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Systemic hypertension treatment review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107561/beta-blockers-for-hypertension
#1
REVIEW
Charles S Wiysonge, Hazel A Bradley, Jimmy Volmink, Bongani M Mayosi, Lionel H Opie
BACKGROUND: Beta-blockers refer to a mixed group of drugs with diverse pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. They have shown long-term beneficial effects on mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) when used in people with heart failure or acute myocardial infarction. Beta-blockers were thought to have similar beneficial effects when used as first-line therapy for hypertension. However, the benefit of beta-blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension without compelling indications is controversial...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107093/adult-clonidine-overdose-prolonged-bradycardia-and-central-nervous-system-depression-but-not-severe-toxicity
#2
Geoffrey K Isbister, Simon P Heppell, Colin B Page, Nicole M Ryan
CONTEXT: There are limited reports of adult clonidine overdose. We aimed to describe the clinical effects and treatment of clonidine overdose in adults. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of a prospective cohort of poisoned patients who took clonidine overdoses (>200 μg). Demographic information, clinical effects, treatment, complications (central nervous system and cardiovascular effects) and length of stay (LOS) were extracted from a clinical database or medical records...
January 20, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106020/renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-blockers-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#3
Pınar Kızılırmak, Yağız Üresin, Oktay Özdemir, Burçak Kılıçkıran Avcı, Lale Tokgözoğlu, Zeki Öngen
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is the most prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to assess the effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade on CV outcomes. METHODS: This study was designed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Databases were searched for articles published as of December 2014. Two sets of studies were selected...
January 2017: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104567/cardiovascular-toxicity-of-angiogenesis-inhibitors-in-treatment-of-malignancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Husam Abdel-Qadir, Josee-Lyne Ethier, Douglas S Lee, Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Eitan Amir
BACKGROUND: The cardiovascular risk of angiogenesis inhibitors is not well-quantified. We hypothesized that, compared to direct vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors (anti-VEGF antibodies or decoy receptors), small molecule agents have higher risk due to their less specific mechanism. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for phase III randomised controlled trials comparing angiogenesis inhibitor-based therapy to other systemic therapy...
December 30, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099210/pazopanib-a-promising-option-for-the-treatment-of-aggressive-fibromatosis
#5
Zoltan Szucs, Christina Messiou, Han Hsi Wong, Helen Hatcher, Aisha Miah, Shane Zaidi, Winette T A van der Graaf, Ian Judson, Robin L Jones, Charlotte Benson
Desmoid tumour/aggressive fibromatosis (DT/AF) is a rare soft-tissue neoplasm that is locally aggressive but does not metastasize. There is no standard systemic treatment for symptomatic patients, although a number of agents are used. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have recently been reported to show useful activity. We reviewed our bi-institutional (Royal Marsden Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals) experience with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor pazopanib in the treatment of progressing DT/AF. Eight patients with DT/AF were treated with pazopanib at Royal Marsden Hospital and Cambridge University Hospitals between June 2012 and June 2016...
January 17, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090286/novel-methods-in-pulmonary-hypertension-phenotyping-in-the-age-of-precision-medicine-2015-grover-conference-series
#6
REVIEW
Jarrod W Barnes, Adriano R Tonelli, Gustavo A Heresi, Jennie E Newman, Noël E Mellor, David E Grove, Raed A Dweik
Among pulmonary vascular diseases, pulmonary hypertension (PH) is the best studied and has been the focus of our work. The current classification of PH is based on a relatively simple combination of patient characteristics and hemodynamics. This leads to inherent limitations, including the inability to customize treatment and the lack of clarity from a more granular identification based on individual patient phenotypes. Accurate phenotyping of PH can be used in the clinic to select therapies and determine prognosis and in research to increase the homogeneity of study cohorts...
December 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070238/hematological-disorders-and-pulmonary-hypertension
#7
REVIEW
Rajamma Mathew, Jing Huang, Joseph M Wu, John T Fallon, Michael H Gewitz
Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a serious disorder with a high morbidity and mortality rate, is known to occur in a number of unrelated systemic diseases. Several hematological disorders such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia and myeloproliferative diseases develop PH which worsens the prognosis. Associated oxidant injury and vascular inflammation cause endothelial damage and dysfunction. Pulmonary vascular endothelial damage/dysfunction is an early event in PH resulting in the loss of vascular reactivity, activation of proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways leading to vascular remodeling, elevated pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy and premature death...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059659/antiplatelet-therapy-for-the-prevention-of-peri-coiling-thromboembolism-in-high-risk-patients-with-ruptured-intracranial-aneurysms
#8
Nancy J Edwards, Wesley H Jones, Aditya Sanzgiri, Juan Corona, Mark Dannenbaum, Peng Roc Chen
OBJECTIVE The most frequent procedural complication of the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms is a thromboembolic event (TEE); in a subset of patients, such events will cause permanent neurological disability. In patients with unruptured aneurysms, increasing evidence supports the use of periprocedural antiplatelet therapy to prevent TEEs. The object of this study was to evaluate whether patients with ruptured aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage would also benefit from periprocedural antiplatelet therapy...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043708/emerging-roles-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-cardiology
#9
REVIEW
Atsushi Tanaka, Koichi Node
The ultimate goal of treatment in people with diabetes mellitus is to prevent development of cardiovascular (CV) disease, resulting in prolongation of healthy life expectancy. Although impaired glycemic metabolism has a central role in its pathology, a number of studies have demonstrated that remedy for its imbalance cannot necessarily be accomplished as a therapeutic goal. A comprehensive medical approach against multi-factorial pathologies in diabetes, such as insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, in addition to diet and exercise therapy should be rather performed in the routine clinical setting...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034357/psychological-stress-in-pathogenesis-of-essential-hypertension
#10
Alexey V Ushakov, Vera S Ivanchenko, Alina A Gagarina
The article represents literature review and provides evidence for psychological stress to play essential role in the development of arterial hypertension. The pathogenesis of hypertension is complex with a significant diversity and variability of the mechanisms involved in individual patient. In this regard, the determination of specific pathogenic pathways underlying sustained blood pressure elevation in each patient would substantially individualize therapeutic approaches, and hence increase the effectiveness of treatment...
December 30, 2016: Current Hypertension Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018098/therapeutic-approaches-for-portal-biliopathy-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Irene Franceschet, Alberto Zanetto, Alberto Ferrarese, Patrizia Burra, Marco Senzolo
Portal biliopathy (PB) is defined as the presence of biliary abnormalities in patients with non-cirrhotic/non-neoplastic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) and portal cavernoma (PC). The pathogenesis of PB is due to ab extrinseco compression of bile ducts by PC and/or to ischemic damage secondary to an altered biliary vascularization in EHPVO and PC. Although asymptomatic biliary abnormalities can be frequently seen by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in patients with PC (77%-100%), only a part of these (5%-38%) are symptomatic...
December 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994768/hypertension-and-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-in-patients-with-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#12
REVIEW
Lisa Derosa, Hassane Izzedine, Laurence Albiges, Bernard Escudier
Arterial hypertension (HTN) is a class effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies, including the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. Data are conflicting regarding the role of the renin-angiotensin system on angiogenesis and recent data suggest that the use of angiotensin system inhibitors (ASIs; angiotensin receptor blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) is associated with improved survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), particularly when used with VEGF targeted therapies...
October 10, 2016: Oncology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990270/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Halley Tsai, Yon K Sung, Vinicio de Jesus Perez
Over the past 20 years, there has been an explosion in the development of therapeutics to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a rare but life-threatening disorder associated with progressive elevation of pulmonary pressures and severe right heart failure. Recently, the field has seen the introduction of riociguat, a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator, a new endothelin receptor antagonist (macitentan), and oral prostanoids (treprostinil and selexipag). Besides new drugs, there have been significant advances in defining the role of upfront combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients as well as proposed methods to deliver systemic prostanoids by use of implantable pumps...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988430/kinin-receptors-key-regulators-of-autoimmunity
#14
REVIEW
Rafael Cypriano Dutra
The central function of the immune system is to protect the host from environmental agents such as microbes or chemicals, thereby preserving the integrity of the body, and preventing the onset of illness and infection. Moreover, the immune system is constantly challenged to discriminate self vs. non-self and mediate the correct response, a phenomenon called self-tolerance. The failure of mechanisms responsible for self-tolerance and induction of an immune response against components of the self, induces autoimmunity and culminates however, in several autoimmune diseases...
December 15, 2016: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988384/the-opposing-roles-of-no-and-oxidative-stress-in-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Rebecca H Ritchie, Grant R Drummond, Christopher G Sobey, T Michael De Silva, Barbara K Kemp-Harper
Nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. A reduction in the bioavailability of endogenous NO, manifest as a decrease in the production and/or impaired signaling, is associated with many cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, stroke and heart failure. There is substantial evidence that reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated predominantly from NADPH oxidases (Nox), are responsible for the reduced NO bioavailability in vascular and cardiac pathologies...
December 15, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986662/a-pathogenic-role-of-complement-in-arterial-hypertension-and-hypertensive-end-organ-damage
#16
Ulrich O Wenzel, Marlies Bode, Jörg Köhl, Heimo Ehmke
The self-amplifying cascade of messenger and effector molecules of the complement system serves as a powerful danger sensing system that protects the host from a hostile microbial environment, while maintaining proper tissue and organ function through effective clearance of altered or dying cells. As an important effector arm of innate immunity it plays also important roles in the regulation of adaptive immunity. Innate and adaptive immune response have been identified as crucial players in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and hypertensive end organ damage...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982677/pathophysiological-mechanisms-of-calcineurin-inhibitor-induced-nephrotoxicity-and-arterial-hypertension
#17
L Hošková, I Málek, L Kopkan, J Kautzner
Solid organ transplantation is an established treatment modality in patients with end-stage organ damage in cases where other therapeutic options fail. The long-term outcomes of solid organ transplant recipients have improved considerably since the introduction of the first calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) - cyclosporine. In 1984, the potent immunosuppressive properties of another CNI, tacrolimus, were discovered. The immunosuppressive effects of CNIs result from the inhibition of interleukin-2 synthesis and reduced proliferation of T-cells due to calcineurin blockade...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976653/hypertension-treatment-and-control-in-a-rural-cohort-in-thiruvallur-tamil-nadu-india
#18
Prabhdeep Kaur, Sudha Ramachandra Rao, Ramachandran Venkatachalam, Kanagasabai Kaliaperumal
Hypertension is a public health problem with low detection and treatment rates in India. We resurveyed 1284 patients with hypertension already identified in baseline survey of the cohort in Thiruvallur district, Tamil Nadu, India. The objective was to estimate the proportion of patients with drug treatment, hypertension control and lifestyle modification at follow-up (median follow-up 27 months). Overall, only 19.9% of the patients took drugs and 45.3% had blood pressure under control. Among 256 patients on drugs, 179 (69...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974708/alveolar-hypoxia-induced-pulmonary-inflammation-from-local-initiation-to-secondary-promotion-by-activated-systemic-inflammation
#19
Ting Chen, Chengzhong Yang, Manman Li, Xiaoling Tan
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a pathological condition with high mortality and morbidity. Hypoxic PH (HPH) is a common form of PH occurring mainly due to lung disease and/or hypoxia. Most causes of HPH are associated with persistent or intermittent alveolar hypoxia, including exposure to high altitude and chronic obstructive respiratory disease. Recent evidence suggests that inflammation is a critical step for HPH initiation and development. A detailed understanding of the initiation and progression of pulmonary inflammation would help in exploring potential clinical treatments for HPH...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960602/use-of-immunosuppressive-medications-for-treatment-of-pediatric-intermediate-uveitis
#20
Aimee O Hersh, Spencer Cope, John F Bohnsack, Akbar Shakoor, Albert T Vitale
PURPOSE: To describe the treatment and outcomes of a cohort of pediatric intermediate uveitis (IU) patients, with a particular focus on the use of immunomodulatory therapy (IMT). METHODS: The disease course, treatment, and outcomes of 39 pediatric IU patients treated in the Uveitis Clinic at the University of Utah from 1999 to 2012 were reviewed, retrospectively. RESULTS: Mean age at presentation was 7.7 years (SD 3.1). In total, 95% had bilateral involvement...
December 14, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
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