keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Neutral evolution

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428842/incipient-ecological-speciation-between-successional-varieties-of-a-dominant-tree-involves-intrinsic-postzygotic-isolating-barriers
#1
Elizabeth A Stacy, Bhama Paritosh, Melissa A Johnson, Donald K Price
Whereas disruptive selection imposed by heterogeneous environments can lead to the evolution of extrinsic isolating barriers between diverging populations, the evolution of intrinsic postzygotic barriers through divergent selection is less certain. Long-lived species such as trees may be especially slow to evolve intrinsic isolating barriers. We examined postpollination reproductive isolating barriers below the species boundary, in an ephemeral hybrid zone between two successional varieties of the landscape-dominant Hawaiian tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, on volcanically active Hawai'i Island...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423875/adaptive-selection-at-agouti-gene-inferred-breed-specific-selection-signature-within-the-indigenous-goat-populations
#2
Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Guiqiong Liu, Xunping Jiang, Chenhui Liu, Xu Fangzheng, Yuqing Chong, Nabeel Ijaz, Huang Huarong
Objective: The aim of this study was to calculate selection signatures at possible loci leading to population differentiation, as well as pattern of selection of agouti gene within the local goat breeds and its correlation among other animal species to reveal molecular evolution. Methods: The high Fst outlier method corresponding to Fst distribution was used to identify the loci subject to positive selection. According to the empirical distribution of Fst estimates, we selected the SNPs having high Fst outlier corresponded to the upper 1% of the distribution as the loci under selection...
April 19, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419091/multidrug-resistant-bacteria-compensate-for-the-epistasis-between-resistances
#3
Jorge Moura de Sousa, Roberto Balbontín, Paulo Durão, Isabel Gordo
Mutations conferring resistance to antibiotics are typically costly in the absence of the drug, but bacteria can reduce this cost by acquiring compensatory mutations. Thus, the rate of acquisition of compensatory mutations and their effects are key for the maintenance and dissemination of antibiotic resistances. While compensation for single resistances has been extensively studied, compensatory evolution of multiresistant bacteria remains unexplored. Importantly, since resistance mutations often interact epistatically, compensation of multiresistant bacteria may significantly differ from that of single-resistant strains...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418769/persistency-of-neutralizing-anti-interferon-%C3%AE-antibodies-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-treated-with-subcutaneous-interferon-%C3%AE-depends-on-antibody-titers-igg-subclasses-and-affinity-maturation
#4
Irena Dujmovic, Harald Hegen, Pedro Paz, Ed Croze, Florian Deisenhammer
Neutralizing antibodies may affect interferon (IFN)-β treatment efficacy, but mechanisms of neutralizing anti-drug antibody (ADA) evolution are not fully elucidated. We investigated the relationship between ADA titers, IgG subclass profile, and binding affinity with the development and persistency of neutralizing ADA in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with subcutaneous IFN-β. A total of 94 patients, who had blood sampling at months 6, 12, 24, and 36 during IFN-β therapy, were included into this retrospective study and stratified to the following: non-neutralizing, transient, and persistent neutralizing ADA status...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418647/cobalt-borate-nanoarray-an-efficient-and-durable-electrocatalyst-for-water-oxidation-under-benign-conditions
#5
Ruixiang Ge, Hongbin Du, Kai Tao, Qiuju Zhang, Liang Chen
The development of non-noble metal oxygen evolution electrocatalysts working efficiently under benign conditions is still urgent and challenging. Herein we report the electrochemical generation of novel cobalt-borate (Co-Bi) nanoarray on carbon cloth (Co-Bi NA/CC) from CoS2 nanoarray precursor. As an integrated three-dimensional electrode, such Co-Bi NA/CC exhibits excellent catalytic performance for oxygen evolution with 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 411 mV. Notably, this electrode also demonstrates outstanding long-term electrochemical durability for at least 20 hours, implying the great potential for water splitting applications at near-neutral pH...
April 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414106/molecular-evolution-of-the-fusion-protein-f-gene-in-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-subgroup-b
#6
Hirokazu Kimura, Koo Nagasawa, Ryusuke Kimura, Hiroyuki Tsukagoshi, Yuki Matsushima, Kiyotaka Fujita, Eiko Hirano, Naruhiko Ishiwada, Takako Misaki, Kazunori Oishi, Makoto Kuroda, Akihide Ryo
In this study, we examined the molecular evolution of the fusion protein (F) gene in human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup B (HRSV-B). First, we performed time-scale evolution analyses using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Next, we performed genetic distance, linear B-cell epitope prediction, N-glycosylation, positive/negative selection site, and Bayesian skyline plot analyses. We also constructed a structural model of the F protein and mapped the amino acid substitutions and the predicted B-cell epitopes...
April 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414099/molecular-evolution-of-the-plastid-genome-during-diversification-of-the-cotton-genus
#7
Zhiwen Chen, Corrinne E Grover, Pengbo Li, Yumei Wang, Hushuai Nie, Yanpeng Zhao, Meiyan Wang, Fang Liu, Zhongli Zhou, Xingxing Wang, Xiaoyan Cai, Kunbo Wang, Jonathan F Wendel, Jinping Hua
Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is commonly grouped into eight diploid genomic groups, designated A-G and K, and one tetraploid genomic group, namely AD. To gain insight into the phylogeny of Gossypium and molecular evolution of the chloroplast genome duringdiversification, chloroplast genomes (cpDNA) from 6 D-genome and 2 G-genome species of Gossypium (G. armourianum D2-1, G. harknessii D2-2, G. davidsonii D3-d, G. klotzschianum D3-k, G. aridum D4, G. trilobum D8, and G. australe G2, G. nelsonii G3) were newly reported here...
April 13, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411162/insights-into-evolution-in-andean-polystichum-dryopteridaceae-from-expanded-understanding-of-the-cytosolic-phosphoglucose-isomerase-gene
#8
Brendan M Lyons, Monique A McHenry, David S Barrington
Cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase (pgiC) is an enzyme essential to glycolysis found universally in eukaryotes, but broad understanding of variation in the gene coding for pgiC is lacking for ferns. We used a substantially expanded representation of the gene for Andean species of the fern genus Polystichum to characterize pgiC in ferns relative to angiosperms, insects, and an amoebozoan; assess the impact of selection versus neutral evolutionary processes on pgiC; and explore evolutionary relationships of selected Andean species...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410373/parallel-reorganization-of-protein-function-in-the-spindle-checkpoint-pathway-through-evolutionary-paths-in-the-fitness-landscape-that-appear-neutral-in-laboratory-experiments
#9
Alex N Nguyen Ba, Bob Strome, Selma Osman, Elizabeth-Ann Legere, Taraneh Zarin, Alan M Moses
Regulatory networks often increase in complexity during evolution through gene duplication and divergence of component proteins. Two models that explain this increase in complexity are: 1) adaptive changes after gene duplication, such as resolution of adaptive conflicts, and 2) non-adaptive processes such as duplication, degeneration and complementation. Both of these models predict complementary changes in the retained duplicates, but they can be distinguished by direct fitness measurements in organisms with short generation times...
April 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407082/genes-and-group-membership-predict-gidgee-skink-egernia-stokesii-reproductive-pairs
#10
Sarah K Pearson, Stephanie S Godfrey, N Schwensow, C Michael Bull, Michael G Gardner
Due to their role in mate choice, disease resistance and kin recognition, genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are good candidates for investigating genetic-based mate choice. MHC based mate choice is context dependent and influenced by many factors including social structure. Social structure diversity makes the Egernia group of lizards suitable for comparative studies of MHC based mate choice. We investigated mate choice in the gidgee skink (Egernia stokesii), a lizard that exhibits high levels of social group and spatial stability...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398056/controlled-synthesis-of-high-mobility-atomically-thin-bismuth-oxyselenide-crystals
#11
Jinxiong Wu, Congwei Tan, Zhenjun Tan, Yujing Liu, Jianbo Yin, Wenhui Dang, Mingzhan Wang, Hailin Peng
Non-neutral layered crystals, another group of two-dimensional (2D) materials that lack a well-defined van der Waals (vdWs) gap, are those that form strong chemical bonds in-plane but display weak out-of-plane electrostatic interactions, exhibiting intriguing properties for the bulk counterpart. However, investigation of the properties of their atomically thin counterpart are very rare presumably due to the absence of efficient ways to achieve large-area high-quality 2D crystals. Here, high-mobility atomically thin Bi2O2Se, a typical non-neutral layered crystal without a standard vdWs gap, was synthesized via a facial chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, showing excellent controllability for thickness, domain size, nucleation site, and crystal-phase evolution...
April 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397904/entropy-in-multiple-equilibria-theory-and-applications
#12
Gion Calzaferri
Analysis of multiple equilibria where the binding enthalpy of the species is the same for all sites and independent of those that are already bonded delivers insight on the evolution of the entropy as the reactions proceed and explains why the equilibrium constants always decrease with increasing number of occupied sites. The validity of the results is independent of the nature of bonding. Consequences are explained by discussing dicarboxylic acids, cation exchange of zeolite A, and the insertion of guests into the one-dimensional channels of zeolite L, by cation exchange for cationic guests and from the gas phase for neutral molecules...
April 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397835/an-inter-residue-network-model-to-identify-mutational-constrained-regions-on-the-ebola-coat-glycoprotein
#13
Devin S Quinlan, Rahul Raman, Kannan Tharakaraman, Vidya Subramanian, Gabriella Del Hierro, Ram Sasisekharan
Recently, progress has been made in the development of vaccines and monoclonal antibody cocktails that target the Ebola coat glycoprotein (GP). Based on the mutation rates for Ebola virus given its natural sequence evolution, these treatment strategies are likely to impose additional selection pressure to drive acquisition of mutations in GP that escape neutralization. Given the high degree of sequence conservation among GP of Ebola viruses, it would be challenging to determine the propensity of acquiring mutations in response to vaccine or treatment with one or a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391152/advanced-oxidation-removal-of-hypophosphite-by-o3-h2o2-combined-with-sequential-fe-ii-catalytic-process
#14
Zilong Zhao, Wenyi Dong, Hongjie Wang, Guanhan Chen, Wei Wang, Zekun Liu, Yaguang Gao, Beili Zhou
Elimination of hypophosphite (HP) was studied as an example of nickel plating effluents treatment by O3/H2O2 and sequential Fe(II) catalytic oxidation process. Performance assessment performed with artificial HP solution by varying initial pH and employing various oxidation processes clearly showed that the O3/H2O2─Fe(II) two-step oxidation process possessed the highest removal efficiency when operating under the same conditions. The effects of O3 dosing, H2O2 concentration, Fe(II) addition and Fe(II) feeding time on the removal efficiency of HP were further evaluated in terms of apparent kinetic rate constant...
April 5, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390236/analysing-the-mechanisms-of-sludge-digestion-enhanced-by-iron
#15
Xiaodi Hao, Jing Wei, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Daqi Cao
Carbon-neutral operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) requires enhancing anaerobic digestion (AD) of excess sludge for a higher energy conversion efficiency. Among others, iron has been identified to function on enhancing methane production in AD. As an industrial residual, waste iron scraps (WISs) have been reported as potentially enhancing CH4 production in AD. With this study, the mechanisms of AD enhanced by WISs are analysed in a two-phase process: acidogenic phase (AP) and methanogenic phase (MP)...
March 25, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389543/genetic-stability-and-evolution-of-sigb-allele-used-for-listeria-sensu-stricto-subtyping-and-phylogenetic-inference
#16
Jingqiu Liao, Martin Wiedmann, Jasna Kovac
Sequencing of single genes remains an important tool that allows for rapid classification of bacteria. Sequencing of a portion of sigB, which encodes a stress responsive alternative sigma factor, has emerged as a commonly used molecular tool for initial characterization of diverse Listeria isolates. In this study, evolutionary approaches were used to assess the validity of sigB allelic typing for Listeria For a dataset of 4,280 isolates, sigB allelic typing showed a Simson Index of Discrimination of 0.96. Analyses of 164 sigB allelic types (ATs) found among the 6 Listeria sensu stricto (s...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389540/acid-evolution-deletes-amino-acid-decarboxylases-and-reregulates-catabolism-of-escherichia-coli-k-12
#17
Amanda He, Stephanie R Penix, Preston J Basting, Jessie M Griffith, Kaitlin E Creamer, Dominic Camperchioli, Michelle W Clark, Alexandra S Gonzales, Jorge Sebastian Chavez Erazo, Nadja S George, Arvind A Bhagwat, Joan L Slonczewski
Acid-adapted strains of Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 were obtained by serial culture in media buffered at pH 4.6 (Harden et al. 2015). Revised genomic analysis of these strains revealed insertion sequence (IS)-driven insertions and deletions that knocked out regulators CadC (acid induction of lysine decarboxylase), GadX (acid induction of glutamate decarboxylase), and FNR (anaerobic regulator). Each acid-evolved strain showed loss of one or more amino acid decarboxylase systems, which normally help neutralize external acid (pH 5 to 6) and increase survival in extreme acid (pH 2)...
April 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387863/neutral-genetic-processes-influence-mhc-evolution-in-threatened-gopher-tortoises-gopherus-polyphemus
#18
Jean P Elbers, Rachel W Clostio, Sabrina S Taylor
Levels of adaptive genetic variation influence how species deal with environmental and ecological change, but these levels are frequently inferred using neutral genetic markers. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes play a key role in the adaptive branch of the immune system and have been used extensively to estimate levels of adaptive genetic variation. Parts of the peptide binding region, sites where MHC molecules directly interact with pathogen and self-proteins, were sequenced from a MHC class I (95/441 tortoises) and class II (245/441 tortoises) gene in threatened and non-threatened populations of gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus), and adaptive genetic variation at MHC genes was compared to neutral genetic variation derived from 10 microsatellite loci (441 tortoises)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379500/naturally-acquired-human-antibodies%C3%A2-against-reticulocyte-binding-domains-of-plasmodium-vivax-proteins-pvrbp2c-and-pvrbp1a-exhibit-binding%C3%A2-inhibitory-activity
#19
Enna Dogra Gupta, Gaurav Anand, Hina Singh, Kritika Chaddha, Praveen K Bharti, Neeru Singh, Yagya Dutta Sharma, Deepak Gaur
Background: Crucial gaps in our understanding of P. vivax reticulocyte invasion and protective immunity have hampered development of vivax vaccines. P. vivax exclusively invades reticulocytes that is mediated by the P. vivax reticulocyte binding proteins (PvRBPs) specifically PvRBP2c and PvRBP1a. Vivax infections in Duffy-null individuals have suggested the evolution of alternate invasion pathways that may be mediated by the PvRBPs. Thus, PvRBPs appear as potential targets for efficacious P...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370771/toll-like-receptor-variation-in-the-bottlenecked-population-of-the-seychelles-warbler-computer-simulations-see-the-ghost-of-selection-past-and-quantify-the-drift-debt
#20
Danielle Gilroy, Karl Phillips, David S Richardson, Cock van Oosterhout
Balancing selection can maintain immunogenetic variation within host populations, but detecting its signal in a post-bottlenecked population is challenging due to the potentially overriding effects of drift. Toll-like receptor genes (TLRs) play a fundamental role in vertebrate immune defence and are predicted to be under balancing selection. We previously characterised variation at TLR loci in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis), an endemic passerine that has undergone a historical bottleneck...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
keyword
keyword
64544
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"