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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107054/helping-relatives-survive-and-reproduce-inclusive-fitness-and-reproductive-value-in-brood-parasitism
#1
Malte Andersson
Costly help can raise a relative's reproduction, survival, and reproductive value and increase the inclusive fitness of the donor of help. Donor fitness is explored here in conspecific brood parasitism. In this alternative reproductive tactic, some females, "parasites," lay eggs in nests of other females of the same species, "hosts," suppliers of help that alone take care of the offspring. Modeling shows that hosts can gain inclusive fitness if parasitized by relatives whose reproduction or survival is thereby increased...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105808/evolution-of-the-structural-and-electronic-properties-of-medium-sized-sodium-clusters-a-honeycomb-like-na20-cluster
#2
Wei Guo Sun, Jing Jing Wang, Cheng Lu, Xin Xin Xia, Xiao Yu Kuang, Andreas Hermann
Sodium is one of the best examples of a free-electron-like metal and of a certain technological interest. However, an unambiguous determination of the structural evolution of sodium clusters is challenging. Here, we performed an unbiased structure search among neutral and anionic sodium clusters in the medium size range of 10-25 atoms, using the Crystal structure AnaLYsis by Particle Swarm Optimization (CALYPSO) method. Geometries are determined by CALYPSO structure searches, followed by reoptimization of a large number of candidate structures...
January 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105735/observational-registry-of-basal-insulin-treatment-orbit-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-uncontrolled-with-oral-antihyperglycaemic-drugs-real-life-use-of-basal-insulin-in-china
#3
Linong Ji, Puhong Zhang, Dongshan Zhu, Xian Li, Jiachao Ji, Juming Lu, Xiaohui Guo, Weiping Jia, Jianping Weng, Yangfeng Wu, Wenying Yang, Dajin Zou, Zhiguang Zhou, Changyu Pan, Yan Gao, Satish K Garg
AIMS: To examine treatment patterns following basal insulin (BI) introduction in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients under real-world conditions across China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 18,995 patients inadequately controlled [HbA1c ≥ 53 mmol/mol (7%)] with oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (OADs) and willing to receive BI treatment were registered at 209 hospitals and followed at baseline (visit 1), 3 months (visit 2), and 6 months (visit 3). Type of BI was initiated at physicians' discretion...
January 20, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094110/use-of-convalescent-plasma-in-ebola-virus-infection
#4
REVIEW
Olivier Garraud
The recent Ebola virus epidemics which threatened three West African countries (Dec.2014-Apr.2016) has urged global collaborative health organizations and countries to set up measures to stop the infection and to treat patients, near half of them being at risk of death. Convalescent plasma-recovered from rescued West Africans-was considered a feasible therapeutic option. Efficacy was difficult to evaluate because of numerous unknowns (especially evolution of neutralizing antibodies), prior to the cessation of active transmission...
December 30, 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093338/a-virus-like-particle-vaccination-strategy-expands-its-tolerance-to-h3n2-antigenic-drift-by-enhancing-neutralizing-antibodies-against-hemagglutinin-stalk
#5
Ji-Rong Yang, Chieh-Yu Cheng, Chih-Yuan Chen, Chao-Hua Lin, Chuan-Yi Kuo, Hsiang-Yi Huang, Fu-Ting Wu, Yu-Chih Yang, Chia-Ying Wu, Ming-Tsan Liu, Pei-Wen Hsiao
Seasonal influenza viruses impact public health annually due to their continual evolution. However, the current inactivated seasonal vaccines provide poor protection against antigenically drifted viruses and require periodical reformulation through hit-and-miss predictions about which strains will circulate during the next season. To reduce the impact caused by vaccine mismatch, we investigated the drift-tolerance of virus-like particles (VLP) as an improved vaccine candidate. The cross-protective humoral immunity elicited by the H3N2-VLP vaccine constructed for the 2011-2012 season was examined against viruses isolated from 2010 to 2015 in Taiwan evolving chronologically through clades 1, 4, 5, 3B and 3C, as well as viruses that were circulating globally in 2005, 2007 and 2009...
January 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089577/neutralizing-anti-interleukin-1%C3%AE-antibodies-reduce-ischemia-related-interleukin-1%C3%AE-transport-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-fetal-sheep
#6
Aparna Patra, Xiaodi Chen, Grazyna B Sadowska, Jiyong Zhang, Yow-Pin Lim, James F Padbury, William A Banks, Barbara S Stonestreet
Hypoxic ischemic insults predispose to perinatal brain injury. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important in the evolution of this injury. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a key mediator of inflammatory responses and elevated IL-1β levels in brain correlate with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes after brain injury. Impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB) function represents an important component of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the fetus. In addition, ischemia-reperfusion increases cytokine transport across the BBB of the ovine fetus...
January 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087770/mitochondrial-mutation-rate-spectrum-and-heteroplasmy-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-spontaneous-mutation-accumulation-lines-of-differing-population-size
#7
Anke Konrad, Owen Thompson, Robert H Waterston, Donald G Moerman, Peter D Keightley, Ulfar Bergthorsson, Vaishali Katju
Mitochondrial genomes of metazoans, given their elevated rates of evolution, have served as pivotal markers for phylogeographic studies and recent phylogenetic events. In order to determine the dynamics of spontaneous mitochondrial mutations in small populations in the absence and presence of selection, we evolved mutation accumulation (MA) lines of Caenorhabditis elegans in parallel over 409 consecutive generations at three varying population sizes of N = 1, 10 and 100 hermaphrodites. The N =1 populations should have a minimal influence of natural selection to provide the spontaneous mutation rate and the expected rate of neutral evolution, whereas larger population sizes should experience increasing intensity of selection...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086752/single-genome-retrieval-of-context-dependent-variability-in-mutation-rates-for-human-germline
#8
Aleksandr B Sahakyan, Shankar Balasubramanian
BACKGROUND: Accurate knowledge of the core components of substitution rates is of vital importance to understand genome evolution and dynamics. By performing a single-genome and direct analysis of 39,894 retrotransposon remnants, we reveal sequence context-dependent germline nucleotide substitution rates for the human genome. RESULTS: The rates are characterised through rate constants in a time-domain, and are made available through a dedicated program (Trek) and a stand-alone database...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073260/promoting-active-species-generation-by-electrochemical-activation-in-alkaline-media-for-efficient-electrocatalytic-oxygen-evolution-in-neutral-media
#9
Kun Xu, Han Cheng, Linqi Liu, Haifeng Lv, Xiaojun Wu, Changzheng Wu, Yi Xie
In this study, by using dicobalt phosphide nanoparticles as precatalysts, we demonstrated that electrochemical activation of metallic precatalysts in alkaline media (comparing with directly electrochemical activation in neutral media) could significantly promote the OER catalysis in neutral media, specifically realizing a 2-fold enhanced activity and meanwhile showing a greatly decreased overpotential of about 100 mV at 10 mA cm(-2). Compared directly with electrochemical activation in neutral media, the electrochemical activation in harsh alkaline media could easily break the strong Co-Co bond and promote active species generation on the surface of metallic Co2P, thus accounting for the enhancement of neutral OER activity, which is also evidenced by HRTEM and the electrochemical double-layer capacitance measurement...
January 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070277/distinct-patterns-of-natural-selection-in-na-h-antiporter-genes-in-populus-euphratica-and-populus-pruinosa
#10
Yuxia Wu, Kuibin Meng, Xiaohui Liang
Salt tolerance genes constitute an important class of loci in plant genomes. Little is known about the extent to which natural selection in saline environments has acted upon these loci, and what types of nucleotide diversity such selection has given rise to. Here, we surveyed genetic diversity in three types of Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene (SOS, NhaD, and NHX, belonging to the cation/proton antiporter 1 family), which have well-characterized essential roles in plant salt tolerance. Ten Na(+)/H(+) antiporter genes and 16 neutral loci randomly selected as controls were sequenced from 17 accessions of two closely related members of the genus Populus, Populus euphratica and Populus pruinosa, section Turanga, which are native to northwest China...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069394/catch-my-drift-making-sense-of-genomic-intra-tumour-heterogeneity
#11
Andrea Sottoriva, Chris P Barnes, Trevor A Graham
The cancer genome is shaped by three components of the evolutionary process: mutation, selection and drift. While many studies have focused on the first two components, the role of drift in cancer evolution has received little attention. Drift occurs when all individuals in the population have the same likelihood of producing surviving offspring, and so by definition a drifting population is one that is evolving neutrally. Here we focus on how neutral evolution is manifested in the cancer genome. We discuss how neutral passenger mutations provide a magnifying glass that reveals the evolutionary dynamics underpinning cancer development, and outline how statistical inference can be used to quantify these dynamics from sequencing data...
January 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063192/soft-selective-sweeps-in-fungicide-resistance-adaptation-recurrent-mutations-without-fitness-costs-in-grapevine-downy-mildew
#12
Chloé E L Delmas, Yann Dussert, Laurent Delière, Carole Couture, Isabelle D Mazet, Sylvie Richart Cervera, François Delmotte
Adaptation produces hard or soft selective sweeps depending on the supply of adaptive genetic polymorphism. The evolution of pesticide resistance in parasites is a striking example of rapid adaptation that can shed light on selection processes. Plasmopara viticola, which causes grapevine downy mildew, forms large populations, in which resistance has rapidly evolved due to excessive fungicide use. We investigated the pathways by which fungicide resistance has evolved in this plant pathogen, to determine whether hard or soft selective sweeps were involved...
January 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058436/pentagonal-five-center-four-electron-%C3%AF-bond-in-ternary-b3n2h5-cluster-an-extension-of-the-concept-of-three-center-four-electron-%C3%AF-bond
#13
Da-Zhi Li, Lin-Yan Feng, Ling Pei, Li-Juan Zhang, Shu-Guo Wu, Hua-Jin Zhai
Boron-based heteroatomic rings can have exotic chemical bonding, in which the p lone-pairs of heteroatoms manage to participate in delocalized π bonding, compensating for boron's electron-deficiency. We explore herein the bonding properties of ternary B-N-H systems with a pentagonal ring, using the B3N2H5(0/-/2-) clusters as examples. Computational structural searches lead to perfectly planar C2v B3N2H5 (1, (1)A1) and C2v B3N2H5(-) (2, (2)B1) as global minima for the neutral species and monoanion, which feature a pentagonal B3N2 ring...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057901/genetic-diversity-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-southern-china-from-2007-to-2014
#14
Qiwen Wu, Zhili Li, Guanqun Zhang, Jianqiang Niu, Xiduo Zeng, Baoli Sun, Jingyun Ma
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has a high degree of genetic variation. Here, we characterized the genetic variation and evolutionary relationships among circulating PRRSV strains in Southern China. In this study, we analyzed 29 NSP2 strains and 150 ORF5 strains from clinical samples collected in Southern China during 2007-2014. The alignment results showed that the nucleotide identities of the two genes among these strains were 80.5-99.7% and 80.9-100%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on NSP2 gene showed that high pathogenic PRRSV were still the dominant virus in Southern China from 2013 to 2014...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057858/protasr-an-evolutionary-framework-for-ancestral-protein-reconstruction-with-selection-on-folding-stability
#15
Miguel Arenas, Claudia C Weber, David A Liberles, Ugo Bastolla
The computational reconstruction of ancestral proteins provides information on past biological events and has practical implications for biomedicine and biotechnology. Currently available tools for ancestral sequence reconstruction (ASR) are often based on empirical amino acid substitution models that assume that all sites evolve at the same rate and under the same process. However, this assumption is frequently violated because protein evolution is highly heterogeneous due to different selective constraints among sites...
January 5, 2017: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049819/brain-enlargement-and-dental-reduction-were-not-linked-in-hominin-evolution
#16
Aida Gómez-Robles, Jeroen B Smaers, Ralph L Holloway, P David Polly, Bernard A Wood
The large brain and small postcanine teeth of modern humans are among our most distinctive features, and trends in their evolution are well studied within the hominin clade. Classic accounts hypothesize that larger brains and smaller teeth coevolved because behavioral changes associated with increased brain size allowed a subsequent dental reduction. However, recent studies have found mismatches between trends in brain enlargement and posterior tooth size reduction in some hominin species. We use a multiple-variance Brownian motion approach in association with evolutionary simulations to measure the tempo and mode of the evolution of endocranial and dental size and shape within the hominin clade...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045143/three-dimensional-metal-organic-framework-derived-porous-cop3-concave-polyhedrons-as-superior-bifunctional-electrocatalysts-for-the-evolution-of-hydrogen-and-oxygen
#17
Tianli Wu, Mingyu Pi, Xiaodeng Wang, Dingke Zhang, Shijian Chen
Developing low-cost and highly-efficient non-precious metal bifunctional electrocatalysts towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is an attractively alternative strategy to solve the environmental pollution problems and energy demands. In this study, metal-organic framework (MOF) derived porous cobalt poly-phosphide (CoP3) concave polyhedrons are prepared and explored as superior bifunctional electrocatalysts for the HER and OER. The prepared MOF derived CoP3 concave polyhedrons show excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability towards the HER and OER in both acidic and alkaline media, with the Tafel slopes of 53 mV dec(-1) and 76 mV dec(-1) and a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at the overpotentials of -78 and 343 mV for the HER and OER, respectively, which are remarkably superior to those of the transition metal phosphides (TMPs) and comparable to those of the commercial precious metal catalysts...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039231/large-scale-comparative-analysis-reveals-the-mechanisms-driving-plastomic-compaction-reduction-and-inversions-in-conifers-ii-cupressophytes
#18
Chung-Shien Wu, Shu-Miaw Chaw
Conifers II (cupressophytes), comprising about 400 tree species in five families, are the most diverse group of living gymnosperms. Their plastid genomes (plastomes) are highly variable in size and organization, but such variation has never been systematically studied. In this study, we assessed the potential mechanisms underlying the evolution of cupressophyte plastomes. We analyzed the plastomes of 24 representative genera in all of the five cupressophyte families, focusing on their variation in size, noncoding DNA content, and nucleotide substitution rates...
December 29, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035715/sequence-diversity-patterns-suggesting-balancing-selection-in-partially-sex-linked-genes-of-the-plant-silene-latifolia-are-not-generated-by-demographic-history-or-gene-flow
#19
Sara Guirao-Rico, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, Deborah Charlesworth
DNA sequence diversity in genes in the partially sex-linked pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the sex chromosomes of the plant Silene latifolia is higher than expected from within-species diversity of other genes. This could be the footprint of sexually antagonistic (SA) alleles that are maintained by balancing selection in a PAR gene (or genes) and affect polymorphism in linked genome regions. SA selection is predicted to occur during sex chromosome evolution, but it is important to test whether the unexpectedly high sequence polymorphism could be explained without it, purely by the combined effects of partial linkage with the sex-determining region and the population's demographic history, including possible introgression from S...
December 30, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030949/human-neuronal-calcium-sensor-1-protein-avoids-histidine-residues-to-decrease-ph-sensitivity
#20
Yehong Gong, Yuzhen Zhu, Yu Zou, Buyong Ma, Ruth Nussinov, Qingwen Zhang
pH is highly regulated in the mammalian central nervous systems. Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) can interact with numerous target proteins. Compared with C. elegans, evolution has avoided histidine residues at positions 102 and 83 in the human and Xenopus laevis NCS-1 protein, possibly to decrease conformational sensitivity to pH gradients in synaptic processes. We used all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the effects of amino acid substitutions between species on human NCS-1 by substituting Arg102 and Ser83 for histidine at neutral (R102H and S83H) and acidic pH (R102Hp and S83Hp)...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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