod (L6, 6 h light/day)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696816/deletion-of-smad4-attenuates-the-hepatic-inflammation-and-fibrogenesis-during-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-progression
#10
Geng Qin, Guo Zhen Wang, Dan Dan Guo, Ru-Xue Bai, Miao Wang, Shi Yu Du
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of Smad4 deletion on inflammation and fibrogenesis during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progression. METHODS: We collected 56 liver tissues from NASH patients (NASH group) and 60 normal liver tissues from patients received liver resection for trauma (control group). Smad4Co/Co mice and wild-type (WT) mice were used to construct NASH model by high-fat diet (HFD) or methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Tunnel assay were performed to observe pathological changes and apoptosis of liver tissues, respectively, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect expressions of inflammatory, fibrogenesis and apoptosis-related genes, and immunohistochemistry to determine proteins expressions of Smad4, MCP-1 and α-SMA...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604498/oxidative-stress-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-mediated-cd-induced-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#11
Ya-Xiong Pan, Zhi Luo, Mei-Qing Zhuo, Chuan-Chuan Wei, Guang-Hui Chen, Yu-Feng Song
The present study was performed to determine the effect of waterborne CdCl2 exposure influencing lipid deposition and metabolism, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, and explore the underlying molecular mechanism of cadmium (Cd)-induced disorder of hepatic lipid metabolism in fish. To this end, adult zebrafish were exposed to three waterborne CdCl2 concentrations (0(control), 5 and 25 μg Cd/l, respectively) for 30 days. Lipid accumulation, the activities of enzymes related to lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, as well as the expression level of genes involved in lipid metabolism and mitophagy were determined in the liver of zebrafish...
March 17, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596410/identifying-off-target-effects-of-etomoxir-reveals-that-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase-i-is-essential-for-cancer-cell-proliferation-independent-of-%C3%AE-oxidation
#12
Cong-Hui Yao, Gao-Yuan Liu, Rencheng Wang, Sung Ho Moon, Richard W Gross, Gary J Patti
It has been suggested that some cancer cells rely upon fatty acid oxidation (FAO) for energy. Here we show that when FAO was reduced approximately 90% by pharmacological inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1) with low concentrations of etomoxir, the proliferation rate of various cancer cells was unaffected. Efforts to pharmacologically inhibit FAO more than 90% revealed that high concentrations of etomoxir (200 μM) have an off-target effect of inhibiting complex I of the electron transport chain...
March 29, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550423/propylene-glycol-guluronate-sulfate-pggs-reduces-lipid-accumulation-via-amp-activated-kinase-activation-in-palmitate-induced-hepg2-cells
#13
Meng Xin, Yang Sun, Haijiao Chen, Quancai Li, Yunlou Dun, Huashi Guan, Jiejie Hao, Chunxia Li
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the No. 1 cause of death worldwide. Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors for CVD. Maintaining lipid homeostasis is an effective way to prevent CVD. We prepared propylene glycol guluronate sulfate (PGGS), a sulfated polysaccharide, and investigated its effect on lipid metabolism in HepG2 cells. We found that total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were significantly decreased in the cells after PGGS treatment. We have also shown that the AMPK signaling is activated after PGGS treatment as evidenced by changes in the expression of many AMPK downstream targets including SREBP-1c, SIRT-1, CPT1, PPARα, and FAS...
July 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547798/magnolol-promotes-thermogenesis-and-attenuates-oxidative-stress-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#14
Hilal Ahmad Parray, Jameel Lone, Jong Pil Park, Jang Won Choi, Jong Won Yun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the browning and antioxidative effects of magnolol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as recruitment of beige-like adipocytes (browning) by natural compounds is being considered as a promising strategy to fight against obesity. METHODS: Magnolol-induced browning effect was evaluated by determining the expression levels of specific marker genes and proteins using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively...
June 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507904/improved-oxygenation-dramatically-alters-metabolism-and-gene-expression-in-cultured-primary-mouse-hepatocytes
#15
Eduardo H Gilglioni, Jung-Chin Chang, Suzanne Duijst, Simei Go, Aziza A A Adam, Ruurdtje Hoekstra, Arthur J Verhoeven, Emy L Ishii-Iwamoto, Ronald P J Oude Elferink
Primary hepatocyte culture is an important in vitro system for the study of liver functions. In vivo , hepatocytes have high oxidative metabolism. However, oxygen supply by means of diffusion in in vitro static cultures is much less than that by blood circulation in vivo . Therefore, we investigated whether hypoxia contributes to dedifferentiation and deregulated metabolism in cultured hepatocytes. To this end, murine hepatocytes were cultured under static or shaken (60 revolutions per minute) conditions in a collagen sandwich...
March 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501571/integrated-omics-analysis-reveals-new-drug-induced-mitochondrial-perturbations-in-human-hepatocytes
#16
Jarno E J Wolters, Simone G J van Breda, Jonas Grossmann, Claudia Fortes, Florian Caiment, Jos C S Kleinjans
We performed a multiple 'omics study by integrating data on epigenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic perturbations associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in primary human hepatocytes caused by the liver toxicant valproic acid (VPA), to deeper understand downstream events following epigenetic alterations in the mitochondrial genome. Furthermore, we investigated persistence of cross-omics changes after terminating drug treatment. Upon transient methylation changes of mitochondrial genes during VPA-treatment, increasing complexities of gene-interaction networks across time were demonstrated, which normalized during washout...
June 1, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482657/fatty-acid-oxidation-promotes-reprogramming-by-enhancing-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-inhibiting-protein-kinase-c
#17
Zhaoyu Lin, Fei Liu, Peiliang Shi, Anying Song, Zan Huang, Dayuan Zou, Qin Chen, Jianxin Li, Xiang Gao
BACKGROUND: Changes in metabolic pathway preferences are key events in the reprogramming process of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The optimization of metabolic conditions can enhance reprogramming; however, the detailed underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. By comparing the gene expression profiles of somatic cells, intermediate-phase cells, and iPSCs, we found that carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt)1b, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation, was significantly upregulated in the early stage of the reprogramming process...
February 26, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469229/hypolipidemic-and-antioxidant-properties-of-oryzanol-concentrate-in-reducing-diabetic-nephropathy-via-srebp1-downregulation-rather-than-%C3%AE-oxidation
#18
Bhaskaragoud G, Geetha V, Sharanappa T, Mohan Kumar A S, Hema Kumar C, Suresh Kumar G
SCOPE: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a micro-vascular complication of chronic diabetes. Sterol regulatory element binding protein1 (SREBP1) participation in the development of DN is reported. Oryzanol concentrate (OC) at 0.1% and 0.3% is tested for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects. The aim of the work is to study the involvement of OC in the amelioration of DN in STZ-induced diabetic animal model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Animals were grouped into starch, high-fat, and OC-treated control/diabetic groups (SFC/SFD, HFC/HFD, OFC/OFD)...
April 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466694/lipid-pathway-deregulation-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Laura Galbraith, Hing Y Leung, Imran Ahmad
The link between prostate cancer (PC) development and lipid metabolism is well established, with AR intimately involved in a number of lipogenic processes involving SREBP1, PPARG, FASN, ACC, ACLY and SCD1. Recently, there is growing evidence implicating the role of obesity and peri-prostatic adipose tissue (PPAT) in PC aggressiveness and related mortality, suggesting the importance of lipid pathways in both localised and disseminated disease. A number of promising agents are in development to target the lipogenic axis in PC, and the likelihood is that these agents will form part of combination drug strategies, with targeting of multiple metabolic pathways (e...
May 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413492/attenuation-of-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-by-fish-oil-supplementation-is-associated-with-improved-skeletal-muscle-mitochondrial-function-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#20
Amanda R Martins, Amanda R Crisma, Laureane N Masi, Catia L Amaral, Gabriel N Marzuca-Nassr, Lucas H M Bomfim, Bruno G Teodoro, André L Queiroz, Tamires D A Serdan, Rosangela P Torres, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Alice C Rodrigues, Tatiana C Alba-Loureiro, Tania C Pithon-Curi, Renata Gorjao, Leonardo R Silveira, Rui Curi, Philip Newsholme, Sandro M Hirabara
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have been reported to improve insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in animal models of insulin resistance, but the involved mechanisms still remain unresolved. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fish oil (FO), a source of n-3 PUFAs, on obesity, insulin resistance and muscle mitochondrial function in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57Bl/6 male mice, 8 weeks old, were divided into four groups: control diet (C), high-fat diet (H), C+FO (CFO) and H+FO (HFO)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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