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Systemic hypertension treatment review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679542/treatments-for-diabetes-mellitus-type-ii-new-perspectives-regarding-the-possible-role-of-calcium-and-camp-interaction
#1
REVIEW
Diego Soares Carvalho, Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Aurélio Ferreira Borges, Diego Vannucci Campos
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the top ten causes of death worldwide. It is considered to be one of the major global epidemics of the 21st century, with a significant impact on public health budgets. DM is a metabolic disorder with multiple etiologies. Its pathophysiology is marked by dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells which compromises the synthesis and secretion of insulin along with resistance to insulin action in peripheral tissues (muscle and adipose). Subjects presenting insulin resistance in DM type 2 often also exhibit increased insulin secretion and hyperinsulinemia...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679391/cardiovascular-effects-of-sitagliptin-an-anti-diabetes-medicine
#2
REVIEW
Yi Zhou, Zhiying Guo, Wenjing Yan, Wen Wang
Dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, as the most recent available anti-diabetic agents, were generally used in clinical treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In addition to anti-diabetic effects, the five most widely used DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin and alogliptin) also exert cardiovascular protective effects. In recent years, increasing studies suggest that sitagliptin shows pleiotropic impacts towards the cardiovascular system either with or without diabetes...
April 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679024/cysteine-protease-cathepsins-in-cardiovascular-disease-from-basic-research-to-clinical-trials
#3
REVIEW
Cong-Lin Liu, Junli Guo, Xian Zhang, Galina K Sukhova, Peter Libby, Guo-Ping Shi
Cysteine protease cathepsins have traditionally been considered as lysosome-restricted proteases that mediate proteolysis of unwanted proteins. However, studies from the past decade demonstrate that these proteases are localized not only in acidic compartments (endosomes and lysosomes), where they participate in intracellular protein degradation, but also in the extracellular milieu, plasma membrane, cytosol, nucleus, and nuclear membrane, where they mediate extracellular matrix protein degradation, cell signalling, and protein processing and trafficking through the plasma and nuclear membranes and between intracellular organelles...
April 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678287/novel-mechanisms-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-functions-at-1-angiotensin-receptor-acts-as-a-signaling-hub-and-focal-point-of-receptor-cross-talk
#4
REVIEW
András D Tóth, Gábor Turu, László Hunyady, András Balla
AT1 angiotensin receptor (AT1 R), a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is the main receptor, which mediates the effects of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). AT1 R plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure and salt-water homeostasis, and in the development of pathological conditions, such as hypertension, heart failure, cardiovascular remodeling, renal fibrosis, inflammation, and metabolic disorders. Stimulation of AT1 R leads to pleiotropic signal transduction pathways generating arrays of complex cellular responses...
April 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667738/visual-outcome-in-cats-with-hypertensive-chorioretinopathy
#5
Whitney M Young, Chaowen Zheng, Michael G Davidson, Hans D Westermeyer
PURPOSE: To investigate factors associated with long-term visual outcome in cats with hypertensive chorioretinopathy. ANIMALS STUDIED: Eighty-eight client-owned cats diagnosed with hypertensive chorioretinopathy. PROCEDURE: Medical records from cats with systemic hypertension and associated retinal lesions were reviewed. RESULTS: Most cats (61%) were blind in both eyes at presentation. Presence of menace response at last follow-up evaluation was positively correlated with presence of menace response at presentation (P = ...
April 18, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666121/clinical-features-and-visual-outcomes-of-111-patients-with-new-onset-acute-vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease-treated-with-pulse-intravenous-corticosteroids
#6
Makiko Nakayama, Hiroshi Keino, Takayo Watanabe, Annabelle A Okada
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical features, treatment and visual outcomes of Japanese patients with new-onset acute Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease. METHODS: Clinical records of 111 patients who presented between 1999 and 2015 to the Ocular Inflammation Service of the Kyorin Eye Center, Tokyo, were reviewed. RESULTS: Of the 111 patients (68 women, 43 men), 16 had complete, 90 had incomplete and 5 had probable VKH disease. The median follow-up period was 36 months (4-175 months)...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664959/contemporary-survival-of-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-and-congenital-systemic-to-pulmonary-shunts
#7
Chodchanok Vijarnsorn, Kritvikrom Durongpisitkul, Paweena Chungsomprasong, Densiri Bositthipichet, Salisa Ketsara, Yuttapon Titaram, Prakul Chanthong, Supaluck Kanjanauthai, Jarupim Soongswang
OBJECTIVE: To compare survival of patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease (PAH-CHD) according to various clinical classifications with classifications of anatomical-pathophysiological systemic to pulmonary shunts in a single-center cohort. METHODS: All prevalent cases of PAH-CHD with hemodynamic confirmation by cardiac catheterization in 1995-2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who were younger than three months of age, or with single ventricle following surgery were excluded...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657196/atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-a-monocentric-adult-tunisian-study-and-review-of-literature
#8
R Kherder-Elfekih, M Hajji, L Ben Fatma, H Jebali, I Mami, W Smaoui, M Krid, L Rais, S Beji, K Zouaghi, M Sellami-Kallel
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is characterized by microvascular thrombosis resulting in thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and multiorgan dysfunction. It is associated with genetic or acquired disorders of regulatory components of the complement system. For our study, we collected data from 16 patients diagnosed with aHUS between January 2010 and January 2014. The mean age was 33.6 years. The female-to-male ratio was 3. The median follow-up duration was 27 ± 3.5 months. The most common clinical presentation was hypertension...
March 2018: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656745/severe-adverse-events-impact-overall-survival-and-costs-in-elderly-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-on-second-line-therapy
#9
Hossein Borghaei, Yeun Mi Yim, Annie Guerin, Irina Pivneva, Sherry Shi, Mayank Gandhi, Raluca Ionescu-Ittu
OBJECTIVES: Elderly patients with advanced non-small lung cancer (aNSCLC) represent a high-risk patient population due to disease burden, comorbidities, and performance status, particularly after progressing on first-line therapy. Among elderly patients who receive second-line therapy, treatment related toxicities can have substantial impact on both clinical and economic outcomes. This study assessed the impact of severe adverse events (AEs) during second-line therapy on overall survival (OS) and all-cause heathcare costs in elderly with aNSCLC...
May 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652832/sympathetic-nerve-hyperactivity-in-the-spleen-causal-for-nonpathogenic-driven-chronic-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-imids
#10
REVIEW
Denise L Bellinger, Dianne Lorton
Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs) is a descriptive term coined for an eclectic group of diseases or conditions that share common inflammatory pathways, and for which there is no definitive etiology. IMIDs affect the elderly most severely, with many older individuals having two or more IMIDs. These diseases include, but are not limited to, type-1 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and autoimmunity, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjőgren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651418/role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-and-its-modulation-in-renal-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Yusuke Sata, Geoffrey A Head, Kate Denton, Clive N May, Markus P Schlaich
The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649151/dna-methylation-and-histone-modification-in-hypertension
#12
REVIEW
Shaunrick Stoll, Charles Wang, Hongyu Qiu
Systemic hypertension, which eventually results in heart failure, renal failure or stroke, is a common chronic human disorder that particularly affects elders. Although many signaling pathways involved in the development of hypertension have been reported over the past decades, which has led to the implementation of a wide variety of anti-hypertensive therapies, one half of all hypertensive patients still do not have their blood pressure controlled. The frontier in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying hypertension has now advanced to the level of epigenomics...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627145/influence-of-hypoxia-induced-by-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-case-of-hypertension-and-atrial-fibrillation
#13
REVIEW
Shin-Ichi Ando
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been recognized as one of the important causes or factors of worsening for various cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, a recent large randomized study and meta-analysis about the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) indicated no or only minor effects to improve the outcome of SDB patients. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the key factor of the link between SDB and cardiovascular diseases might be hypoxia caused during repetitive long apneic episodes...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625700/quality-of-life-in-cushing-s-disease-a-long-term-issue
#14
Susan M Webb, Alicia Santos, Eugenia Resmini, Maria-Antonia Martínez-Momblán, Luciana Martel, Elena Valassi
The purpose of this review is to describe how quality of life (QoL) is impaired in patients with hypercortisolism due to Cushing's syndrome of any aetiology, including pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease. It is worse in active disease, but improvement after successful therapy is often incomplete, due to persistent physical and psychological co-morbidities, even years after endocrine "cure". Physical symptoms like extreme fatigability, central obesity with limb atrophy, hypertension, fractures, and different skin abnormalities severely impair the affected patients' everyday life...
April 3, 2018: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624472/efficacy-and-safety-of-baroreflex-activation-therapy-for-treatment-of-resistant-hypertension-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Wang Chunbin, Shiquan Fu, Huang Jing
To provide definite evidence for the anti-hypertensive benefit of Baroreflex Activation Therapy (BAT) for resistant hypertension, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BAT. Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Two reviewers independently determined the eligibility of studies and extracted the data. The quality of all included studies was evaluated by the use of the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS). Disagreements were settled through discussion...
April 6, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618986/the-antioxidant-therapy-new-insights-in-the-treatment-of-hypertension
#16
REVIEW
Daniela Sorriento, Nicola De Luca, Bruno Trimarco, Guido Iaccarino
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a key role in the regulation of the physiological and pathological signaling within the vasculature. In physiological conditions, a delicate balance between oxidants and antioxidants protects cells from the detrimental effects of ROS/RNS. Indeed, the imbalance between ROS/RNS production and antioxidant defense mechanisms leads to oxidative and nitrosative stress within the cell. These processes promote the vascular damage observed in chronic conditions, such as hypertension...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610292/renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitors-to-mitigate-cancer-treatment-related-adverse-events
#17
Matthias Pinter, Wilhelmus J Kwanten, Rakesh K Jain
Treatment-related side effects are a major clinical problem in cancer treatment. They lead to reduced compliance to therapy as well as increased morbidity and mortality. Well-known are the sequelae of chemotherapy on the heart, especially in childhood cancer survivors. Therefore, measures to mitigate the adverse events of cancer therapy may improve health and quality of life in cancer patients, both in short and long term. The renin angiotensin system (RAS) affects all hallmarks of cancer, and blockage of the RAS is associated with an improved outcome in several cancer types...
April 2, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609870/-prevalence-and-relations-of-orthostatic-hypotension-in-patients-80-years-old-and-over-from-a-primary-care-unit
#18
Francisco Javier Formigo Couceiro, Marta Pena Seijo, Antonio Pose Reino, José Manuel Mayán Santos, Francisco Javier Ayape Amigot, Jesús Sueiro Justel
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension (OH) in patients 80 years old and over attending a primary care unit. To relate OH to the most prevalent pathologies and to the most used drugs. DESIGN: Transversal observational study. LOCATION: Primary care unit, Santiago de Compostela. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty one patients 80 years old or over representative of a primary care unit were recruited. Ten patients were excluded...
March 30, 2018: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604206/from-molecules-to-patients-exploring-the-therapeutic-role-of-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-stimulators
#19
Peter Sandner
Nitric Oxide (NO) signaling represents one of the major regulatory pathways for cardiovascular function. After the discovery of NO, awarded with the Nobel Prize in 1998, this signaling cascade was stepwise clarified. We now have a good understanding of NO production and NO downstream targets such as the soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGCs) which catalyze cGMP production. Based on the important role of NO-signaling in the cardiovascular system, intense research and development efforts are currently ongoing to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of cGMP increase...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603626/pulmonary-hypertension-barrier-or-just-a-bump-in-the-road-in-transplanting-adults-with-congenital-heart-disease
#20
Jonathan N Menachem, Edo Y Birati, Payman Zamani, Anjali T Owens, Pavan Atluri, Christian A Bermudez, David Drajpuch, Stephanie Fuller, Yuli Y Kim, Christopher E Mascio, Vikram Palanivel, J Eduardo Rame, Joyce Wald, Michael A Acker, Jeremy A Mazurek
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause of death in adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). Identification of disease progression and timing of referral for advanced therapies is often delayed. However, increased awareness and understanding of ACHD and improvements in the approach to treatment have led to improved outcomes. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common barrier to HT. In ACHD, the approach to PH and HT is quite complicated, given the anatomic heterogeneity and lower prevalence and experience...
March 30, 2018: Congenital Heart Disease
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