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Neutral evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523796/silica-polypyrrole-hybrids-as-high-performance-metal-free-electrocatalysts-for-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-in-neutral-media
#1
Jin-Xian Feng, Han Xu, Sheng-Hua Ye, Gangfeng Ouyang, Ye-Xiang Tong, Gao-Ren Li
Constructing inorganic-organic hybrids with high abilities of water adsorption and activation will lead to significant enhancement of electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in neutral media that is environmentally benign. Here we report SiO2-polypyrrole (PPy) hybrid nanotubes supported on carbon fibers (CFs) (SiO2/PPy NTs-CFs) as low-cost and high-performance electrocatalysts for HER in neutral media. Because of the strong electronic interactions between SiO2 and PPy, SiO2 uniquely serves as the centers of water adsorption and activation, and accordingly it will obviously promote HER...
May 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516994/3d-ordered-porous-moxc-x-1-or-2-for-advanced-hydrogen-evolution-and-li-storage
#2
Hong Yu, Haosen Fan, Jiong Wang, Yun Zheng, Zhengfei Dai, Yizhong Lu, Junhua Kong, Xin Wang, Young Jin Kim, Qingyu Yan, Jong-Min Lee
3D ordered porous structures of MoxC are prepared with different Mo to C ratios and tested for two possible promising applications: hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) through water splitting and lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Mo2C and MoC with 3D periodic ordered structures are prepared with a similar process but different precursors. The 3D ordered porous MoC exhibits excellent cycling stability and rate performance as an anode material for LIBs. A discharge capacity of 450.9 mA h g(-1) is maintained up to 3000 cycles at 10...
May 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515867/the-evolution-of-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-in-upstream-versus-downstream-river-populations-of-the-longnose-dace
#3
Erika Crispo, Haley R Tunna, Noreen Hussain, Silvia S Rodriguez, Scott A Pavey, Leland J Jackson, Sean M Rogers
Populations in upstream versus downstream river locations can be exposed to vastly different environmental and ecological conditions and can thus harbor different genetic resources due to selection and neutral processes. An interesting question is how upstream-downstream directionality in rivers affects the evolution of immune response genes. We used next-generation amplicon sequencing to identify eight alleles of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II β exon 2 in the cyprinid longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae) from three rivers in Alberta, upstream and downstream of municipal and agricultural areas along contaminant gradients...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515302/transposon-mutagenesis-of-the-zika-virus-genome-highlights-regions-essential-for-rna-replication-and-restricted-for-immune-evasion
#4
Benjamin O Fulton, David Sachs, Megan C Schwarz, Peter Palese, Matthew J Evans
The molecular constraints affecting Zika virus (ZIKV) evolution are not well understood. To investigate ZIKV genetic flexibility, we used transposon mutagenesis to add 15-nucleotide insertions throughout the MR766 ZIKV genome and subsequently deep sequenced the viable mutants. Few ZIKV insertion mutants replicated, which likely reflects a high degree of functional constraints on the genome. The NS1 gene exhibited distinct mutational tolerances at different stages of the screen. This result may define regions of the NS1 protein that are required for the different stages of the viral life cycle...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513129/electrodeposited-nickel-cobalt-sulfide-catalyst-for-the-hydrogen-evolution-reaction
#5
Ahamed Irshad, Nookala Munichandraiah
A novel Ni-Co-S based material is prepared by potentiodynamic deposition from an aqueous solution containing Ni(2+), Co(2+) and thiourea, and is studied as an electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in neutral phosphate solution. The composition of the catalyst and HER activity are tuned by varying the ratio of concentrations of Ni(2+) and Co(2+) ions in the electrolytes. Under optimized deposition conditions, the bimetallic Ni-Co-S exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity than its monometallic counter parts...
May 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512020/molecular-epidemiology-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-central-china-since-2014-the-prevalence-of-nadc30-like-prrsvs
#6
Lin-Jian Wang, Weitao Xie, Xin-Xin Chen, Songlin Qiao, Mengmeng Zhao, Yu Gu, Bao-Lei Zhao, Gaiping Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), characterized by respiratory disorders in piglets and reproductive failure in sows, is still the great threat of swine industry. Recently, Emergence of the novel NADC30-like PRRS viruses (PRRSVs) has caused widespread outbreaks of PRRS. To investigate the epidemic characteristics of PRRSVs in Central China since 2014, 6372 clinical serum samples were tested by ELISA, 250 tissue samples were tested by RT-PCR, and among these, 30 ORF5 and 17 Nsp2 genes sequences were analyzed...
May 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508567/p-doped-moo3-x-nanosheets-as-efficient-and-stable-electrocatalysts-for-hydrogen-evolution
#7
Ling Li, Ting Zhang, Junqing Yan, Xuediao Cai, Shengzhong Frank Liu
A P doped MoO3-x nanocomposite material with rich oxygen vacancies is successfully fabricated by a two-step intercalation method, which presents superior activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction with low overpotential and fast electron transfer. In 0.5 m H2 SO4 , it displays an overpotential of 166 mV for driving the current density of 10 mA cm(-2) . Moreover, it also shows a good catalytic stability in the electrolytes with different pH, 0.5 m H2 SO4 (strong acid), 0.5 m Na2 SO4 (neutral solution), and 0...
May 16, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506040/codon-usage-patterns-of-tyrosinase-genes-in-clonorchis-sinensis
#8
Young-An Bae
Codon usage bias (CUB) is a unique property of genomes and has contributed to the better understanding of the molecular features and the evolution processes of particular gene. In this study, genetic indices associated with CUB, including relative synonymous codon usage and effective numbers of codons, as well as the nucleotide composition, were investigated in the Clonorchis sinensis tyrosinase genes and their platyhelminth orthologs, which play an important role in the eggshell formation. The relative synonymous codon usage patterns substantially differed among tyrosinase genes examined...
April 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504308/brainstem-as-a-developmental-gateway-to-social-attention
#9
Ronny Geva, Ayelet Dital, Dan Ramon, Jessica Yarmolovsky, Maor Gidron, Jacob Kuint
BACKGROUND: Evolution preserves social attention due to its key role in supporting survival. Humans are attracted to social cues from infancy, but the neurobiological mechanisms for the development of social attention are unknown. An evolutionary-based, vertical-hierarchical theoretical model of self-regulation suggests that neonatal brainstem inputs are key for the development of well-regulated social attention. METHODS: Neonates born preterm (N = 44, GA 34 w...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504265/in-vitro-evolution-of-an-influenza-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-is-modulated-by-hemagglutinin-receptor-specificity
#10
Nicholas C Wu, Geramie Grande, Hannah L Turner, Andrew B Ward, Jia Xie, Richard A Lerner, Ian A Wilson
The relatively recent discovery and characterization of human broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against influenza virus provide valuable insights into antiviral and vaccine development. However, the factors that influence the evolution of high-affinity bnAbs remain elusive. We therefore explore the functional sequence space of bnAb C05, which targets the receptor-binding site (RBS) of influenza haemagglutinin (HA) via a long CDR H3. We combine saturation mutagenesis with yeast display to enrich for C05 variants of CDR H3 that bind to H1 and H3 HAs...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500332/sexual-homomorphism-in-dioecious-trees-extensive-tests-fail-to-detect-sexual-dimorphism-in-populus-%C3%A2
#11
Athena D McKown, Jaroslav Klápště, Robert D Guy, Raju Y Soolanayakanahally, Jonathan La Mantia, Ilga Porth, Oleksandr Skyba, Faride Unda, Carl J Douglas, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Richard C Hamelin, Shawn D Mansfield, Quentin C B Cronk
The evolution of sexual dimorphism and expansion of sex chromosomes are both driven through sexual conflict, arising from differing fitness optima between males and females. Here, we pair work in poplar (Populus) describing one of the smallest sex-determining regions known thus far in complex eukaryotes (~100 kbp) with comprehensive tests for sexual dimorphism using >1300 individuals from two Populus species and assessing 96 non-reproductive functional traits. Against expectation, we found sexual homomorphism (no non-reproductive trait differences between the sexes), suggesting that gender is functionally neutral with respect to non-reproductive features that affect plant survival and fitness...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490598/development-of-clade-specific-and-broadly-reactive-live-attenuated-influenza-virus-vaccines-against-rapidly-evolving-h5-subtype-viruses
#12
Kobporn Boonnak, Yumiko Matsuoka, Weijia Wang, Amorsolo L Suguitan, Zhongying Chen, Myeisha Paskel, Mariana Baz, Ian Moore, Hong Jin, Kanta Subbarao
We have developed pandemic live attenuated influenza vaccines (pLAIV) against clade 1 H5N1 viruses on an Ann Arbor cold-adapted (ca) backbone that induced long-term immune memory. In 2015, many human infections caused by a new clade (2.2.1.1) of goose/Guangdong (gs/GD) lineage H5N1 viruses were reported in Egypt that prompted updating of the H5N1 pLAIV. We explored two strategies to generate suitable pLAIVs: first to modify the hemagglutinin gene of a highly pathogenic wild-type (wt) clade 2.2.1.1 virus A/Egypt/N03434/2009 (Egy/09) (H5N1) with its unmodified neuraminidase (NA) gene; this virus was designated Egy/09 ca The second approach was to select a low pathogenicity avian influenza H5 virus that elicited antibodies that cross-reacted with a broad range of H5 viruses, including the Egypt H5N1 viruses and contained a novel NA subtype for humans...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490161/endovascular-stroke-therapy-focused-on-stent-retriever-thrombectomy-and-direct-clot-aspiration-historical-review-and-modern-application
#13
REVIEW
Dong-Hun Kang, Jaechan Park
Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator had been the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke since its approval in 1995. However, the restrictive time window, numerous contraindications, and its low recanalization rate were all limitations of this modality. Under those circumstances, endovascular stroke therapy went through a great evolution during the past two decades of intravenous thrombolysis. The results of the 2013 randomized trials for endovascular stroke therapy were neutral, although they were limited by insufficient imaging screening at enrollment, early-generation devices with less efficacy, and treatment delays...
May 2017: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484629/multiple-phase-transitions-in-an-agent-based-evolutionary-model-with-neutral-fitness
#14
Dawn M King, Adam D Scott, Sonya Bahar
Null models are crucial for understanding evolutionary processes such as speciation and adaptive radiation. We analyse an agent-based null model, considering a case without selection-neutral evolution-in which organisms are defined only by phenotype. Universal dynamics has previously been demonstrated in a related model on a neutral fitness landscape, showing that this system belongs to the directed percolation (DP) universality class. The traditional null condition of neutral fitness (where fitness is defined as the number of offspring each organism produces) is extended here to include equal probability of death among organisms...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482005/the-rapid-evolution-of-an-ohnolog-contributes-to-the-ecological-specialization-of-incipient-yeast-species
#15
Chris Eberlein, Lou Nielly-Thibault, Halim Maaroufi, Alexandre K Dubé, Jean-Baptiste Leducq, Guillaume Charron, Christian R Landry
Identifying the molecular changes that lead to ecological specialization during speciation is one of the major goals of molecular evolution. One question that remains to be thoroughly investigated is whether ecological specialization derives strictly from adaptive changes and their associated trade-offs, or from conditionally neutral mutations that accumulate under relaxed selection. We used whole-genome sequencing, genome annotation and computational analyses to identify genes that have rapidly diverged between two incipient species of Saccharomyces paradoxus that occupy different climatic regions along a south-west to north-east gradient...
May 8, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481215/effects-of-manganese-doping-on-the-structure-evolution-of-small-sized-boron-clusters
#16
Lingquan Zhao, Xin Qu, Yanchao Wang, Jian Lv, Lijun Zhang, Zi-Yu Hu, Guang-Rui Gu, Yanming Ma
Atomic doping of clusters is known as an effective approach to stabilize or modify the structures and properties of resulting doped clusters. We herein report the effect of manganese (Mn) doping on the structure evolution of small-sized boron (B) clusters. The global minimum structures of both neutral and charged Mn doped B cluster MnBnQ (n = 10-20 and Q = 0, ±1) have been proposed through extensive first-principles swarm-intelligence based structure searches. It is found that Mn doping has significantly modified the grow behaviors of B clusters, leading to two novel structural transitions from planar to tubular and then to cage-like B structures in both neutral and charged species...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480299/the-2-8%C3%A2-%C3%A3-electron-microscopy-structure-of-adeno-associated-virus-dj-bound-by-a-heparinoid-pentasaccharide
#17
Qing Xie, John M Spear, Alex J Noble, Duncan R Sousa, Nancy L Meyer, Omar Davulcu, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Scott M Stagg, Michael S Chapman
Atomic structures of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-DJ, alone and in complex with fondaparinux, have been determined by cryoelectron microscopy at 3 Å resolution. The gene therapy vector, AAV-DJ, is a hybrid of natural serotypes that was previously derived by directed evolution, selecting for hepatocyte entry and resistance to neutralization by human serum. The structure of AAV-DJ differs from that of parental serotypes in two regions where neutralizing antibodies bind, so immune escape appears to have been the primary driver of AAV-DJ's directed evolution...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480025/selection-and-drift-influence-genetic-differentiation-of-insular-canada-lynx-lynx-canadensis-on-newfoundland-and-cape-breton-island
#18
Melanie B Prentice, Jeff Bowman, Kamal Khidas, Erin L Koen, Jeffrey R Row, Dennis L Murray, Paul J Wilson
Island populations have long been important for understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of evolution in natural systems. While genetic drift is often strong on islands due to founder events and population bottlenecks, the strength of selection can also be strong enough to counteract the effects of drift. Here, we used several analyses to identify the roles of genetic drift and selection on genetic differentiation and diversity of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) across eastern Canada, including the islands of Cape Breton and Newfoundland...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472922/phenotypic-disparity-in-iberian-short-horned-grasshoppers-acrididae-the-role-of-ecology-and-phylogeny
#19
Vicente García-Navas, Víctor Noguerales, Pedro J Cordero, Joaquín Ortego
BACKGROUND: The combination of model-based comparative techniques, disparity analyses and ecomorphological correlations constitutes a powerful method to gain insight into the evolutionary mechanisms that shape morphological variation and speciation processes. In this study, we used a time-calibrated phylogeny of 70 Iberian species of short-horned grasshoppers (Acrididae) to test for patterns of morphological disparity in relation to their ecology and phylogenetic history. Specifically, we examined the role of substrate type and level of ecological specialization in driving different aspects of morphological evolution (locomotory traits, chemosensitive organs and cranial morphology) in this recent radiation...
May 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470321/electrocatalytic-generation-of-h2-from-neutral-water-in-acetonitrile-using-manganese-polypyridyl-complexes-with-ligand-assistance
#20
Gyandshwar Kumar Rao, Mohammad Parsa Jamshidi, Jeremy I G Dawkins, Wendy Pell, Ilia Korobkov, Darrin Richeson
A Mn(i) tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine complex fac-[Mn(κ(3)-tpa) (CO)3](+)OTf(-) carries out electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution from neutral water in acetonitrile. Bulk electrocatalytic studies showed that the catalyst functions with a moderate Faradaic efficiency and turn over frequency. DFT computations support the role of the tpa ligand as a shuttle to transfer of protons to the metal center.
May 4, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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